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date: 10 July 2020

(p. 381) Index

(p. 381) Index

Page numbers followed by f and t indicate figures and tables, respectively. Numbers followed by n indicate footnotes.

Aboriginal populations, 13–14
“the four R’s of Aboriginal health,” 174
health concept, 291
research in, 173, 174–175
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) genes, 320
acculturated, embodied mind, 131–133
acculturative stress, 250–251, 344
acquisition, 84
activity space, 30
adaptation, 356
developmental perspectives on, 358–360
evolutionary perspectives on, 358–360
responses to external threats, 250, 250f
adaptive calibration model (ACM), 357
ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) genes, 320
adolescence
anxiety in, 117
cultural context of, 218–219
drug use in, 209–212, 211f
dual-systems model of, 212, 212f, 213, 218–219
neural imbalance in, 212f, 213
adolescent risk taking, 209–210
cultural resources and, 213, 213f
family obligation and, 211–214, 211f, 213f, 214f, 217–218
neurobiology of, 212–213, 213f
affective cue selection, 227–228
affiliation, 261–262
Africa, 148–149
African Americans, 6
dementia, 166
embodiment during social emotion, 134
empathic processing, 273
mental disorders in, 341, 342–343, 342t, 351
pain treatment for, 274
physical pain thresholds, 272
racial identification, 146–147
social pain processing, 273–274
Africans
recent evolution of, 319–320, 319f
recognition of body language, 228
age differences, 157
aggression, xenophobic, 238
aging, 82, 165–166
Alaska Natives, 6
alcohol use
adolescent, 211–212, 211f
disorders of, 355–356
Alliance for Childhood, 74
Alzheimer’s disease, 166–167
early onset, 171–181
“American” (label), 264
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), 62
American dream, 9–10
American Indians, 6
Americans
categorization by, 159, 160
cognitive processing of objects vs backgrounds, 157
embodiment during social emotion among, 133–134
emotional memory, 165
emotional support seeking, 289
facial expressions, 226
false memory, 160
ideology, 9–10
intergroup relationships, 242
long-term memory, 160
memory for objects vs backgrounds, 156–157
memory for social contexts, 157–158
mental health problems, 289
reactions to social interactions, 229
recognition of bodily expressions, 228
recognition of body language, 228
recognition of emotional dance expressions, 228
self-face recognition, 198
self-referential processing, 199
source memory, 158–159
specificity of memory, 158
Amhara songs, 186
amygdala, 107–108, 256
emotional processing in, 107–120, 110f, 112f, 112t, 114f, 114t, 115f, 115t
processing of threatening and fear-relevant stmuli in, 257–258
analytic thinking, 7, 49
animal models, 303–304
Anlo Ewe people, 48
anonymits, 174–175
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
activity during emotional processing, 147
activity during self-referential processing, 199, 204–205, 205f
dorsal (dACC), 124
Anthropocene epoch, 332
anthropology
culture in, 8–12
neuroanthropology, 41–55
of not sensing, 45–46
psychiatric, 52
of senses, 48
of sensory experience, 47
anti-structure theory, 60–61
anxiety, 347–349
culture-specific presentations of, 117
prevalence of, 342, 342t, 347–348
risk for, 123
SCS and, 115–116
social, 115–116
apartheid society, 145–146
Arabs, 273
arborization, 65–66
Archimedes, 61
Argentina, 362
arginine vasopressin gene (AVP), 261, 303
Aristotle, 64, 197
Asian Americans, 6, 7
anxiety disorders, 347–348
cultural identity, 135, 136f
major depressive disorders, 347–348
mental disorders, 339–353, 342t
mental health needs, 166
mental health service use, 346, 347
National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), 339–341, 342t, 346–347
physical pain thresholds, 272
psychopathology, 343–351
substance disorders, 347–348
threat responses, 258–259
Asian Canadians, 161–162
Asians
autism, 62–63, 62t
emotional processing, 226
facial expressions, 225
gaze, 227
mental disorders, 339–353
(p. 382)
older subjects, 49
reactions to social interactions, 229
assimilation, cultural, 344
attention
cultural differences in, 157, 286
education of, 43, 48
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 62
Australia, 173
authoritarianism, right-wing, 253, 255
authoritarian parenting, 362–363
authoritative parenting, 362–363
autism, 62–63, 62t
autism spectrum disorders, 305–306
autobiographical memory, 162–163
autonomy, 174–175
autoshaping, 85
awareness, social, 62–63, 68, 69t
Bach, J. S., 189
background: memory for, 156–157
Baldwin, James Mark, 59
ballads, 189
Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), 214
Barlow, Horace, 31
Beatles, 183
Begley, Sharon, 11
behavior
adolescent, 213, 213f
dressing-up, 68
epigenetics and, 299–313
experimental data, 111, 113–114, 114t
gene variant correlates, 326, 327t–328t
goal-directed, 85–86, 88
habitual, 85–86, 88
mark-making, 68
natural indices of emotional processing, 138–139
parenting, 363–365
personality-related patterns, 326, 328t
risk-taking, 214–215, 215f
social, 302–306
behavioral game theory, 91
behavioral inhibition, 215, 216f
Beijing Genes-Brain-Behavior Project, 321
belief-based learning, 91–92
Belief in a Dangerous World Scale (BDW), 259–260
The Belmont Report, 173
bias
empathy, 256
in-group, 257
intergroup, 241, 249–270
negativity, 165
own-race, 191
positivity, 164–165
biculturalism, 82, 95–96
bicultural youth, 135, 136f
biological differences, 5
biological mechanisms, 280–282
biomedical explanations, 176–177
Blacks
amygdalar response to human faces in, 116–117
autism among, 62–63, 62t
empathic processing, 274
life expectancy, 288–289
mental disorders in, 341
pain treatment for, 274
blind-isms, 46
blindness, 45, 52
blood
DNA methylation from, 300–301
OXTR methylation levels, 302, 302f
peripheral, 300–301
blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast, 44, 306, 330
Boas, Franz, 46
body language, 223–234
bonobos, 239
brain
culture-brain interactions, 25–28, 123–126
culture-brain iterativity, 27–28, 27f
culture-ready, 70–74
embodied, 131–135
enculturation of, 21–22, 24–27, 35–37, 331, 331f
expansion of, 69–70, 70f
isolation of, 37
motor mirror system, 71, 71f
neural tendencies, 25–26
personality traits and, 123–126
responses to threatening stimuli, 258–259
self-sculpting, 65–67
situated, 12–13, 17
size of, 329
brain-based approach, 25, 36
brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 108
brain-reductive approach, 24–25, 36
brain structures, 258–259. see also specific structures
British folk melodies, 189
Broca’s area, 71
Brothers, Leslie, 58
Buddhism, 197
Bush, George, 330
Bushmen, 68–69
calcarine cortex, 44
calendrical rites, 60–61
“Call to Post,” 184
Cambrian explosion, 316
Cambridge Primary Review, 62, 63, 74, 75
Cambridge University, 46
Canada, 173
Canadian folk songs and ballads, 189
Canadian Institutes of Health Research, 173
Canadians, 158–159
candomblé, 52
cannibalism, 60–61
capitalism, 57
