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date: 29 March 2020

(p. 669) Index

(p. 669) Index

Abant Browser, 494
ability awareness, 213
Aboriginal peoples, 15
“Abraham, Martin, and John,” 409–410
Abrahamic faiths, 8–9
Abrahams, Frank, 136n5
Abramo, Joseph, 551–552
Abreu, José Antonio, 570, 574
Abreu Fellows, 573
Abril, Carlos, 120, 245
Abu Zubaydah, 238
academicization, 424
acceptance, 396
access
to education, 69
as equity, 73, 120
to expression, 475
Internet access, 475, 479
to justice, 12
to music education, 461–462
accordion, 639
Accordion Dreams (Galán), 639
Accordion Kings & Queens Live (Garza), 638
Action, Criticism and Theory, 39
active teaching methods, 83–84
activism, 430
activities
collaborative, 173–189
disability content in, 213
extracurricular, 433
learning, 563
that counter social exclusion, 509
Addams, Jane, 667
added value, 58, 70
additive approach, 280–281
Adler, Mortimer, 8
Adolescent Healthrhythms, 603t
adolescents. see youth
adultism, 222
Advanced Level (A Level) examinations, 488–490
advocacy, 58, 399
aesthetics, 70, 435, 503–505, 575
affective equality, 359
affective inequality, 361
affirmation, cultural, 468
affirmative action, 15, 22
African-American bands, 141–142
African Americans, 40–41, 193, 407–409, 503–504
African-American spirituals, 281
African drums, 275, 407
African National Congress (ANC), 618, 621, 625–626
Africans, 281
Africville, 193, 202n3
Afrikaans, 624, 626
Agamben, Giorgio, 331
ageism, 222
aggression, 240
“Ain’t Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me Round,” 410
Al Baath Arab Voices of Galilee, 506–507
Alim, H. Samy, 417
Alinsky, Saul, 112
allocentrism, 158
“All of Me,” 147
All Our Futures (NACCCE), 324
Allsup, Randall, 19, 483
(p. 670) alternative education, 614–630
alternative music pedagogies, 348
Amampondo, 626
Amandla! A Revolution in Four Part Harmony, 620, 624
Amandla Cultural Ensemble, 625–626
“Amazing Grace,” 505
Ambassador Band program (Mitrovica Rock School), 363
American Association of Creative Musicians (AACM), 330
American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 109
American culture, 36–37
Americanization, 35, 634
American Sociological Association (ASA), 416
AMPED program, 610n3
Amsterdam Music School, 368
Anantawan, Adrian, 214
Andrade, Jeff Duncan, 417
anti-bullying programs, 228
anti-Japanese songs, 96
Antiwar Era, 409–410
Anyon, Jean, 151
Anzaldua, Peter, 638–641
apartheid: struggle against, 614–618, 625–626
aporetic experiences, 331
Apple Michael, 476–477
appreciative inquiry, 394–396
apprenticeship, 59
Aquinas, Thomas, 264
Arab Israeli Galilee music program, 506–509, 664
Arabs. see Palestinians
Arab Spring, 414
Arendt, Hannah, 253, 257–262, 266, 269nn1–2, 663
“Aria senza acompagnamento” (Lamb), 126
Aristotle, 16–17
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 330
Arnstine, Donald, 10
Aronson, Pamela, 133
Aróstegui, José Luis, 4–5
art(s)
graffiti art (tagging), 411
of living with difference, 380–382
mass art, 95–96
as means toward moral development, 22–23
standardization as enemy of, 110–112
artist-entrepreneurs, 332n4
artistic citizenship, 19
artistic creativity, 319
art music, 437
“Arts and the Adolescent” project (Schools Council), 289–290
arts education, 86, 130, 518, 600, 610
Arts Evidence Library, 601, 604
“Asian Hero” (Yazhou Xiongfeng) (Peidong), 97
Asperger’s syndrome, 209
assessment(s), 513–524
formative, 513–515, 520–521
indicators of socially just music classroom, 428
ipsative, 521
key questions to ask, 518
with principles of social justice, 521–522
self-assessment, 521
standardized, 79–80
summative, 513–515
assimilation, 37–38
associations, 128
asylum seekers, 174–175
at-risk youth, 600–601
Atterbury, Betty, 126–127
Auburn Correctional Facility (New York), 560–561
Augustus Victoria Church, 508
