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date: 20 August 2019

(p. 715) Index

(p. 715) Index

abbot(s) 103, 105, 107, 155, 170, 627
Abhaya, King Vattagamani 17
Abhayagiri 16–19, 21
fraternity 18
temple 17, 21
Vihara 17
Abhayagiriya 18
abhicara (black magic) 608
Abhidhamma (Abhidharma) 196, 199, 212, 216, 218–220, 225, 246, 286, 624, 630
abhijnana (higher knowledge) 251, 591
abhisheka 258, 609
abhishekavidhi, 580. See also empowerment
abortion 181
acarya-abhisheka (“Master Consecration”) 609
prajnajnana-abhisheka (“The Gnosis of the Consort”) 610
action, concept of. See karma (kamma)
Afghanistan 464, 550, 553
Africa 4
Agganna Sutta 25
agriculture 498–500, 556
Aitken, Robert 307, 311, 403, 558, 662
Ajatashatru, King 462
Alahana Pirivena 18
Alaunghpaya, King 214
All Ceylon Buddhist Congress (founded in 1918) 23
Alu Vihara, Matale 20
Amarapura 20, 22, 24, 25
nikaya 22, 25
Amaravati 5, 54, 461, 462
Ambedkar, B. R. 36, 37, 47–53, 353, 388, 408, 458, 506
Amida. See Amitabha
Amitabha (Amida) 184
Amitabha Sutra 185
in the Buddhist Reform Movement in Vietnam 180
in Japan 678, 679
in Pure Land Buddhism 84, 327
Amoghavajra 607
Anagarika Dharmapala 22, 24, 41, 44, 50, 321, 382, 399, 428, 520, 654
Ananda 424, 637
anatman (anatta) 202, 487, 643. See also non-self
Anawyatha, King 214, 226
ancestors 84, 350, 351, 386, 619–621
ancestor veneration 89, 327, 328, 384. See also ghosts
funeral rites 123
iconography 465, 466
immigrant Buddhists 659
in Japan 625
Andhra Pradesh, India 52, 54
Ang Duong, King 244, 245
Angkor 236, 239–246, 250–253, 276. See also Cambodia
Angkor Tom 464
Angkor Wat 253, 437
animal release rituals 491, 493
animal sacrifice 66, 608
Anouvong, King 278, 288
anthropology 565, 598
antinomianism 606
passages in the Buddhist tantras 608, 611
Anuradhapura (first capital, Sri Lanka) 14–21, 26, 32
anxiety(ies) 31, 39, 40, 44, 45, 73, 125, 153, 154, 155, 281, 478, 603, 677
apocrypha 492
Arakan (Myanmar) 22
architecture 2, 4, 51, 53, 122, 125, 151, 203, 279, 381
contemporary Buddhist 436–449
iconography 466
(p. 716) arhat (arahant) 508. See also sotapanna
art, Buddhist
art of efficacy 601
art historians 38, 436, 437, 449, 457, 458, 460
Arya Maitreya Mandala (AMM) 339, 408, 416
asceticism 86, 404, 430, 490, 496, 500, 504, 507, 610, 636
forest monks 496, 497
Shavite sect 43
in the West 394, 404
yogis 596
Zen 179
ashura 671
Asia 3, 15, 579
Ancient India 14
Burma 2, 22, 23
Central 6
East 21, 528
Japanese 528
Seoul 528
Siam 22, 23
Sri Lanka 23
South 28
South, East, Central, and Southeast 3
South Asia 23
South Asian 11, 29
Southeast 4, 5, 6, 18, 19, 21, 28
South India 14
South Korea 528
Thailand 23
Vietnam 23
Asoka, King (King Ashoka) 13, 15, 16, 23, 196, 226, 438
Asokan missions 6
Asokavadana 38
assimilation 19, 49, 134, 250, 304, 374
Asian American Buddhists 330, 371, 650–660
atamastana (eight sacred sites) 17
attakatha 20
Aum Shinrikyo 129, 135, 136
Aung San Suu Kyi 226, 227, 591
Avalokitesvara 63, 67, 68, 92, 443, 583
in China 260
and Dalai Lama 6
in the 8th century 640
sexuality and gender 663, 669–674
in Thailand 205
awakening. See enlightenment
of Buddha 37, 199
in Burma 219
axis mundi 442, 445, 449
ayatanas (large monasteries) 18
Ayutthaya, kingdom of 198
Bamiyan 464, 550
banakatha 20
banavana (meditation) 2
Bangkok 196, 200–205, 209, 244, 245, 263, 274, 278, 279, 282, 288, 400, 404, 405, 410, 453, 454, 465, 466, 491, 495, 529, 534, 682
Beijing 87, 162, 422, 525
Bellah, Robert 134
bhajans 573
bhaktigita. See devotional songs
Bharhut 42, 461, 462
bhavana 25
bhikkhuni sasana 19, 96
bhikkhus 17, 27
bhiksu sangha 190
Bhutan 3, 23, 146, 156, 534, 542, 663
contemporary 61–74
“Gross National Happiness” (GNH) 506, 510
monastic traditions 570, 643
Bihar 518
Bizot, Francois 253
bla med rnal ‘byor rgyun (Highest Yoga Tantra) 610