caregivers, 177–178
Carpenter, Edmund, 47
catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT), 92–93, 108, 309
categorization, 159–160
social, 240, 241
taxonomic, 159
thematic, 159
Caucasians
body language, 228, 229
emotional processing, 226
empathic processing, 273
facial expressions, 226, 228
facial recognition, 225, 228, 229
gaze, 227
intergroup empathy, 273
physical pain thresholds, 272
racial identification, 146–147
cerebral cortex
calcarine cortex, 44
main areas associated with dance, 72, 72f
main areas associated with introjective pretense, 73–74, 73f
main areas associated with projective pretense, 72–73, 73f
change: response to, 94–95
Charles, Steven, 46
chemical weapons, 131–132
Chen, Edith, xix
Chiao, Joan, xix, 330–331
child development, 63
childhood adaptations, 66
childhood play, 75
children, 363
Children in Scotland, 74
chimpanzees, 238–239
China
cultural values in, 362
memory, 165–166
mental health service use, 346
psychopathology in, 343–344
Chinese, 37
autobiographical memory, 162
body language, 228–229
categorization, 159, 160
embodiment during social emotion, 133–134
emotional memory, 165
empathic processing, 273
facial expressions, 228
facial recognition, 198, 226–229
identity recognition, 226–227
long-term memory, 160
memory for objects vs backgrounds, 157
mental health problems, 289
overlapping representation of self and close others, 202–203
physical pain thresholds, 272
self-concept, 198
(p. 383) self-face recognition, 198
self-referential processing, 163, 199, 200–201
self-reflection, 199, 200–201, 204–206
self-relevant processing, 161, 163
somatization, 340–341
source memory, 158–159
Chinese Americans
cultural identity of, 135, 136f
major depressive episodes, 348, 349
schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 349
somatization among, 341
Chinese traditional music, 187
chirping, 46
chorale melodies, 189
cigarette smoking, adolescent, 211–212, 211f
Classen, Constance, 47
classical approach, 144–146
classical music, 185
climate-related threats, 253
clinical care, community-based, 171–181
Clinton, Hillary, 160
closed-loop systems, 45
close others, 202–203
clowning, 66
Coaker, Vernon, 74
cocaine/methamphetamine use, 211–212, 211f
code (term), 28, 29
cognition, 132–133, 132f
cross-cultural differences in, 156, 161
cultural neuroscience of, 155–194
music, 187
social, 197–234
cognitive processing, 59
age differences in, 157
associated gene variants, 326, 327t–328t
of backgrounds, 157
familial obligation and, 215, 216, 216f, 217f
of objects, 157
cognocentrism, 59
Cohen, Bronwen, 74
Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) (NIMH), 341–343
collective cultures, 96
collectivism, 51, 108, 109, 116, 330
cultural, 146–147
vs individualism, 361
Collins, Pamela, xx
common mental disorders (CMDs), 355–356
communication, 59, 66, 71
conventional, 68
community-based participatory research (CBPR), 174
community-based research, 171–181
community consent, 178–179
competition, social group, 242
competitive/economic threats, 254
Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (WHO), 341, 345
compressive coding, 32
computational cultural neuroscience, 97–99
approach of, 85, 86f
foundations of, 81–104
practical/methodological considerations, 98
theoretical considerations, 98
computational modeling, 98
conceptual considerations, 23–28
conceptual framework, 144–145
conceptual issues, 3–104
conditioning
evaluative, 256–257
second-order, 87
confidentiality, 173–175
conflict, intergroup, 245
Confucianism, 51, 330
consent, community, 178–179
conservatism, political, 255
constructivism, dynamic, 95–96
contact, physical, 361–362
contact organs, 68
convergent evolution, 63–64
cooperation
importance of, 58
intergroup, 263–264
threats as opportunities for, 263–264
coping, 326, 328t
CpG islands, 300, 301–302
CpG island shores, 300
creativity, 61
critical approach, 12–13, 144–146
cross-cultural differences. see also cultural differences
in categorization, 159–160
in cognition, 156, 161
in memory, 155–169
in music, 190–191, 190n
in self, 9
cross-cultural genomics, 330–332
cross-cultural music cognition, 191
cross-racial facial recognition, 224–225
cues, affective, 227–228
cultural assimilation, 344
cultural collectivism, 146–147
cultural comparisons, 237–247
cultural considerations, 23, 178
cultural context, 25
of adolescent decision-making, 218–219
of encoding sociocultural statistics, 34–35
of psychiatric symptoms, 36–37
self-reflection neural correlates, 198–202
cultural differences, 183
in 5-HTT gene variations, 121–122
in affective cue selection, 227–228
in anxiety, 117
in autobiographical memory, 162
as biological, 5
in body language, 223–234
in categorization, 159–160
in cognition, 156, 161
covariation with genetic differences, 286–288
in definition of family, 176
in embodiment during social emotion, 133–135
in emotional expressions, 223–234
in emotional processing, 107–120, 138, 226, 291
in emotional regulation, 286
in emotional support seeking, 286, 289
environmental variations, 279–280
in facial expressions, 225–226
in gaze, 227
in group processes, 250–254, 250f
inculcation of, 41–42
in independence, 287
in interdependence, 287
in locus of attention, 286
in major depressive disorder, 37
in memory, 155–169
in mental disorders, 355–356
in music, 183, 184, 190–191, 190n
in overlapping representation of self and close others, 202–203
in parenting, 162
in “psychological” tendencies, 5
in psychopathology, 340–341
in research, 5–68
in responses to pain, 272–273
in responses to threatening stimuli, 258–259
in self-concept, 9, 197–198, 202–203, 291
in self-construal, 163
in self-referential processing, 200–201, 200f
in self-reflection, 200–201, 200f, 201–202, 201f
sensory variation, 46–49
in social determinants of mental health, 13–16
in social interactions, 229–230
in transgenerational effects, 14–15
cultural distance hypothesis, 189–191
cultural diversity, 68–69. see also cultural differences
cultural environment, 283
cultural genomics, 330–332
cultural identity, 8, 135
cultural intelligence, 95
cultural interactions, 82, 91–92
cultural learning, 81, 82–83, 82f
culturally important family relationships, 210–211
cultural mixing, 82, 95–96
cultural neuroscience
classical approach to, 144, 145–146
of cognition, 155–194
computational, 81–104, 86f
(p. 384)
conceptual framework for, 144–145
conceptual issues, 3–104
critical approach to, 144, 145–146
current approaches, 243–245
of emotion, 107–151
of empathy, 273–274
encoding and, 35
future directions, 139
integrative approach to, 144–147
of intergroup bias, 249–270
of intergroup processes, 237–275
methodological issues, 3–104
of pain, 273–274
pitfalls, 145–146
of population health disparities, 271–272
rationale for, 21–22
research in, xix, 5–8, 147–149
of social affective processing, 129–131
of social cognition, 197–234
of social emotion, 129–142
in South Africa, 143–151, 144t
of threat and group processes, 254–262