“Auld Lang Syne,” 98
Australia
asylum seekers, 174–175
citizenship education, 37–38
collaborative music activities, 173–189
education reform, 65
Harmony Day, 180, 187n5
income inequality, 503
Multicultural Policy, 175
music teacher education, 647, 648t–651t, 652–655
newly arrived immigrants, 174–175
refugees, 174–175
Australian Children's Music Foundation, 606t
Australian Education Index (AEI), 645–646
authority, 329
Ayah, 414
Ayers, William, 554
Al Baath Arab Voices of Galilee, 506–507
Babbitt, Milton, 595
“Baby Love,” 410
bajo sexto, 636–637, 639
Baker, Ella, 409–410
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 289
Baldwin, James, 417
Ballantyne, Julie, 552–553
Ballard, Hank, 408
Bambaataa, Afrika (Kevin Donovan), 411–412
banda, 637
banking model, 303, 311
Banks, James, 37–38, 278–279, 283–284, 284n1, 663
Bantu Radio, 619–620
Barenboim, Daniel, 545–546
Baroque Italian opera, 20–21
Barrett, Janet, 552–553
barrios, 579n5
Bates, Daisy, 409–410
Batuta program, 571
Bauman, Zygmunt, 373, 663
b-boying (break dancing), 99–100, 411
beauty, 212
Beethoven, 214
Benchley, Robert, 488
Benedict, Cathy, 12, 253
Benhabib, Seyla, 10–11
Bergh, Arild, 545
Bergonzi, Louis, 121, 244
Bernstein, Basil, 288, 634, 663
best practices, 58, 68
Bey, Yasiin, 413, 416
Beyoncé, 181
Run the World (Girls), 584, 587–590, 592–593
Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It), 587
Beyond Beats and Rhymes, 412
bias
guidelines for reducing, 210
ideological, 474
male, 242
teachers’, 312
Biesta, Gert, 347–348, 663
Big Punisher (Big Pun), 413
Biko, Stephen (Steve), 624–625
biological-determined musicality, 342
Birge, E. B., 30
Black, Paul, 514
Black Consciousness Movement, 622
Black holocaust, 407–408
Black music, 407–410
“Black President” (Twala and Fassie), 627
Black radio, 408
Blair, Tony, 545
Blige, Mary J., 412
Blow, Kurtis, 413
Blue Ivy, 587
blues music, 408
“Blurred Lines” (Thicke), 594
Boal, August, 450–452
boat people, 174–175
Bocelli, Andreas, 214
boleros, 636
border crossing, 664
Borges, Ximena, 571
Bosnia-Herzegovina, 363, 366
Boss, Steff, 621
Boston University, 450–452
Botstein, Leon, 567
Bourdieu, Pierre, 255, 343–345, 348–349, 353
Bowie, David, 493
Bowman, Wayne, 328, 476–477
Bradley, Deborah, 120–121, 242–243
Brand, Dollar (Abdullah Ibrahim), 622
brass band funerals, 152n7
brass band musicians, 153n11
Brazil, 50–51, 304
break beat, 411
break dancing (b-boying), 99–100, 411
Breakin’, 99–100
Breines, Winifred, 333n13
British Deaf Band Tour, 207
Brown, James, 408, 410–411
Brown, Ray, 146
Brown v. Board of Education, 213
Buddhism, 16
bullying, 211, 228
Burnard, Pamela, 255
Burroughs, William S., 493
(p. 672) Bush, George W., 153n16, 545
Butler, Judith, 240
“Bye Bye Miss American Pie” (McLean), 409–410
Byerly, Ingrid, 617
California, 156
California University of Pennsylvania, 416
C.A.L.M., 330
Cambridge Review (Alexander), 56
Campaign for Preserving China’s Ethnic Folk Songs, 98
Campbell, Clive “DJ Kool Herc,” 411
Campbell, Mark, 482
Campbell, Patricia S., 254
Canada
Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 124, 137n14
citizenship education, 37–38
education reform, 65
music education, 343, 461
racism, 193
restorative justice, 556–557
Canon (Pachelbel), 491
“Can’t Hurry Love,” 410
Cantonese popular songs, 99
capability, 311–312, 478
Cape Town Philharmonic Orchestra, 626
capital, 344
cultural, 341, 345–347
musical, 341, 348–353
pedagogical, 341, 348–353
subcultural, 360
capitalism, global, 259–260
“Capital Punishment” (Big Punisher), 413
Caputo, John, 448
Caputo, Virginia, 126–127
Cardboard Citizens New Music Ensemble, 330
caring music instruction, 166–167, 268, 359, 569–570
Carnegie Hall, 599, 604–605, 607t, 608–609
Carter, Sean (Jay-Z), 181, 413, 482, 587
castrati, 20–21
Cathedral choirs, 20–21
Cayuga Community College, 560
