Abstract and Keywords
This section considers the introduction of Chinese writing to Vietnam and subsequent literary activity in Vietnam using Literary Chinese. It notes that no book printed before 1697 has survived, although printing began in Vietnam centuries earlier, and not a single ancient manuscript either. It traces the development of Chinese prose and poetry written by Vietnamese, including some women poets, and the impact of the development of the vernacular script chữ nôm. Although the contours of the practice are not yet well understood, at least by the eighteenth century it had become increasingly common to combine Chinese texts with vernacular translations or explanations to facilitate understanding.
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