“Cultural Neuroscience and Health: Closing the Gap in Population Health Disparities” meeting, xix–xx
cultural norms, 123
cultural orientation, 163–164
cultural parameters, 97
cultural phenomena, 58–59
cultural psychology, 285–286
cultural resources, 209–221, 213f
Cultural Revolution, 166
cultural selection, 317
cultural social science, 135–139
cultural studies, 83–89, 136
cultural tasks, 24
cultural values, 107–120
in China, 362
in self-reflection, 200–201
culture(s), 51–52
and affective cue selection, 227–228
in anthropology, 8–12
and brain functions, 123–126
collective, 96
concept of, 49–51, 223–224
in cultural neuroscience research, 5–8
definition of, 8n, 23–24, 49–50, 242–243, 245
dimensions of, 51
dualities of, 9
embrainment of, 24, 26–27, 27f, 162
and emotional processing, 138
evolution of, 46, 284–285, 310
experimental microcultures, 99
and face perception, 224–227
functions of, 264
and gaze, 227
gene-culture coevolution, 46, 284–285, 310, 320
gene-culture interactions, 282–284
gene × culture research, 285–288
and genetics, 279–336
and health, 288–289
incidental findings, 178–179
layers of, 23–24
and learning theory, 94–97
location of, 23–24
loose, 94
and memory, 156
microcultures, 99
modeling, 7
modernized, 356
vs nature, 93–94
and neuroscience, 89–90
and pain, 272–273
and parenting, 360–363, 365
and psychopathology, 340–343
quantification of, 183–194
redefinition of, 242–243
as response to uncertainty, 81–83
and socioemotional neurodevelopment, 355–369
tight, 94
traditional, 356
culture-brain interactions, 25–28
culture-brain iterativity, 27–28, 27f
culture-brain nexus, 25
culture-driven evolution, 331
culture-individual interactions, 11–12, 12f
culture-ready brain, 70–74
current approaches, 243–245
cytosine residue, 299–300, 300f
Dallenbach, Karl, 43
dance, 72, 72f
dance expressions, 228
Danish
self-referential processing, 163, 199–201
self-reflection, 199, 200–201, 206
Darwin, Charles, 31, 64, 317, 318
Darwinism, 58
Database of Genomic Variants, 317
data sources, 321
Dawkins, Richard, 58
daydreaming, 61
death: fear of, 125–126, 125f
Decade of the Brain, 330
decision making
adolescent, 218–219
cultural context of, 218–219
DLPFC activation during, 215, 216f
decoding neural activity, 29–30
dementia, 166, 172, 177
dense coding, 31, 31f, 32–33
depression
cultural differences in, 36–37
major depressive disorder, 37, 339, 342t, 347–349, 355–356
major depressive episodes, 117
prevalence of, 117, 342t, 347–348
risk for, 123
SCS and, 115–116
symptoms of, 289
development, 57–80
and adaptation, 358–360
across lifespan, 82
maladaptive, 358–359
social displays in, 66–70
socioemotional neurodevelopment, 355–369
devotionalism, 10
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), 341, 345
diagnostic methodologies, 345–346
differential sensitivity theory, 359
Dilthey, Wilhelm, 59
discipline, 362–363
discourse, 8
discrimination
intergroup, 241
discriminative stimulus control, 84, 85f
discriminatory groups, 240
disease threats, 252–253
display rules, 230
dissociation, 11
distance, cultural, 189–191
DNA methylation, 299–300, 300f, 307–308, 308f
blood levels, 302, 302f
and individual variability, 301–302, 301f
individual variation in, 301, 301f
from peripheral blood, 300–301
tissue-specific, 300
dopamine, 88–89, 364–365
dopamine D1 receptor gene (DRD1), 364–365
dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2), 93, 364–365
dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), 96, 261, 281, 286, 287, 292, 364–365
evidence for recent selection of, 322–323, 324t
dopamine D5 receptor gene (DRD5), 326
dopamine-related genes, 322–323, 324t
dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), 124
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 215, 216, 216f, 217f
dot-probe task, 115
DRD2 gene, 93
dreaming, 61
dressing-up behavior, 68
drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) genes, 320
drug use, 209–212, 211f
dual systems model, 212, 212f, 213
Dunn, Judith, 68
Dürer, Albrecht, 63–64, 64f
Durkheim, Émile, 59, 60
Dutch
affective cue selection, 227–228
(p. 385) body language, 228–229
facial recognition, 224–227
identity recognition, 226–227
dynamic constructivist approach, 95–96
early life environmental input, 357–358
East Asians, 6
attention to objects vs backgrounds, 157
autobiographical memory, 162
categorization by, 159
embodiment during social emotion, 134–135
eye contact, 227
facial expressions, 225, 227
facial recognition, 225
false memory, 160
genetic polymorphisms, 286, 287
mental health problems, 289, 351
neural activity during physical stimuli, 23
overlapping representation of self and close others, 202–203
self-concept, 198
self-referential processing, 199
self-reflection, 206
source memory, 158
specificity of memory, 158
Easterners, 6, 7
health concept, 291
memory, 161, 162, 165, 166
self-relevant processing, 161, 166
East-West comparisons, 6
East-West differences, 133–135. see also cultural differences
echolocation
development of, 42–43
human, 41–55
ecocentrism, 16
eco-cultural differences, 320
ecology of mind, 3–20
economic threats, 254
ecstatics, religious, 10
education
of attention, 43, 48
formal, 74
music, 191–192
Einstein, Albert, 61
elders, 178
Elwood, Bill, xix
embodiment, 5, 131–135
acculturated, 131–133
during social emotion, 133–135
embrainment, 24, 26–27, 27f, 162
emoticons, 225–226
emotion(s), 132–133, 132f
cultural neuroscience of, 107–151
facial, 227
vs feelings, 137–138
social, 129–142
emotional contagion, 226
emotional expressions
cultural differences in, 223–234
recognition of, 228
emotional intelligence, 363
emotional memory, 164–165
emotional processing
ACC responses during, 147
in amygdala, 107–120, 110f, 112f, 112t, 114f, 114t, 115f, 115t
cultural differences in, 107–120, 226, 291
mPFC responses during, 146–147
natural behavioral indices of, 138–139
nonconscious aspects of, 138
PCC responses during, 147
emotional regulation
associated gene variants, 326, 328t
of children, 363
cultural differences in, 286
emotional support seeking, 286, 289
emotional thought, 132–133, 132f
empathic processing, 146–147, 256
empathy
cultural neuroscience of, 273–274
extraordinary, 262
intergroup, 256
empirical considerations, 28–30
encoding
alternative strategies, 32–33
narrow version, 30
of natural statistics, 33
of neural activity, 29–33, 34f
of self-relevant information into memory, 164
of sociocultural statistics, 33–35
of stimuli, 32
strategies for, 31–33
wide version, 30
enculturation, 21–39, 68–69, 82–83, 96–97
of brain, 21–22, 24–27, 35–37, 331, 331f
of genome, 332
in genomics, 315–336
melodic, 188–189
musical, 186, 187
sensory, 41–55
energetic efficiency, 33
England, 62, 63
English language proficiency, 349–350
entainment, 67
environmental variations, 279–280
cultural environment, 283
early life input, 357–358
gene-environment interactions, 280–282
personal environment, 283
predictors of future environment, 357–358