CD decks, 491
Ceilidh (Ireland), 543
celebration, musical, 307
Cell I, 330
Champaign County Juvenile Detention Center Arts Project, 610n3
Chan, Jackie, 97
Chang, Angela, 94–95
Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Canada), 124, 137n14
charter schools, 59n1
Chicago Symphony Orchestra, 599, 610n2
children, 332n1
Latino, 120, 156–172
left-behind, 449–450
National Children’s Traditional Culture Festival (China), 101
in poverty, 340
superchildren, 324
children's rights, 16, 23–24, 504
“The Child’s Bill of Rights in Music” (MENC), 36
China Conservatory, 449
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 101
Chinese Dream (Zhongguo Meng), 5, 101–102
Chinese flute, 97
Chinese identity, 96
Chinese musical instruments, 97
Chinese nationalism, 97–98
choice, 69–70
choirs
Cathedral, 20–21
examples, 502
prison, 560, 664
choral music, 501–512, 560
Chou, Jay, 94, 97, 102n1
Christianity, 16–17, 543
Christians, 506–509
Chuck D, 413
Church of England, 20–21
citizenship, 32, 36, 92, 383
artistic, 19
democratic, 91
global, xv, 91–92, 99–100
multicultural, 99–100
multiple, 91–106
musical, 91–92
responsible, 101
(p. 673) citizenship education, 37–38, 91–98, 100–101, 663
City College of New York, 416
civic culture, 52
civilizing approach, 462
Civil Rights movement, 22, 125, 273–274, 284, 409–410, 622–623, 660
Clapton, Eric, 97–98
Clark, Septima, 409–410
classical liberalism, 66–67
classical music, 576–577
teaching, 84
classical musical instruments, 97, 439
classification, 292
classism, 222
classroom(s), 131–134. see also education; teaching
classroom management, 265–266, 563–564
classroom music, 415–417, 433, 639–640
Clegg, Johnny, 626
Code of Hammurabi, 14
Coetzee, Basil, 622
Cohen, Mary, 454, 551
Coke La Rock, 411
Colbert, Stephen, 71
Coleman, Satis N., 318
collaboration, 321, 451–452, 666–667
between choirs, 507–508
in classroom, 564
between communities, 508–509
in decision-making, 58
intercultural projects, 364–366
for young refugees and immigrants, 173–189
collaborative inquiry, 384
collectivism, 93–96, 264, 360
Colombia, 571
colonialism, 193, 198–201, 554–555, 575
color-blindness, 121, 160–161, 168n3, 196–198
Colwell, Richard, 19
commodification, 238
Common Core standards, 11
common-sense practices, 259–260
common welfare, 12–13
communal perspectives, 321
communications technology, 475–476
Communist Party of China (CPC), 95–96
communitarianism, 19
community empowerment, 398
Community Heartsong, 509
community music, 446–455, 454n5
Community Music movement, 283
community of practice, 518
community-oriented schools, 50
community outreach or participation, 573, 605
community partnerships, 58
commutative justice, 13, 19–20
“Companion Species” (Haraway), 150
compassion, 452
competencies, 332n6
complexity, 436–437
compliance, surface, 394
composition, 475–476, 480–482
comprehensive approach, 466–469
compulsory education, 86–87
computer-assisted composition, 475–476, 480–482
computer software, 478–479, 519
co-musicians, 261
conduct, 8–9
conductors, 242
conduit metaphor, 294
conferencing, 556–557
conflict, 545–546
conflict resolution, 11–12, 556–557, 563–564
Confucianism, 92, 96
Confucius, 92, 95
Confucius Institute Project, 95
Conjunto Festival (La Joya School District), 638–639
conjunto music, 631–632, 636–640
conscientization, 313, 424, 460
conscious rap, 412
constructivist pedagogy, 475–476
consumer-friendly schools, 67
consumerism, 475–479
content-based practice, 84–85
content integration, 278
contextualization, 479–483
contributions approach, 279–280
contributive justice, 13
Cooke, Sam, 408
core music education, 318–339
Cornell, Drucilla, 454n1
Cornell University, 416, 560
Corney, Laura, 176–177
correctional facilities
juvenile detention centers, 598–613, 664
Cortes, Carlos E., 284n1
cosmopolitan citizenship, 99. see also global citizenship