Bodawpaya, King 218
Bodh Gaya (Bodhgaya) 36, 41, 43–47, 51–53, 57, 181, 183, 381, 427–431
bodhi 679
bodhisattva 6, 61, 66, 74, 184, 327, 328, 386, 487, 492, 534, 548, 569, 572, 584, 591, 610, 621, 669, 672–674
allegations of sexual abuse 613
in architecture 443
in China 89
gender 638–645
Hall of Bodhisattvas 261
in iconography 464
Kannon 126
in the Mahayana tradition 17, 106, 205, 209, 670
(p. 717) pilgrims and tourists 92
in Thailand 198
in Vietnam 185
Bodhi Tree 16, 43, 181, 350, 425–427, 461, 462
Bodu Bala Sena 30–32, 229, 552–555, 559
body 62, 67, 68, 69, 123, 147, 224, 237, 243, 246, 247, 424, 425, 455, 463, 569, 570, 571, 572, 576, 577, 579, 584, 595, 612, 622, 623, 624, 625, 639, 679, 694, 694, 706
Buddha(s) 428, 432, 619
Central Monk 65, 70
dharma 640, 641, 642, 646
female 638, 640
golden 453
governing 207
human 436, 441, 443, 448, 449
posture 113
Spas (Buddha) 510
Brahm, Ajahn (Phra Brahmavamo) 374
Brahma 208, 209, 453, 454, 705
Abode of Brahma 680
Brahmanjala Sutra 492, 493
Brahmanical rites and practices 200, 238, 598
Brahmanism 178, 179, 453, 705
Angkorian 240
in early Thai Kingdoms 197, 198
in Lao Buddhism 276
Brahmic Religions 14, 240, 241
British 21, 24, 28
colonial regime 17
colonial times 24, 25
London 17
Buddha 2, 21, 28, 43, 44, 66–68, 72, 83, 89, 96, 106, 145, 184, 185, 189, 231, 237, 333, 350, 381, 399, 400, 404, 409, 412, 423–432, 436, 438, 444, 453, 455–466, 542, 596, 606, 630, 688, 690, 698, 704
in Africa 359, 360
Amida Buddha 386
Amitabha Buddha 180, 184
birth (of) birthday 74, 112, 182, 328, 438, 659
Brahmanism 179, 705
in Burmese Buddhism 218, 222
business and economics 504–506, 510
in Cambodian Buddhism 248
chanting 567, 568, 570, 572, 573
death 619, 623, 625, 628, 629
democracy 539
diversity 678–683
ecology 488–492
gender 635–642
historically 36, 37, 38, 40, 421, 440
in Indian Buddhism 46–50, 351, 703
in Lao Buddhism 276–278, 280
media technologies 470, 47, 473, 476
nationalism and governance 532
nightstand Buddhism 340
in Pali Buddhism 241
as part of the Three Jewels 5, 391, 450, 679
relic(s) 92, 166, 422, 441, 442, 534
sexuality 666, 668, 669
in Sri Lankan Buddhism 14, 16, 17, 22, 29
in Thai Buddhism 197–209
in Theravada Buddhism 18
in Tibetan Buddhism 577, 578, 580, 581, 583, 708 (see also Medicine Buddha)
in US Buddhism 318, 327, 328
in Vietnamese Buddhism 187
Buddhadasa Bhikkhu 206, 445–447, 506, 535, 538
Buddhadatta 20
buddhadharma 389, 553, 555, 559
magazines and websites 473, 558
Buddhaghosa 17, 20
Thera, Chola monk 20, 423
Venerable 20
Visuddhimaga 62
Buddhahood 123, 591, 670
Buddha images 2, 422, 424, 426, 429, 510, 534, 555, 591, 680
architecture 442, 444, 446, 447
in Cambodian Buddhism 241
iconography 453, 455–466
in Indian Buddhism 37
in Nightstand Buddhism 340
in Thai Buddhism 198, 209
in US Buddhism 328
in Vietnamese Buddhism 184, 185
Buddha Maitreya (Metteyya) 282
Buddha-nature 123, 389, 556, 568, 619, 698
Buddhasasana Commission 23
Buddha’s Light Mountain, 401. See also Fo guang Shan
(p. 718) Buddhasravaka Dharmapithaya (University of Bhikkus) 26
Buddha’s sasana 212–217, 219, 221, 229
buddhavacana (word of Buddha) 14, 18, 20, 639
Buddhavong Association 281, 283, 286
Buddhism/s 1, 3, 20, 21, 25, 26, 28, 29, 86, 304
“Buddhisms,” 4, 5, 53, 122, 291, 336, 338, 343, 381–395, 427, 599, 629, 678
“Buddhist traditions,” 5
identities 5
indigenous cultural tradition/s 6
medicine 579
political 29
promoting 27
Sinhalese 1
transnational and regional framework 4
Buddhist(s) 1, 3, 4, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 117, 304, 518, 613, 614
activism 30
architecture 4
Avalokiteshvara (bodhisattvas of compassion) 6
behavioral norms 5
beliefs 6
bodhisattva(s) (awakened beings) 6, 17
Buddhist Traditions 4
Buddhist 4
canon 20
China 21
Chinese 6
Chinese pilgrim Faxian 21
Christmas 28
common era 23