sensitivity, 359
social environment, 282–283
epialleles, 302
epigenesis, 63–65
epigenetics, 306–310
future directions, 310
human studies, 304–306
individual variations, 307–308, 308f
limitations of, 307–310
of social behavior, 302–306
epimutations, 305
Essen Folk Song Collection, 189
ethical issues, 178–179, 363
ethical research, 173, 175
Ethiopia, 186
ethnic groups, 8
genetic profiles of, 286
major ethnic minority groups, 340
mental disorders in, 341–343, 342t
ethnicity, 272–273
ethnography, 47
ethnology, 47
eugenics, 145
Eurocentric worldview, 7
European Americans, 6
autobiographical memory, 162
embodiment during social emotion, 134
empathic processing, 256
genetic polymorphisms, 286, 287
recent evolution of, 319–320, 319f
responses to threatening stimuli, 258–259
self-relevance and memory in, 161
European Canadians, 161
European music, 186
Europeans, 228, 286
evaluative conditioning, 256–257
event-related potentials (ERPs), 5, 190
in face processing, 224
during physical stimuli, 23
evolution, 316
and adaptation, 358–360
convergent, 63–64
cultural selection, 317
culture-driven, 331
differences in selection, 323, 325f, 326f
gene-culture coevolution, 46, 284–285, 310, 320
natural selection, 317
of neurotransmitter genes, 315–336, 324t, 325f, 325t
positive selection, 316, 316f, 319
recent evolution, 316–320, 319f, 322–323, 324t
ritual/speech coevolution theory, 59–60
signals of selection, 321–322
social displays in, 66–70
expectancy, 189
expectations, 81, 82f
experimental microcultures, 99
experimental realism, 244
exploitation, 253–254
extended family, 176, 179
external threats: adaptive responses to, 250, 250f
extinction learning, 84, 85f
extraordinary empathy, 262
eye contact, 227
face vision, 43
Facial Action Coding System (FACS), 226
facial expressions, 224–227
(p. 386) facial recognition, 191, 224
associated gene variants, 326, 327t, 328t
cross-racial, 224–225
self-face recognition, 198
false memory, 160, 326, 327t
familism, 210
family
and adolescent risk taking, 209–222
as caregivers, 177–178
concepts of, 175–176
cultural considerations of, 178
cultural definitions of, 176
culturally important relationships, 210–211
extended, 176, 179
social, 177–178
family obligation, 209, 210
and adolescent risk taking, 211–217, 211f, 213f, 215f, 217–218
burdens of, 218
and cognitive control, 215, 216f
and mental health, 217–218
and reward activation, 213–214, 214f
rewards of, 213–214, 214f, 216, 218
and risk taking, 217–218, 218f
as unique cultural resource, 216
ventral striatum activation during tasks of, 214, 214f, 216, 217f
favoritism, in-group, 240, 241
fear
of death, 125–126, 125f
recognition of, 227
responses to, 256–258
feature space, 30
feelings
vs emotions, 137–138
“gut feelings,” 135, 136f
Feinberg, Andrew, 300
Filipino Americans, 348
final causes, 64
first music, 186
First Nations, 14, 62–63
autism, 62–63, 62t
early-onset Alzheimer’s disease, 166–167, 175–176
extended families, 176
families, 175–177
family units, 177–178
genetic research, 176
health concept, 291
health research, 173–174
fixation index (Fst), 321–322
flash sonar, 42, 45
Flinders Adolescent Decision Making Questionnaire, 215, 216f
folk songs, 189
Fou drummers, 183
“the four R’s of Aboriginal health,” 174
FOXP2 gene, 65
functional genomics, 306–307
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 5, 44, 230, 306
correlational analyses, 111, 112f, 112t
data acquisition, 110–111, 113
data analysis, 111, 113, 114, 114f
with dot-probe task, 115
emergence of, 330
of empathic processing, 256
limitations of, 243–244
during mental stimuli, 23
of pain, 272
subtraction analyses, 111, 112f, 112t, 114, 114f, 115f
future directions, 139, 331–332
for epigenetics, 310
for research, 165–167, 274, 289–291, 330–332, 365
GABA, 321
GABA genes, 322–323, 324t, 326
gaze, 227
gaze direction, 227
gelada baboons, 239
Gell, Alfred, 47
gender differences, 348–350
gene(s). see also specific genes
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) genes, 320
evolution of, 46, 284–285, 310, 315–336
lactase persistence, 319
malaria resistance, 319
neurotransmitter, 320, 321–330
ownership of, 178, 179
recent evolution of, 321–330, 324t
risk genes, 281
selfish gene, 58, 64–65
skin color evolution, 318
gene-culture interactions, 282–283
coevolution, 46, 284–285, 310, 320
evidence for, 284
future research, 289–291
health research, 288–293
mechanisms of, 283–284
gene × culture research
future directions, 289–291
health research, 288–293
and public health policy, 291–293
questions raised by, 285–288
theoretical issues, 285–288
gene-environment interactions, 280–282
generalization, 85, 96–97
general trust, 123–125, 125f
generational differences, 349
genetic biomedical explanations, 176–177
genetic differences, 286–288
genetic profiles, 286
genetic research
cultural considerations for, 178
First Nation, 176
genetics, 92–93, 279–336
epigenetics, 63–65, 299–313
imaging, 306, 307–310
missing heritability problem, 287–288, 310
selfish gene approach, 58, 64–65
and self-reflection neural correlates, 204–206, 205f
of socioemotional neurodevelopment, 355–369
of threat management, 259–261
genetic testing, 177
gene variants, 326, 327t–328t
genocentrism, 58
genome-wide association studies (GWAS), 287–288
genomics
cross-cultural, 330–332
encultured genome, 332
functional, 306–307
Human Genome Project (International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium), 321, 330
individual differences, 307–308, 308f
1000 Genomes Project, 321, 331–332
of recent evolution, 319–320
genotypes, 286, 287, 363–365
geographic variations, 355–356
German folk songs, 189
Germans, 273
gestures, 229–230
Geurts, Kathryn Linn, 48
Ghana, 363
Gibson, James, 48
global health, 245
glucocorticoid receptor (GR), 282
glutamate receptor genes, 322–326, 324t, 326f
goal-directed behavior, 85–86, 88
goal-directed thought (telic), 61
Goffman, Erving, 59
Go/NoGo task, 122, 215
Gould, Stephen Jay, 58
Grasseni, Cristina, 48
Great Depression, 166
group distinctions, 242
group processes
cultural differences in, 250–254, 250f
threat and, 254–262
Guatemalans, 229
guided variation, 96
Guinea baboons, 239
“gut feelings,” 135, 136f
habitual behavior, 85–86, 88
Hacking, Ian, 11
happiness, 227, 228–229
hard individualism, 51
Hardy, Alister, 60
Hardy-Weinberg deviations (HWDs), 332
Harlow, Harry, 303–304
harm/exploitation, 253–254
harm avoidance, 326, 328t
harsh parenting, 362–363
Hawks, John, 329
HCG9 gene, 305
(p. 387) Head Henry, 47
health, xix–xx, 57–80
definition of, 291–292
global, 245
personal, 185
health care, 292–293
health delivery, 291–292
health disparity research, 310
health policy, 291–293
health-related outcomes, 262–263
health research
community role in, 173–174
confidentiality in, 173–174
First Nations, 173–174
gene × culture framework, 288–293
guiding principles for, 173–174
hemifacial biases, 226
hemoglobin
mutations, 318–319
oxygenated (Δoxy-Hb), 124–125, 124f, 125f