cosmopolitan identity, 376
Costantino, Tracie E., 129
Cotton Club, 411
“Country” (Guojia), 97
crack funerals, 144
Crane School of Music, State University of New York at Potsdam, 648t
The Creative Age: Knowledge and Skills for the New Economy (Seltzer and Bentley), 323–324
creative industries, 321–322
Creative Music for Children (Coleman), 318
creative music movement, 480
creatives, 321–322
creative spaces, 397
creativity, 368
artistic, 319
diverse, 361–369
empathic, 359–360
historical, 360
intercultural, 359–360
investment theory of, 319
modernist, 319
in music education, 324–327
and natural development, 332n1
profitable, 328
psychological, 360
creativity discourse, 327–328
creativity movement, 432t
Creole, 141, 152n8
Cris and Holly, 148
crisis: pedagogy of, 229
criteria, 518
critical approach, 465–466
critical awakening, 666–667
criticality
indicators of socially just music classroom, 429–430
critical pedagogy, 441, 443–444, 535–536
“Critical Perspectives on Music, Education, and Religion” conference, 24
critical reflection, 398, 525–538
on historical contexts, 530–531, 530t, 531t
issues to consider, 530, 530t
opportunities for, 530–531, 531t, 532, 533t, 536
on political contexts, 530, 530t, 532, 533t
on social contexts, 530, 530t, 532–535
for social justice, 528–530, 529f, 530, 530t
critical theory, 33
cross-fade mixers, 491
Cuarón, Alfonso, 140
Cuban Americans, 168n1
Cuellar, Juan Antonio, 571
cultural affirmation, 468
cultural capital, 341, 345–347
cultural differences, 328–329, 361
cultural diversity, 275, 376–379
cultural genocide, 193
cultural identity, 374–375, 642
cultural imperialism, 34, 239–240
cultural industries, 321–322
culturalist approach, 463
cultural justice, 32–33, 37, 120, 175, 178
culturally relevant pedagogy, 201, 255, 415
culturally responsive teaching, 74, 160–167
cultural pluralism, 35
cultural policy, 9–10, 50
cultural practice, 457–459
cultural production approach, 466–469
cultural recognition, 178–179, 185
Cultural Revolution, 93
cultural struggle, 595
cultural transformation, 576–577
cultural Whiteness, 200–201
culture
American, 36–37
civic, 52
definition of, 341–342, 373–374
disability, 207–208
(p. 675) El Sistema as, 574–577
empowering, 279
Latino, 165
music, 274
of performativity, 321
popular, 582–597
of power, 102
reality of, 373
culture dances, 178
cumbia dance, 636, 639–640
curriculum, 165–166, 639–640
Banks’s levels of reform, 279, 283–284
colonizing effects of, 198–201
conjunto in, 639–640
consumers of, 295
disability content in, 213–214
economy-based, 4–5, 79–81, 86
El Sistema, 576
equity in, 631–643
“hidden curriculum,” 23
indicators of socially just music classroom, 428
makers of, 295
responding to Latino populations through, 165–166
responsive, 165–166, 493–494
socially just, 81
subjects of, 433
“Cyborg” (Haraway), 150
Cyrus, Miley, 594
Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, 22
Dalcroze approach, 158–159, 495
dance, 183–185, 407, 627
break dancing (b-boying), 99–100, 411
cumbia, 636, 639–640
soukous, 181, 184
“Dancing in the Streets,” 410
Dangerous Minds, 412
danzones, 636
Darrow, Alice-Ann, 121, 240–241
Darwinism, xii
data crunching, 49
Dayou, Luo, 94
Dead Poets Society, 110, 112–113
Deakin University, 649t–650t
Death Row Records, 413
decentering, 247
decolonization, 576–577
deficit-based practices, 160–161
Definition and Selection of Competencies (DeSeCo) project (OECD), 80
Def Jam Records, 412
“Defying Gravity” (Schwartz), 140
de Jong, Otto, 255, 368
delineated meaning, 307
Delzell, Judith, 126
Delzell, Judith K., 127
de Mayo, Eva, 507, 509
democracy, 107–115, 382–384, 417–418
absolute, 161
apprenticeship in, 59
through difference, 56
music of, 112
participatory, xiii
“The scandal of (musical) democracy” research project, 330