contemporary 13
council 15, 226
culture 6, 24
defense committee 28
dialectic 6
Diamond Sutra 2
diasporic 4
Doctrine 2, 5 (see also dhamma, Dharma)
education 26
“essence,” 6
extremism 30
factions 28
female renunciates 19
fraternities: Mahaviahara, Abhyagiri, and Jetavana 16, 18
Guan Yin 6
guru 5
heteronormative agendas 5
holiday 23
identity 5
institutions 30
international organizations 22
lama 5
lay(ity)people 2, 5, 22, 25, 27
Lotus Sutra 5
meditation beads 1
minority sexual rites 5
monastery, 1 (see also wat)
monastic fraternities 22
monastic institutes 27
monasticism 14
monastic ordination 13
monastics 5, 15, 20, 24, 26, 518
monastic schools 26
monkhood 26
monks 17, 26, 28, 29
myths 4
Newar 2
Nichiren, (Japanese) 5
peacemaking 4
practices 6
Reform Movement 177
relics and images 4
religious doctrine 6
rites 4
rituals 4, 25
self-ordained 27
studies 25
system 5
systems theory 7
Tantric 613, 614
teaching 4
Tendai, (Japanese) 5
texts 4
Tibetan 5
Tibetan Buddhist Rituals 4
traditions 3, 7, 13
unity 30
Vietnamese 6
violence 4
xenophobic 30
(p. 719) Buddhist Association of China 87
Buddhist Churches of America 325, 654, 655, 667
Buddhist Information Search Committee 23
Buddhist Institute, Cambodia 245, 236, 251, 279, 280
Buddhist International Organizations 399, 409
iconography 466
Buddhist kingdoms 61–63, 179, 198, 215
Buddhist moral precepts, 25. See also five moral precepts
meritorious deeds 25
Buddhist Peace Fellowship, United States 558, 682, 683
buddhology 352, 524, 679, 680
Burma 2, 41, 44, 45, 87, 197, 202, 213–233, 237, 243, 262, 263, 271, 275, 277, 288, 333, 466, 492, 497, 506, 507, 513. See also Myanmar
conflict 558
immigration 326
international organizations 399, 408
in the Kandyan kingdom 19, 20
national identity 523, 528, 533, 537, 541, 542
in the Rakhine state 56
with Sri Lanka 22, 23, 48, 50
Buryatia 144, 146, 337
caitya halls 437–439, 445–448
cakkavattin (wheel-turning) 215, 216, 538
cakra 443
Cakrasamvara-Tantra 609, 613
cakravartin 443, 644, 671
calendar 72, 89, 170, 187, 189
Camadevi, Queen 197
Cambodia 2, 274, 279, 464, 469, 534, 536, 568, 573, 681
Angkorian period 239–241
Burmese 213, 218, 225
canon/canonical 5, 438, 455, 469, 472, 492, 518, 528, 594, 597, 599, 628, 635, 636, 643, 696
Chinese 83–85, 90, 95, 607
and communism 87, 537
ecology 492, 493, 500
European 335
immigration/immigrants from 326, 371, 383, 384
Indian 40, 41
Khmer Rouge 247–251, 285, 557, 558, 571
modern era 236–239, 244–247, 251, 252, 410, 429, 430
Mongolian 165
Pali 5, 15, 17, 18, 20, 24–27, 36, 48, 232, 237, 244, 399, 412, 425, 476, 667, 690, 705
post-Angkorian period 241–244
Thai 198, 199
Tibetan 584
capitalism 2
Carus, Paul 125, 321, 322, 524, 689
caryavrata (observe or [unorthodox] conduct) 614
caste system 25, 40, 42, 48, 49, 53, 353, 571, 573
farmer 25
low-caste 36, 48, 55, 353
outcaste 626
Catholic 304
celibacy 74, 103, 147, 162, 169, 170, 172, 610, 612, 666–668, 681
Central Asia 3, 80, 141, 606
communism 535
diet 6
and the Silk Road 440, 577, 607
Ceylon. See Sri Lanka
British 706
University of 26
Ceylon Buddhist Congress 399
cham (tsam) 64, 570. See also Mongolian
Chamlong Simuang, General 204
Champa 178, 179
Champassak, kingdom of 278
Chan 86, 90, 94, 307
in Argentina 306
Chinese monasteries 90, 518
Chan, Ang 242
Chan, Khun Yay Upasika 202, 203
chanting 18, 68, 72, 85, 110, 189, 199, 259, 310, 317–319, 401, 402, 558, 591, 655
in Africa 355, 360
Chao-Hwei, (female monk) 5, 663–669, 674
charity 373, 402
Chatsumarn Kabilsingh 207, 409, 491. See also Dhammananda Bhikkhuni
Cheng 96, 260, 468
Cheng Hoon Teng Temple 260, 261
Cheng Yen (Zhengyan) 94, 99, 402, 409, 540, 682
Chiang Mai 197, 421, 465, 491, 534, 682
China 2, 3, 518, 79–98, 399, 400, 507, 518, 534, 548, 573, 712
animal release rituals 491, 492, 494 (see also fengsheng)
architecture 437, 439