Hinduism, 10, 58
hip-hop, 185–186
Hispanic paradox, 288–289
Hispanics, 62–63
autism, 62–63, 62t
dementia, 166
health concept, 291
pain treatment for, 274
physical pain thresholds, 272–273
historical trauma, 14–15, 15f
Hofstede, Geert, 51
holistic cognition, 7
holistism, 49
Hollan, Douglas, 9
Hominin cranial capacity, 69–70, 70f
Hong Kong, 165, 272
hostility, intergroup, 240
Howes, David, 47, 48
human development, 66–70. see also development
human echolocation, 41–55
human evolution, recent, 319–320, 319f
arguments against, 316–318
evidence for, 318–320, 322–323, 324t
examples of, 318–319
Human Genome Project (International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium), 320, 330
human studies, 304–306
Hurricane Katrina, 264
Hu Shih, 197–198
Hutchins, Ed, 52
Hval Gaard Kindergarten (Norway), 75
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). see serotonin
hypnosis, 68
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, 15–16, 303, 305, 357–358
Idaka, Tetsuya, 7–8
idealism, 68
identity
cultural, 8, 135
in-group model, 263–264
national, 8
person, 224–225
social theory, 241
identity recognition, 226–227
ideology
American, 9–10
threat-based, 255–256
IDyOM (software program), 189, 190
Illumina Golden Gate Genotyping protocols, 321
imaging genetics, 306, 307–310
imitation, 96, 226
immigration, 342, 344–345
immigration status, 348, 349–350
implicit displays, 67
impulse control disorders, 342–343, 342t
impulsivity, 122–123, 122f
incest, 60–61
incidental findings, 178–179
independence, 287
India, 363
Indian residential schools, 14, 186
Indians, 228
indigenous communities
familial expectations, 175–176
mental health, 13–16
research with, 173, 175, 178–179
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 174–175
individual differences
defining variations, 301, 301f
DNA methylation and, 301–302, 301f
in embodiment during social emotion, 133–135
epigenetics of, 307–308, 308f
race and, 301–302
individualism, 9–10, 108
vs collectivism, 361
culture-individual interactions, 11–12, 12f
hard, 51
as SCS index, 109
soft, 51
Western, 58, 63
industrialized societies, 240–241
informational efficiency, 33
information openness, 360
Ingold, Tim, 48
in-group bias, 257
in-group effects, 229
in-group favoritism, 240, 241
in-group identity model, 263–264
inheritance. see also genetics
missing heritability problem, 287–288, 310
input space, 30
insula, 258
integrative approach, 139, 144–147
intelligence, 59
cultural, 95
emotional, 363
intentionality, floating, 184
interdependence, 200–201, 287
interdependent self-construal, 125–126, 125f, 163
intergroup bias, 241, 255, 256, 264
5-HTTLPR and, 260, 261
acquisition of, 260
in response to threats, 262
intergroup conflict, 245
intergroup empathy bias, 256
intergroup relationships
cultural neuroscience of, 237–275
in human industrialized societies, 240–241
in human small-scale societies, 239–240
among nonhuman primates, 238–239
threats as opportunities for cohesion and cooperation, 263–264
interleukin-6 gene (IL-6), 282
International Cultural Neuroscience Consortium (ICNC), xi, xix–xx, 191
International HapMap Project (International HapMap Consortium), 321
intersensoriality, 48
introjective mimesis, 67–68
introjective pretend play, 73–74, 73f
Inuit, 46, 47, 173
Irish, 229
Israelis, 273
Italy, 362
iTunes, 183
Jamaica, 10
James, William, 60, 199
James-Lange theory, 244
Japanese, 7–8, 109–110, 116, 126
affective cue selection, 227–228
emotional support seeking, 289
face recognition, 224–225
facial expressions, 225, 226
gene × culture research, 290
memory, 156–158, 161
mental health problems, 289
pregnancy outcomes, 289
psychiatric symptoms, 117
recognition of bodily expressions, 228, 229
self-relevance, 161
suicide rate, 117
as “tight,” 123, 126
Japanese Americans, 257, 258–259
Japanese emoticons, 225–226
jazz, 186
jokes, 66
(p. 388) Ka/Ks ratio, 321
Kalahari Desert, 68–69
Kekulé, 61
Kenya, 363
Kish, Daniel, 42–44, 46, 52–53
Kitayama, Shinobu, xix
knowledge networks, 82
knowledge transfer, 175
Korean Americans, 257
Koreans, 126
empathic processing, 256, 273
intergroup relationships, 242, 273
memory, 157, 161, 165
psychiatric symptoms, 117
responses to faces, 117
self-relevance, 161
Kusserow, Adrie, 9–10
lactase gene (LCT), 319
lactase persistence (lactose tolerance), 319
language
body language, 223–234
evolution of, 59–60, 68
Latin Americans, 7, 210, 219
Latino Americans, 342–343, 342t
Latinos, 6
drug use, 210
identity, 135, 136f
mental disorders, 341
National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), 339–341, 342t, 346–347
learning
belief-based, 91–92
cultural, 82–83
cultural parameters and, 97
extinction, 84, 85f
model-based, 84, 85f, 88, 95
model-free, 88, 94
neural correlates, 88–89
norms and expectations, 81, 82f
observational, 84, 85f, 90–91
Qlearning, 88
reinforcement, 83–89, 85f, 96, 99
relearning, 94–95
reversal, 84, 85, 85f
social, 90–92, 96, 256–259
statistical, 188
TDlearning, 87–88
threat-based, 256–259
ways of, 84, 85f
learning theory, 94–97
Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 47
LH theory. see life history theory
Li, Shu-Chen, xix
life expectancy, 288–289
life history (LH) theory, 358
linkage disequilibrium (LD), 322, 322f
linkage disequilibrium decay (LDD), 322, 323f
linkage disequilibrium decay (LDD) test, 319
linkage equilibrium, 322
local coding, 31, 31f, 33
logical positivism, 144, 291
logocentrism, 59
looping, 11, 28
looping effect, 43
loose culture, 94
Los Angeles, California, 210
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). see functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
maintenance, 97
major depression, 339
major depressive disorder, 339, 347–349, 355–356
cultural differences in, 37
prevalence of, 342t, 347–348
major depressive episodes, 117
maladaptive development, 358–359
malaria resistance, 319
man-made maladies, 61–63
Maoism, 51
Maori culture, 179
Maori hakas, 67
mapping social displays, 70–71
marijuana use, adolescent, 211–212, 211f
mark-making behavior, 68
materialism, 69
mathematical constraints, 63–64, 64f
McDougall, William, 46
McLuhan, Marshall, 47
Mead, George Herbert, 59
medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)
activity during emotional processing, 146–147, 162–163
activity during self-referential processing, 163, 199, 200–205, 200f, 204f, 205f
activity during self-reflection, 200–202, 200f, 201f
ventral, 199, 201–204
melodic expectancy
cultural distance hypothesis of, 183–194
enculturation and, 188–189
memes, 58–59
memory
autobiographical, 162–163
for background, 156–157
categorization and, 159–160
cross-cultural differences in, 155–169
emotional, 164–165
encoding of self-relevant information into, 164
for faces, 191, 224–225
false, 160, 326, 327t
impact of culture on, 156
long-term, 159–160
negativity bias in, 165
neural underpinnings of, 162–163
for object, 156–157
positivity bias in, 164–165
self-relevance and, 160–162
