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date: 04 August 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Culture defines how groups, and the individuals situated within them, conceptualize and navigate relationships with in-group and out-group members. How diversity in these group processes and their neural substrates emerge remains an open question. Diversity in intergroup processes may have arisen from perceived threats from the environment. Groups in environments that present greater collective uncertainties and threats may have been more likely to adopt shared norms, practices, and institutions that promote and reinforce cohesion, coordination, and the prioritization of the welfare of in-groups over out-groups—contributing to cultural diversity in intergroup bias. This cultural diversity is proposed to be supported by differential pressure across environments on neurobiological systems that regulate responsiveness to threats and facilitate affiliation with in-groups. These two processes may mutually reinforce and co-construct one another, functioning to translate perceived threats from the environment into the cultural variations observed in the neural and behavioral manifestations of intergroup bias.

Keywords: Gene × environment, prejudice, discrimination, intergroup conflict, bias

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