communism 87, 88
death 619–621, 625
devotion 573, 574
diasporic communities 381–383, 385, 389–391
economics 54
education 518–520, 523–526
and India 55, 56, 465, 506, 607
and Japan 122–124, 466
and Korea 101, 102, 549
and Laos 275, 279, 287
Mahayana 569, 707
and Malaysia 258, 260, 261, 268
medicine 579, 585
medieval 429, 472, 505, 513, 585
modernity 80–83
monastics 681
and Mongolia 165, 535
nationalism 533–535, 541
pilgrims and tourists 92
and Sri Lanka 21, 23
and Taiwanese Buddhism 93–97
Taixu 83–85, 268
Tang dynasty 22, 607, 639, 640, 644
and Tibet 71, 143, 144, 146, 148–152, 156, 508, 533, 535, 708
and Vietnam 178–180, 186–188, 191
Chinatown 326
Chinese 94, 86
monastics 94
Chinese Buddhist Association (Buddhist Association of China) 87, 91, 307, 525
Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association (CBETA) 95
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 (U.S.) 325, 382
Chogye monks 549
Chola invasions 14, 19
Choson Pulgyo yusin non (Han Yongun) 522
chos skyong 611
Christian(ity) 24, 25, 28, 381–383, 389, 444, 519, 521, 678, 690, 691, 703
in Africa 352, 360
in Australia and Oceania 370
Buddhist rights 24
in Burma 220
in Cambodia 238
chronicles 14–17, 32, 213, 533
creolization 341
evangelical 25, 28, 392
hegemony 27
influence on Buddhism 25, 32, 213
in Japan 123, 124
in Korea 114, 115, 522
Lao 276, 277
in Laos 290
Pali 15–17, 21, 22
Protestant 91, 112, 114, 115, 213, 319, 320, 325, 383, 654, 656, 689, 702, 703, 706, 707
Thai 197
in the U.S. 316, 319, 320, 322, 328, 524, 656
in Vietnam 181
Chua Vien Giac 191
Chulalongkorn, King (Rama V) 45, 201, 534
Chuon Nath 246
City of Ten Thousand Buddhas 98
class 7
classification 45, 457, 671
of magic 593–595
Clean Government Party 128
Clemens of Alexandria 351
clerical marriage 104, 412, 522, 526
cloth, for monk’s robes 225, 624
clothing 507, 510, 637
ordination 645
cognition 220, 391, 594, 598, 629, 687, 694–696
cognitive science 5, 688, 689, 693–698
colonialism and Buddhism 335, 387, 395, 399, 650, 701–706, 709, 712. See also French colonialism, Japanese colonialism, postcolonial studies
anti-colonialism 382
in Burma 217, 219, 222
in Cambodia 245
in India 41
in Malaysia 263
in Sri Lanka 23, 541
in Vietnam 179, 180
color, of monk’s robes 71
commodification 507
communism and Buddhism 535, 712
anti-communism 537
in Burma 216, 224
in Cambodia 247, 248, 274, 281–288, 527
in China 86–91, 93, 148, 149, 322, 391, 525
in Laos 282, 283, 537
in Mongolia 162–165, 167, 168, 171, 535
in Sri Lanka 29, 32
in Vietnam 2, 180–183, 187–191
Communist Party 29
comparative religion 7, 598, 680
compassion. See karuna
computer 67, 359, 470, 474–478, 510, 695. See also technology
Confucianism and Buddhism 186, 400, 402, 556
in China and its diasporic communities 81, 85, 179, 186, 200, 260, 383, 525, 548, 644
Humanistic Buddhism 400–401
in Japan 122
Joseon dynasty, 102 (see also Korea)
in Korea 118
in Vietnam 190
consecration 41, 270, 460, 463, 594
in Tantric Buddhism 610, 611
in Tibetan medicine 576, 579–585
consumerism 507
contemplation 439, 447, 570, 572, 574
contemporary Buddhist music 565–574
daimoku 124, 394
in diasporic communities 392
in European traditions 335, 336
funerary ritual 623, 626, 630
mantras 1, 18, 565, 568, 583, 591
nenbutsu 124
paritta chanting 568–569, 591, 594, 597
Pure Land Buddhism 184
tantric traditions 18, 68, 611, 612
Tipitaka Chanting Ceremony 36, 50
in the U.S. 322, 327, 328, 330
conversion 384, 387–392
in Africa 352, 353
of Asoka 38, 429
in Burma 551
in China 534
in Europe 334
in India 36, 47–49
in Japan 128
in Laos 278
laws 229, 233, 290
in Mongolia 161, 162, 169, 608
in New Zealand 367
in Sri Lanka 23, 30
cosmology 285, 336, 427, 533, 579, 680
Csoma de Koros, Alexander 708
Cuba 4
Cultural Revolution, Chinese 79, 144, 149, 526, 578
curriculum and Buddhism 519–523, 528