self-relevant, 162–163
for social contexts, 157–158
source, 158–159
specificity of, 158
memory errors, 160
memory loss, 177
mental health, 135, 206
culture and, 288–289
family obligation and, 217–218
of indigenous peoples, 13–16
population, 351–353
self-reflection and, 206
social determinants of, 13–16
mental health disorders, 355–369
among Asian and Asian American populations, 339–353
common mental disorders (CMDs), 355–356
developmental origins of, 356–357
diagnostic methodologies, 345–346
gender differences in, 349–350
generational differences in, 349
immigration context, 349–350
not otherwise specified (NOS), 343, 344
prevalence of, 341–343, 342t, 355–356
risk of, 355–356, 365
social status and, 350
symptoms of, 289
syndromes, 339
mental health service utilization studies, 346–347
mental illness stigma, 349
Meskanen, Pihla, 75
methodological issues, 3–104
Métis peoples, 173
Mexican Americans
adolescent risk taking, 211–212, 211f, 219
drug use, 210
family obligation, 211–212, 211f, 217
family relationships, 210–211
life expectancy, 288–289
Mexicans, 7
microcultures, experimental, 99
Middle Eastern culture, 7
mimesis
introjective, 67–68
projective, 67
mind
acculturated, embodied, 131–133
social, 131–135
mind reading ability, 68
minimal groups, 240
minimalist groups, 240
mismatch, 358–359
missing heritability problem, 287–288, 310
misunderstandings, 57–59
model-based learning, 84, 85f, 88, 95
model-free learning, 88, 94
modeling, 7, 98
modernized cultures, 356
modesty, sexual, 68–69
molecular research, 315–336
(p. 389) monoamine oxidase A, 108
monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA), 281, 287, 320, 322–324, 324t
mood disorders, 342
moral experience, 340
morality, principled, 68
Moroccans, 7
motor mirror system, 71, 71f
Müller-Lyer illusion, 47
mundane realism, 244
music, 183
characteristics of, 185
Chinese traditional, 187
classical, 185
as cognitive, 184n, 187, 191
construction of, 185
cross-cultural analysis of, 190–191, 190n
cultural distinctions in, 183, 184
culture-free features of, 190n
first, 186
floating intentionality of, 184
function and use of, 185
out-of-culture, 190–191
popular, 185
as specific, 184–186
traditions, 185
Turkish art, 187
types of, 183
as universal, 183, 184–186, 184n
Western art, 187
musical enculturation, 186
music education, 191–192
music pitch discrimination, 326, 328t
music therapy, 191
mutations. see also specific genes, mutations
positive selection, 316, 316f
Myers, C. S., 46
nappy curriculum, 63
Narvaez, Darcia, 62
National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), 341, 342t
National Curriculum (UK), 62, 63, 74
national groups, 8
National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia), 173
national identity, 8
National Institutes of Health (NIH) (US), xix
National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) (US), 341–343
National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), 339–341, 342t, 346–347
National Museum of Australia, 42
National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 341, 342t
native language neural commitment (NLNC), 188–189
native music neural commitment (NMNC), 188–189
natural behavioral indices, 138–139
naturalism, 52
natural play, 62
natural selection, 316, 316f, 317
signals of, 321–322
types of differences in, 323, 325f, 326f
natural statistics, 32, 33
nature, 302–303
vs culture, 93–94
definition of, 49
vs nurture, 281
Nature Deficit Disorder, 75
Neanderthals, 65
negative self-reflection, 204–205, 205f
negativity bias, 165
networks of knowledge, 82
neural activity
cultural context dependence of, 23
decoding, 29–30
encoding, 28–33, 34f
encoding sociocultural statistics into, 33–35
generation of, 28
levels of, 29
during mental stimuli, 23
during physical stimuli, 23
neural code, 29
neural coding
compressive, 32
dense, 31, 31f, 32–33
local, 31, 31f, 33
rate, 29
selective, 32
sparse, 31
synchrony, 29
temporal, 29
neural commitment
native language (NLNC), 188–189
native music (NMNC), 188–189
neural imbalance, 212f, 213
neural tendencies, 25–26
neuroanthropology, 41–55
neurobiology, 212–213
neuroconceptual considerations, 35–37
neurocultural considerations, 33–35
neuroculture interaction, 25
neurodevelopment, socioemotional, 355–369
neurodiversity, 42
neurogenetics research, community-based, 171–181
neuroimaging, 12, 308
neuronal considerations, 30–33
neurophilosophy, 21–39
neuropsychiatric disorders, 355–356
neuroscience. see also cultural neuroscience
and culture, 89–90
current approaches, 243–245
epigenetics and, 306–310
human, 306–310
social-affective, 135–139
neurotransmitter genes, 320, 321–330. see also gene(s); specific genes
behavioral correlates, 326, 327t–328t
evolution of, 315–336, 324t, 325f, 325t
neutral theory, 317–318
Newsweek, 11
Newton, Isaac, 61
next-generation sensors, 245
niche construction, 82–83, 95
No Child Left Inside movement, 75
norms
cultural, 123
learning, 81, 82f
North Americans, 286, 290
not sensing, 45–46
NR3C1 gene, 303
Nurenberg rallies, 67
Nuu-chah-nulth First Nation, 173
Obeyesekere, Gananath, 10
objects
attention to, 157
cognitive processing of, 157
memory for, 156–157
observational learning, 84, 85f, 90–91
obstacle sense, 43
OCAP (ownership, control, access, and possession) principles, 173–175
Ogawa, Seiji, 330
Olympic Games, 183
1000 Genomes Project, 321, 331–332
On Growth and Form (Thompson), 63–64
On the Origins of Species (Darwin), 318
OppNet Program (NIH), xix
OPRM1 gene, 320
orientation
cultural, 163–164
social dominance, 255–256
origin stories, 176–177
other-race effects, 191, 224
ownership, control, access, and possession (OCAP) principles, 173–175
ownership of genes, 178, 179
own-race bias, 191
OXTR gene, 261
oxytocin (OXT), 306, 364
oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), 282, 284, 286, 287, 332, 364
DNA methylation of, 301, 301f, 302, 302f, 306, 308–309
future research directions, 290
Pacific Islanders, 52, 62–63, 62t
pain
biomarkers of, 272
(p. 390)
cultural neuroscience of, 273–274
physical experiences of, 272–273
population health disparities in, 271
sensitivity to, 320
treatment of, 274
Pakistanis, 7
Pandora, 185
Panksepp, Jaak, 65–66
pantomime, ritual, 70
paratelic (playful thought), 61
parenting, 162, 360–365
pathogenic/disease threats, 252–253
perception
of body expression, 223–224
cultural context dependence of, 23
face, 224–227
performance, 66–67
perseveration, 85
persistence, 326, 328t
personal environment, 283
personal health, 185
personality-related behavior patterns, 326, 328t
personality traits, 123–126
personal well-being, 185
personhood, 11
person identity, 224–225
Peruvians, 229
phenotypic differences, 360
physical contact, 361–362
physical pain experiences, 272–273
Pink, Sarah, 47
Pinker, Steven, 318
pitfalls, 145–146
Plato, 58, 144
Platonic constraints, 63–64, 64f
Platonic selection, 64
play, 62–63, 66
childhood, 75
natural, 62
pretend, 61, 72–74, 73f
