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date: 13 August 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Studies in small-scale societies and nonhuman primates demonstrate evidence of xenophobia and xenophilia as basic responses to strangers. These studies highlight a cultural universal among social animals during interpersonal interaction: Group distinctions matter. We review the literature of small-scale societies and nonhuman primates, comparing them to the human social psychological literature on minimalist intergroup behavior in an attempt to delineate cognition, affect, and behavior common to intergroup contexts. In the process, we redefine culture, making it amenable to specific social groups and social contexts. We discuss the limitations of these comparisons—specifically, highly variable technological approaches, experimental environments, and paradigms. We then look forward to next-generation neuroscience technologies currently being developed that could facilitate comparison across human cultural context and cross-species in ecologically valid, unconstrained, nonlaboratory environments. We conclude by discussing the implications of these technologies for cultural neuroscience and global health.

Keywords: Cultural neuroscience, global health, technological paradigms, intergroup processes, nonhuman primates

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