in Bhutan 72
in Cambodia 245
in China 89, 96, 518
in Japan 526, 527
in Malaysia 263, 264
in Thailand 199
daimoku 124, 394
Daisaku, Ikeda 126, 305, 310, 358, 402, 508
dakini 66, 595
Dalai Lama 6, 144, 146, 147, 154, 166, 391, 393, 412, 413, 507, 540, 558, 578, 611
Fifth Dalai Lama 63, 146, 581
Fourteenth Dalai Lama 51, 52, 145, 148–150, 170, 339, 386, 428, 430, 581, 662, 666, 682, 693, 694, 708
Panchen Lamas 146
Third Dalai Lama 146, 162
dalits (untouchables) 36, 37, 49, 53, 388, 408
dana (giving) 25, 151, 197, 286, 505, 507, 644
Dao(ism) 91, 95, 665, 687, 200, 444
Daoist 90, 266, 383, 492, 493, 607, 665, 707
practice 493
practitioners 90
traditions 607
Daoshicheling monastery 171
dasa sil mata. See nuns
Datsan Gunzechoinei temple 338
dbang 580, 581
(p. 722) death 4, 6, 64, 84, 88, 93, 123, 124, 180, 189, 199, 203, 206, 207, 244, 250, 251, 282, 308, 323, 404, 408, 421–425, 463, 487, 493, 494, 546, 573, 581, 619–630, 639, 664, 681, 705
anniversaries 68
decline of sasana 124, 399
re-death 666
rites 570
deities 62, 67, 69, 70, 89, 133, 166, 189, 267, 383, 427, 570, 572, 582, 584, 593, 597, 611, 612, 640, 642
autochthonous 62, 66
Confucian and Daoist 260
Hindu 32
medical 576, 581
Vedic 443
delusion 568, 639
Demiéville, Paul 548, 707
democracy 29
Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka 23
dependent origination (pratityasamutpada, paṭiccasamuppāda) 478, 488, 499, 689
desire 71, 392, 394, 533, 578, 584, 598, 637, 641, 666, 668
sexual 169, 181, 642, 663, 667, 674
detachment 324, 641
deva 671
Devanampiyatissa, King 14, 15
devotional acts 52, 85, 86, 171, 181, 184, 328, 330, 558, 600, 710
devotional Buddhism 189, 218, 220, 230, 422
associations 518
teacher-student relationships 606, 613
devotional songs 25, 571–574
dgra sprad (meeting the enemy) 583
dhamma 15, 16
Dhammachayo, Phra 441–442
dhammaduta (friend of dhamma) 15, 16, 22
eight missions 15
Dhammalankara, Randombe Venerable 28
Dhammananda Bhikkhuni 207, 409, 491, 501, 648
Dhammapada 2, 24, 436
Dhammapala 20, 329
dhammaraja (righteous king) 215
Dhammayietra peace marches 430, 558
Dharamsala 51, 52, 166, 581, 582, 587
dharani 18, 185, 568, 591
Dharma (dhamma) 1, 47, 65, 69, 102, 107, 108, 124, 153, 154, 155, 183, 189, 198, 203, 320, 322, 327, 469, 470, 471, 473, 474, 476, 520, 538, 551, 601, 627, 642, 645, 659, 680, 687
American 613
Bum of the Beat 317
Centre 155, 355, 357, 360
Drum Mountain 94, 376, 402, 416
Education Center 370, 371
Jungto Dharma Center 109
Karma Kargyu Dharma 264
practice 478, 479
protector 611
Realm Buddhist Association 98
shoppers 507
teacher 357
Tibetan Prayer Wheel 1
Transmission 307
Wheel 1, 461
dharmacakra 457, 461, 462
Dharmaguptaka Vinaya 681
dharmakaya (dharma-body) 432, 640, 680
Dharmapala, Anagarika 22, 24, 41, 44, 50, 321, 328, 329, 382, 399, 428, 520, 654
Dharmasena 24
Thera’s Saddharmaratnavaliya (The Jewel Garland of the Good Doctrine) 24
dhatu 425
dhatu nirvana 426
Diamond Sutra 2, 185, 448, 469, 472
dietary practices 388
vegan and vegetarian 6, 97
Dipankarashrijnana, Atisha 610
Dipavamsa (The Chronicle of the Island) 15, 21, 32
disciples of the Buddha 14, 412, 567, 572, 577
divinities 146, 591
Dizang 92
doctrine 2, 4, 5, 6, 382, 387, 391, 402, 436, 437, 445–447, 462, 478, 487, 518, 521, 523, 527, 529, 533–539, 542, 543, 548, 554, 619, 620, 627–629, 680, 681, 689, 690, 698
in Burma 214, 224
in China 80, 84–86
in Europe 333, 334, 339, 341
(p. 723) in India 40, 53
in Japan 126
in Korea 105
in Laos 279
in Latin America 306
liturgical 439, 449
in Malaysia 268, 270
in Mongolia 162
in Sri Lanka 25
in Thailand 201, 555
Theravada 17
in Tibet 145, 146, 150, 155, 156
in the U.S. 231
in Vietnam 186
Doctrine Lao 281
Dogen 124
Dokyu, Ricardo 307, 308
dung chen 570
Dunhuang (Cave of the Thousand Buddhas) 91, 92
Dutch 28
Dutthagamani, King 429