role-play, 68–69, 73–74, 73f
play and display hypothesis, 59
playful thought (paratelic), 61
policy, 291–293
political conservatism, 255
polymorphic populations, 95–96
popular music, 185
population CpGs, 301–302
population health, 245
population health disparities, xix–xx, 217–219, 339–369
cultural neuroscience model of, 271–272
in pain, 271
population mental health, 351–353
positive parenting, 364
positive selection, 316, 316f, 319
positivism, logical, 144, 291
positivity bias, 164–165
possibility worlds, 75
posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), 147, 162–163
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 145–146
praxis, 8
precuneus, 72, 72f
prediction error, 86–87, 91
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
activation of, 124–125
dorsolateral (DLPFC), 215, 216, 216f, 217f
medial (mPFC), 146–147, 162–163, 199, 200–205, 200f, 201f, 204f, 205f
right ventrolateral (rVLPFC), 124–126, 125f
ventrolateral (VLPFC), 124
prejudice, 255, 257
presenilin-1 gene (PS1), 166–167, 172, 176
Presidential Proclamation 6158, 330
pretend play, 61
introjective, 73–74, 73f
projective, 72–73, 73f
primates, nonhuman, 238–239
priming cultural orientation, 163–164
privacy, 178–179
probability, transitional, 188
projective mimesis, 67
projective pretend play, 72–73, 73f
Protestant work ethic, 57, 58, 63
pruning, 65–66
psychiatric anthropology, 52
psychiatric disorders, 36–37
psychiatry, 35–37, 97
psychological realism, 244
psychological tendencies, 5
psychopathology
acculturative stress and, 250–251
correlates, 347
cultural differences in, 340–341
discrimination and, 250–251
immigration processes and, 344–345
prevalence of, 343–351
psychopaths, 256–257
psychosocial resources, 123–124
psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), 250
public health policy, 291–293
pulse-to-echo gaps, 44
Qlearning, 88
quantification of culture, 183–194
questionnaires, 7
race
concept of, 223–224
and face perception, 224–227
and facial expressions, 225–227
and individual variability, 301–302
and pain, 272–273
and person identity, 224–225
and social interactions, 229
racial biases, 230, 274
racial constructs, 145
racial discrimination, 250–251, 273–274
racial identification, 146–147
racism, 264
rate coding, 29
rational medicine, 145
rational thought, 132–133, 132f
realism, 244
reasoning, 291, 326, 328t
reductionism, 145
reinforcement learning, 83–89, 85f, 96, 99
relativism, 145
relearning, 94–95
religious ecstatics, 10
Rescorla-Wagner model, 87
research
community-based, 171–181
cultural considerations for, 178
cultural differences in, 5–68
cultural neuroscience, xix, 5–8, 147–149
cultural studies, 83–89, 136
elders in, 178
ethical, 173, 175
First Nation, 176
future directions, 274, 289–291, 330–332, 365
gene × culture, 285–293
genetic, 176, 178
health disparity, 310
human studies, 304–306
incidental findings, 178–179
with indigenous communities, 175
mental health service utilization studies, 346–347
molecular, 315–336
neurogenetics, 171–181
reinforcement learning and, 83–89
self-determination applied to, 174–175
self-reflection studies, 197–208
researcher responsibilities, 179
resources, cultural, 209–221
retinitis pigmentosa, 177
reversal learning, 84, 85, 85f
reward activation, 213–214, 214f
reward processing, 242
right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC), 124
activity (Δoxy-Hb) in, 124–126, 125f
interdependent self-construal and, 125–126, 125f
social pain and, 124–125, 125f, 126
right-wing authoritarianism, 253, 255
risk, 89–90
risk genes, 281
risk processing, 88–89
risk taking
adolescent, 209–222, 211f, 213f, 215f
familial influence on, 209–222, 214f
family obligation and, 217–218, 218f
neural sensitivity to, 214–215, 215f
rewards of, 216
rites of passage, 60–61
(p. 391) ritual pantomime, 70
rituals, 59–60, 185
Rivers, W. H. R., 46
Roepstorff, Andreas, 42
role-play, 68–69, 73–74, 73f
sadness, 228–229
San people, 47
schema, 95
schizophrenia, 230
schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 349
school-related behaviors, 326, 327t
Schwartz, Theodore, 51
Scotland, 74
secondary altriciality, 66
second-order conditioning, 87
Secwepemc First Nation, 177
selection
cultural, 317
differences in, 323, 325f, 326f
natural, 317, 321–322
positive, 316, 316f, 319
signals of, 321–322
selective coding, 32
self, 11, 163
self-awareness, 67–68, 326, 328t
self-concept, 23, 197–199, 202–203, 291
self-construal, 6–8, 108, 125–126, 125f, 163
Self-Construal Scale (SCS), 199
and amygdalar responses to objects with negative emotional valence, 109–118, 110f, 112f, 112t, 114f, 114t, 115f, 115t
and depression and social anxiety, 115–116
self-control, 215, 216f
self-determination, 174–175
self-directedness, 326, 328t
self-domestication, 329
self-esteem, 241
self-evaluation, positive, 241
self-expression, 75
self-face recognition, 198
selfishness, 58, 64–65
self-reference effects, 198
self-referential network, 162–163
self-referential processing, 163, 199, 200–201, 200f
self-reflection
cultural differences in, 200–206, 200f, 201f, 204f
negative, 204–205, 205f
neural correlates of, 198–202, 200f, 203–206, 205f
studies of, 197–208
self-relevance, 160–162
self-relevant memory, 162–163
self-relevant processing, 163, 166
self-sculpting brain, 65–67
self-transcendence, 326, 328t
Seligman, Rebecca, xix
sensitivity differences, 359–360
sensory enculturation, 41–55
sensory experience, 46–49, 203–204
Serbians, 229
Seremetakis, Nadia, 47
serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), 117, 122–123, 122f, 363–364
serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) genes, 322–326, 324t
serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2A), 284
serotonin transporter (5-HTT), 121–128, 307
serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), 307
evidence for recent selection of, 322–323, 324t, 326
future questions, 126
and impulsivity under aversive contexts, 122f, 123
and maintaining cultural norms, 123
promoter region polymorphism 5-HTTLPR, 96, 108, 116, 121–122, 147, 204–206, 205f, 259–261, 263, 264, 281, 284–287, 289, 292–293, 320, 330, 351, 363–364
and risk for depression and anxiety, 123
variations, 121–122
sexual modesty, 68–69
Sherif, Muzafer, 240
shyness, 358
signal transduction, social, 281–282
Similarities and Differences with Family and Friends (SDFF) task, 113
simulation theory, 70–71
Singaporeans, 157, 158
single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 306, 317, 326, 327t–328t, 329–330, 332
situated brain, 12–13, 17
situational factors, 46
skin color, 318
skin-to-skin contact, 361–362
SLC6A4 gene, 121–122, 259
small-scale societies, 239–240
Smith, Peter, 51
Snow, C. P., 318
social-affective neuroscience, 135–139
social affective processing, 129–131
social anxiety, 115–116
social anxiety disorder (SAD), 117
social awareness, 62–63, 68, 69t
social behavior, 302–306
social bonding/affiliation, 261–262
social categories, 3–20
social cognition, 197–234
social contexts, 34–35, 157–158
social contract, 59
social determinants, 13–16, 291
social displays, 59
conventional, 68–69
development of, 66–70, 69t
functions of, 66–67
implicit, 67
introjective mimetic, 67
mapping of, 70–71
modes of, 67–69
projective mimetic, 67
types of, 66–67, 69
social dominance orientation, 255–256, 273
social emotion, 132–133, 132f
cultural neuroscience of, 129–142
embodiment during, 133–135
integrated cultural and neuroscientific perspectives on, 139
social environment, 282–283
social exclusion, 123, 124–125, 125f
social exclusion effects, 351
social family, 177–178
social group competition, 242
social groups, 240, 241
social identity theory, 241
social intelligence hypothesis, 58
social intent, 308
social interactions, 229–230
sociality, 260
socialization, 82–83, 95, 96–97, 240
social learning, 90–92, 96
and psychiatry, 97
threat-based, 256–259
social minds, 131–135
social mirror theory, 59, 70–71
social pain, 273–274
impact of, 123–125, 125f
regulation of, 124–125, 125f, 126
social resources, 123–124
social science, cultural, 135–139
social self, 163
social signal transduction, 281–282
social status, 9–10, 350
sociobiology, 316
sociocultural statistics, 33–35
socioemotional neurodevelopment, 355–369
soft individualism, 51
softmax action selection rule, 88
somatization, 289, 340–341
sonar, flash, 42, 45
song-and-dance display, 66
source memory, 158–159
South Africa, 143–151, 144t
South African miners, 47
South Americans, 273
South Asians, 7
sparse coding, 31
sparseness, 31
speech, 59–60
Spencer, Herbert, 47
spirit possession, 10–11
Sri Lankans, 10, 228
stacked oranges, 63–64, 64f
statistical learning, 188
statistics, 32–35
(p. 392) stereotypes, 96–97, 230
stigma, mental illness, 349
stimulus control, 85
Stoller, Paul, 47
Stone Age, 316
strategic interactions, 91–92
stress, 356–357
acculturative, 250–251, 344
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 145–146
sensitivity to, 360
stress reactivity, 287, 360
stress response, 303
Stress Response System (SRS), 359–360
Stromberg, Peter, 10
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), 341, 345, 346
subcultural groups, 52–53
subjective social status (SSS), 350
substance abuse, 211–212, 211f, 347–349
substance disorders, 342–343, 342t, 347–348
success, 10
suicide rates, 117
Suku people, 47
Sumerian Warrior Story (SWS) task, 113
superior temporal sulcus (STS), 282
support seeking, 286
surprise, 227
Switzerland, 241
symbolic smorgasbord, 10
synaptic proliferation and pruning, 65–66
synchrony coding, 29
Syria, 131–133, 132f
Tahltan First Nation, 173n
Taijin Kyofusho (TKS), 117
Tajfel, Henri, 240
Taq1A single nucleotide polymorphism, 93
Tart, Charles, 69
taxonomic categorization, 159
technology, next-generation, 245
telic (goal-directed thought), 61
temporal coding, 29
temporal difference (TD) errors, 87
temporal difference (TD) learning, 87–88
temporoparietal junction (TPJ), 163, 200–201, 200f, 256
terminology, 84–86
Texas-Mexico border region, 186
Thatcherization, 224
theater of mind, 68, 73–74
theoretical approaches and models, 136
theory of mind (ToM), 68
therapy, music, 191
Thompson, D’Arcy, 63–64, 64f
thought, 132–133, 132f
threat(s)
adaptive responses to, 250, 250f
climate-related threats, 253
collectively shared, 264
competitive/economic threats, 254
external, 250, 250f
genes that contribute to management of, 259–261
and group processes, 250–254, 250f, 254–262
harm/exploitation, 253–254
as opportunities for intergroup cohesion and cooperation, 263–264
pathogenic/disease threats, 252–253
response to, 261–262
threat-based ideologies, 255–256
threat-based social learning, 256–259
tight culture, 94
tight society, 123, 126
tissue-specific DNA methylation, 300
Tlicho Nation, 177
Toraja people, 9
Torres Straits Expedition, 46
Torres Straits Islanders, 47
traditional cultures, 356
transcription factor GATA1, 282
transgenerational effects, 14–15, 15f
transitional probability, 188
transitional space, 61
trauma
historical, 14–15, 15f
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 145–146
tribal stigma, 253
tricks, 66
Tri-Council Policy Statement 2 (TCPS2), 173
trust, general, 123–125, 125f
trust game, 91
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), 148
Turkish art music, 187
Turks, 160
Turner, Robert, xix, xx
Turner, Victor, 47, 59, 61, 75
Umeda people, 47
uncertainty: responses to, 81–83, 97–99
unconditioned stimuli, 84
United Kingdom
National Curriculum, 62, 63, 74
psychiatric symptoms in, 117
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 174–175
United States
anthropology research, 11
autism in, 62–63, 62t
children, 363
embodiment during social emotion in, 133–135
emotional memory, 165
emotional regulation of children, 363
intergroup conflict in, 245
major ethnic minority groups, 340
mental disorders in, 341–343, 342t, 347–348
mental health service use, 346
psychiatric symptoms in, 117
racial identification in, 146–147
suicide rate in, 117
University of British Columbia Hospital Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders (UBCH-CARD), 172
values, cultural, 107–120
van Gennep, Arnold, 60–61
variable interval schedule, 86
variable ratio schedule, 86
ventral striatum (VS)
activation during family tasks, 214, 214f, 216, 217f
activation during risk taking, 214–215, 215f
ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), 124–126, 125f
Vietnamese Americans, 348
Vikram, 42
vision, face, 43
visual cortex, 44
vos Savant, Marilyn, 317
Wallace, Alfred Russell, 317
warfare, 245
warm parenting, 364
WEIRD (Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic) populations, 42, 272, 280
well-being, 185, 206
Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) populations, 42, 272, 280
Western art music, 187
Western cultures, 6, 7
Western emoticons, 225–226
Westerners
categorization by, 159
memory, 162, 164–166
neural activity during physical stimuli, 23
overlapping representation of self and close others, 202–203
self-concept, 198
self-referential network, 163
self-reflection, 206
self-relevant processing, 160–161, 163, 166
Western Europeans, 228
Western individualism, 58, 63
whanau (extended family), 179
White Americans
amygdalar response to human faces, 116–117
life expectancy, 288–289
racial identification, 146–147
(p. 393) Whitehead, Charles, 59
Whites, 6
autism, 62–63, 62t
empathic processing, 274
pain treatment for, 274
Williams syndrome, 230
work ethic, 57, 58, 63
World Access for the Blind, 42, 43, 46, 52–53
World Health Organization (WHO), 291
World Mental Health Survey Initiative Version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), 341, 345, 346
Wundt, Wilhelm, 46
xenophobia, 239
xenophobic aggression, 238
Xhosa population, 224
yawning, contagious, 238–239
Young, J. Z., 64
youth, 135, 136f. see also adolescence
Youth Risk Behavior Survey Questionnaire, 211
YouTube, 185
Yukaghirs, 52
Zengzi, 197
Zhang, Shi-Ying, 197