Dvaravati, kingdom of 196, 198, 208
Eastern Europe, Buddhism in 335–337, 339
Eastern Orthodox Christianity 460
ecclesiastical 19
economics 150, 395, 411, 476, 504–513, 526
education and educational institutions 4, 387, 389, 392, 394, 401, 407, 409–411, 430, 437, 459, 494, 512, 518–529, 537, 541, 567, 572, 574, 600, 613, 637, 645, 703, 709
in Africa 358
in Australia and Oceania 366, 372–375
in Bhutan 69, 70, 71
in Burma 215, 216, 219, 220, 230
in Cambodia 243, 245, 246, 249–251
in China 81, 83, 84, 87, 89, 94–96
in Europe 337
in India 37, 41, 48, 51, 55
in Japan 125, 127, 130
in Korea 102, 107–109, 116
in Laos 274, 280, 281, 284, 285, 288, 290
in Latin America 304, 310
in Malaysia 265, 266, 269
in Mongolia 163–165
in Sri Lanka 16, 18, 25, 26
in Thailand 199, 201, 203, 207
in Tibet 150, 154, 155
in the U.S. 317, 321
in Vietnam 179, 186, 191
egalitarian(ism) 48, 391, 691
Eightfold Path 426, 558
Eihei-ji monastery 307
Eisai 124
elephant, symbolism of 226, 492, 572
in architecture 443, 445, 466
Emei shan 92
empowerment 392, 407, 581
rites 580 (see also abhishekavidhi)
for women 393, 637
emptiness (shunyata) 446, 471, 570, 612, 642, 643, 646, 697, 698
Encyclopedia of Buddhism 22
England 22, 405, 406, 407, 408, 611
Victorian 40
enlightenment (awakening) 67, 123, 222, 312, 387, 402, 438, 492, 536, 625
assumptions 512, 657
and the Buddha 43, 74, 399, 400, 428, 619, 680, 688
and gender 673
path to and search of 113, 124, 312, 469, 487, 497, 548, 569, 576
Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment (Kinh Vien Glac) 185
entertainment 132, 165, 446
entertainment industry 204, 323
environmental(ism), 487. See also ecology
epistemology 578, 579, 687, 688, 698
Erapata, Serpent King 462
Erawan Shrine 453
esoteric Buddhism 123, 340, 423, 466, 593, 603, 606, 607
congregations 212, 216, 220–224, 228–232
movements 319
practices 241, 243, 251, 299, 592
Tibetan 147, 148, 152, 587
esoteric masters 222, 591
esoteric religion 320
esoteric system 124, 147
ethics 38, 48, 134, 201, 301, 306, 374, 393, 408, 510, 513, 663, 664, 690, 691, 694
Cambodian 246
of care 640, 641
economic 504–506
(p. 724) environmental 489, 491
of giving 645
Journal of Buddhist Ethics 473
nonviolence 38
post-Enlightenment 219
socialist 285
Europe 4, 22, 45, 84, 87, 308, 311, 332–343, 350, 352, 399, 403, 442, 552, 527, 565, 566, 578, 614, 651, 652, 710
European/Western 83, 186, 319, 329, 524, 597, 652
evil 65, 68, 460, 537, 549, 551, 610, 639. See also Mara
race 651
sexuality 664
spirits 65, 68
evolutionary biology 4
examination system
in Bangkok 201
exegesis 339, 603
expulsion, of indigenous people 658
Fagu shan 95
faith 386, 390, 407, 425, 556, 598, 601, 602, 614, 679–681, 689, 707
in Africa 350, 353, 356
in Australia and Oceania 367
in Bhutan 61
crisis of, in the U.S. 318, 319, 652
cyberfaith 470
in India 44
in Korea 107
in Mongolia 165
rational 41, 522
in Tibet 144
family, Buddhism and the 387, 389, 390, 465, 540, 645
in Africa 353
in Bhutan 65, 67, 68
in Cambodia 248
and death 621–625, 629
in Europe 341
in Japan 126, 128
in Latin America 303
in Mongolia 164, 168–171
and sexuality 664, 665
in Tibet 578
in Vietnam 184
Faxian 21, 40
Fei (Faye), Wang 90
female 207, 410, 443, 546, 559, 583, 609, 613, 614, 642, 646, 667
leadership 411
mediation 203
menstruation 583
monastics 5, 682
ordination (bhikkhuni) 409, 635–638
participation 95
partners 170
renunciates 19, 96, 203
sexuality 635, 641, 643, 668
students 578, 613
teachers 393
Feng 439, 467, 501
fengsheng 487, 491
fertility 65, 66, 185, 278, 640
festivals 25, 36, 61, 62, 68, 72, 73, 132, 199, 200, 205, 262, 424, 442, 547, 572
Chinese New Year 200
film festivals 271
Ghost Festival 620, 621, 626, 630
International Kadampa Festival 407
Khar Phud festival 66
Lunar New Year 328
Phuket Vegetarian Festival 205
Qingming Festival 630
Songkran festival 205
Thai New Year festival 199
Ubon Ratchathani Candle Festival 205
Vesak 25, 573
Visakha 400
Wesak 28, 182, 187, 191
Yulanpen festival 621
field of merit (punnakkhetta) 215
fieldwork 421
Five Precepts (five moral precepts, Buddhist precepts) 28, 47, 49, 320. See also Buddhist moral precepts, moral precepts
Fo guang Shan 95, 306, 317, 401. See also Buddha’s Light Mountain
folk art 603, 670
songs 165, 573, 574
tales 178, 201
(p. 725) folk beliefs and practices 198, 384, 579, 592, 602
folklore 465, 507, 601
footprint of Buddha 425, 427, 430, 462, 466
forest monks 199–200, 218, 286, 404–405, 487, 488, 490, 496–500
Thai 201, 207, 489
Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (FPMT) 151
four faces 240, 241, 244, 247, 453
Four Noble Truths (catvari aryasatyani; cattari ariyasaccani) 199, 558, 576
framework 399
France 324, 337, 338, 340, 409, 709
and Cambodia 240, 249
and Laos 279, 285, 291
and Latin America 305, 311
Thich Nhat Hanh 302, 406
and Vietnam 183, 343
French colonialism 179, 180, 245, 274, 279–280, 703
Friends of the Western Buddhist Order 49, 50, 339, 362, 407
Fujian 86, 260
Funan 178
funerals 130, 287, 303, 337, 571, 572, 622, 626–629
cloths 645
pyre 425, 438, 613
funerary culture 123, 620
funerary rites 123, 126, 199, 305, 527, 568
Chinese 200
Japanese 626
Thai 624
Gakkai, Soka 528
Gandantegchinlen (Gandantegchenling) monastery 164–166, 170, 525
gandharva 671
Gangetic valley 15
“Garuda 5,” 582
Gautama Buddha 37, 43, 421, 437, 678
Geluk school 146, 147, 153, 264, 611, 709
gender 5, 134, 190, 206, 289, 317, 342, 386, 389, 395, 409, 411, 548, 582, 583, 587, 635–647, 663, 665, 667, 669, 672, 674, 712
cisgender 673
discrimination 392, 393
equality 96, 374, 339, 374, 664, 669
inequity 129
non-normative 671
privilege 394
transgender 197, 662, 670, 673
genze riyaku 126
geography 38, 47, 51, 275, 276, 422, 423, 426–428, 651
relics of geography 425
geopolitic 45, 54
Germany, Buddhism in 189, 191, 334, 337, 339, 369, 403, 408, 576, 709
Nazi Germany 335
West Germany 336
Geshe Damcho 356
Geshe degree 153
Geshe Kelsang Gyatso 407, 412, 611
Geshe Ngawang Wangyal 321
getsul vows 171
Ghana 357
Ghost Festival. See festivals
ghosts 68, 205, 206, 620, 630. See also ancestor veneration
hungry ghosts 67, 621, 690
malevolent spirits 384
wandering ghosts (petas) 568
Giri Dipa (the hilly island) 16
Glasnost 2
globalization 13
God, and Christianity 319, 652, 609, 460
gods and goddesses 15, 40, 66–68, 186, 258, 464, 577, 582, 587, 603, 698
god homage (deva puja) 659
Hindu 198, 208, 209
sexuality 643
Goenka, S. N. 323, 410, 411, 476
Goenka Vipassana group 371
gompa 151
gongan, (koan) 113
Gotami Apadana 640
governance 13
Govinda, Lama Anagarika 339, 408
grantha-dura (vocation of book) 518
Great Britain 14, 24, 28
grib (pollution) 583
Gross National Happiness (GNH) 70–71
gter ma (Buddhist Treasures) 62
gter ston (Treasure revealers) 62
Guan Yin (Guanyin) 6, 92, 184, 205, 258, 453, 663
Temple 261
(p. 726) Guardians of the Life 29
Gunananda Migettuvatte Venerable 24, 28
Gupta 437
Empire 55
guru 5, 603, 613, 614
tantric 610, 615
Gurupancashika (Fifty Stanzas on the Guru) 614
Guru Rinpoche 62–64, 66–68, 570
Guru Yoga of Avalokitesvara 583
Gutenberg Bible 2
Gyatso, Tenzin 51
haibutsu kishaku (“abolish the Buddha, destroy Shakyamuni”) 122
hair 197, 424, 425, 430, 440, 455, 526, 546, 559, 586, 626, 681
Hanh, Thich Nhat 405, 556, 558
Hanoi 184, 197, 279
Han Yongun 107, 117, 691
Harsha, Emperor 55
Heart Sutra 90, 185, 448, 591
heaven/s 15, 198, 285, 443, 492, 498, 624, 690
Heaven of the Thirty-Three 72
Heian period 123, 549
“hell money,” 621
lowest 198
hell parks 205
hells 92, 185, 285, 466, 498, 555, 614, 619, 639
“Hell Gardens,” 466
heretics (non-Buddhists) 518
hermeneutics 48, 594
Heritage of the Bhikkhu 29
higher knowledge 251, 591. See also abhijnana
Hinayana (inferior vehicle) 23
Hindu(ism) 1, 25, 519, 613
pantheon 24
social structure 25
homosexu(al)ity 407, 662–669
acts 662, 668
anti- 667
homophobic 662
Hongyi (monk) 86
iconography 453–459
iddhi (supernatural powers) 591
identity, in iconography
altered identity 464
ambiguous identity 464
kindred identity 464
mismatched identity 464
mistaken identity 464
multivalent identity 464
mutual identity 464
impermanence (anicca) 4, 232, 436, 478, 619, 628, 680
of the female body 641, 642
of the human body 570
of life 199
in Thai funeral ritual 623
India
ancient 25
social structures 25
south 21
traditions 21
Indian 22
Buddhism 518
monk Vajrahodhi 22
Insight Meditation Society (IMS) 323
International Buddhist Conference 23
Jain 1
Janatha Vimukti Peramuna (JVP; People’s Liberation Front) 24, 29, 30
militant 27
Japanese 5
Tendai 5
Nichiren 5
Lotus Sutra 5
Japan 3
Japanese colonialism 549
Japhy 611
Jathika Hela Urumaya (JHU) 29
Jewish 304
Jogye Order 117
jongdan (Buddhist orders or schools) 117
Kabilsingh, Chatsumarn. See Dhammananda Bhikkhuni
Kalaniay 28, 29
Kalaniya Declaration of Independence 13, 28
Kanatotuva, Bingiriya 27
untouchable Candala village 27
Kandy 1
Kandyan, kingdom of 19, 28
(p. 727) kangling 570
kapala damaru (drums) 570
karma (kamma) 25, 68, 89, 198, 206, 214, 215, 224, 226, 276, 317, 320, 353, 450, 469, 478, 491, 510, 529, 556, 558, 577, 619, 621, 646, 665, 669
Karmapa 146, 149, 264, 339, 636, 663
Karmasation 469–477
karuna 444, 487, 568, 680
Kathina 24
katikavatas (monastic laws of code of conduct) 14
Khan, Altan 146, 162
Kitthiwuttho, Phra 537
Koliya, kingdom of 556
Korea 117
Korean Buddhism 117
Langkasuka, kingdom of 259, 554
Langkuska 4
Lao Kingdoms 278
Laos 2
Latin America 4
Langkasuka, Buddhist Kingdom 4
Lanka Bauddha Mandalaya (Buddhist Council of Ceylon, Founded in 1954) 22
Lay 2, 5, 22, 25, 27
Laity 391
Laypeople 22
LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bi-Sexual, Transgendered) 393, 662–674
Light of Buddhadharma Foundation International (LBDFI) 37, 50
Living Buddha(s) 517
LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) 29, 519
lunar 184, 189, 328, 621
lung (rlung) 579, 581
Lungsung-Samdupling 51
Mahabodhi Temple 44
Mahakassapa Thera of Polonnaruwa 21
Mahamoggaliputta, Venerable 15
mahamudra 147
Mahasena, King 17
Mahasila Viravong 280
Mahavamsa (The Great Chronicle) 15, 21
Mahaviahara, Abhyagiri, and Jetavana, (Buddhist fraternities) 16, 18, 21
Mahavihara (Great Monastery) 14, 17, 19
monastic 17
tradition 17
Mahayana (Great Vehicle) 17, 394, 448, 459, 472, 491, 533, 534, 548, 550, 591, 706, 707, 712
academia 529
in Australia and Oceania 371
in Burma 214
in Cambodia 240, 241
in China 97, 101
communism 535
conversions 391
doctrines and traditions 548, 566, 569, 576, 583, 584, 680, 698
in Europe 339
exposure to English 523
gender and sexuality 635, 636, 642, 643, 647, 670
ideas 18
in India 37, 53
international organizations 398, 401, 405, 406, 407
in Japan 122
in Korea 101, 105, 106
in Malaysia 258, 259, 260, 261, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 270
prajnaparamita genre 471
in Sri Lanka 21, 23, 32
tantric practices 18
in Thailand 197, 200, 205, 209
in the United States 326
in Vietnam 179
Mahayana-Theravada 4, 17
Makhakassapa, Arahant 14
Malasekere, Gunapala 22, 23, 24
Malay 4
Buddhists 4
Muslims 4
Malaysia 3
Malvatta 20
Mandarin 3
Mantra 1, 591
Mara (the embodiment of evil) 462, 537, 549. See also evil
Mayhinda, Arahant 14
(p. 728) Medicine Buddha 576–577, 581, 583. See also Buddha
meditation 25, 50, 83, 86, 90, 94, 111, 114, 143, 153, 182, 190, 196, 199, 202, 203, 209, 212, 219, 221, 222, 231, 232, 286, 305, 309, 328, 335, 336, 343, 355, 404, 406, 410, 472, 473, 474, 487, 496, 556, 624, 630, 637, 655
anapansati bhavana (breathing meditation) 196