democratic approach, 434
democratic discourse, 427
democratic music, 101–102
democratic musical citizenship, 91
democratic practice, 582
democratization, 519–520
Xiaoping, Deng, 93
Denver, John, 97–98
de-politicization, 479–483
de Quadros, André, 450–452, 546
Derrida, Jacques, 331, 447, 454n1, 595n1
Desai, Manisha, 125, 133–135
“The Descendants of the Dragon” (Long De Chuanren) (Hou De Jian), 97
de-skilling, 476–477
detention centers, 598–613, 664
Detroit, Michigan, 408–409
developed countries, 340
development, natural, 332n1
Devito, Don, 454
DeWalt, Billie, 132
DeWalt, Kathleen, 132
Dewey, John, xi, xiii, 5–6, 8, 12–13, 19, 35, 91, 114n2, 383, 584, 663
Dhokai, Niyati, 119–120, 123, 131–134, 241–242
dhol drumming, 517
(p. 676) dialogical approach, 289, 296–299
dialogue, 18
Diaoyu Islands, 96
diasporas, 379
didactics of music, 83–84
Dieckmann, Samantha, 176–177
différance, 595n1
difference(s), 119–249, 329
art of living with, 380–382
cultural, 361
democracy through, 56
recognition of, xiv, 469
differentiation by outcome, 306
digital musical instruments, 491–496
digital musicians, 499
Dillon, Steve, 478–479
DIME (Diversion into Music Education), 603t, 604
Disabilities Research and Information Coalition, 210
disability, 204–220
disability culture, 207–208
disability history, 205–206
disability literature, 214
discipline, preventive, 563–564
disc jockeys (DJs), 410–411, 418n2
Discourse, Power and Resistance conference, 491–492
discrimination
gender, 135, 241–242
distance education, 304, 309–313
distinction, 264
distributive justice, 12–13, 32–33
Diversion into Music Education (DIME), 603t, 604
diversity, 109, 204, 584–587
in classroom, 131–134, 429
cultural, 275
dissemination of, 374–375
gender, 221–237
literature review, 645–646
sexual, 221–237
in teacher education, 162–163
divine justice, 16–17
DJ battling, 411
DJ Danger Mouse, 482
DJ-ing (spinning and scratching records), 411–412
DJ Kool Herc (Clive Campbell), 411
DJs (disc jockeys), 410–411, 418n2
Dludlu, Jimmy, 626
docile bodies, 134
Dodd, Clement “Sir Coxsone,” 411
dogma, religious, 14
Dollar Brand (Abdullah Ibrahim), 622
dominant readings, 592
Dominican Americans, 168n1
Donnelly, Mary, 100
Donovan, Kevin (Afrika Bambaataa), 411–412
Dora & Her Zydeco Entourage, 638
Do the Right Thing, 412
Dre, Dr., 413
drum circles, 370
drum kits, 378
“Drumming Grandma,” 594
drums, 275, 407, 517
drum signals, 407
Druze, 506–509
dub, 418n2
DubDubDub player, 491, 494
DubDubDub project, 491–496, 498, 542, 664
DuBois, W. E. B., 192
Dudamel, Gustavo, 571, 573
Duncan, Stuart Paul, 551
Durkheim, Émile, 35
Dylan, Bob, 107
Dyson, Michael Eric, 412, 414
Eaklor, Vicki, 126, 130
Eastern Europe, 95
economics, 73, 80–81
educational, 211
knowledge-based, 65, 80, 85
neoliberal, 65
trickle down, 74
value-added, 58, 65–66, 70
economy-based curriculum, 4–5, 86
music education in, 79–81
music teacher education in, 81–85
ecotones, 397–398
educatee-educators, 305
(p. 677) education. see also music education
access to, 69
alternative, 614–630
arts, 86, 130, 518, 600, 610
assessment of, 79–80
banking model of, 303, 311
Bourdieu and, 344–345
citizenship, 37–38, 91–98, 100–101, 663
compulsory, 86–87
critical of privileging and Othering, 224, 227–229
distance, 304, 309–313
in economy-based curriculum, 81–85
entrepreneurial turn in, 320–321
example projects, 551–667
experiential, 534
free, appropriate, public education (FAPE), 206
general, 161–162
as heteronormative, 223–224
higher, 304
history of, 40
as humanization, 32
human rights in, 50
liberating, 304–306, 399–400
multicultural, 273–274, 278–279, 284n1, 634
music in, 406–419
music teacher, 78–90, 644–657
music technology in, 473–486
negative rights and, 68–71
neoliberal, 63–68, 324
about the Other, 224, 226–227, 460, 463
for the Other, 224–226, 460, 462
performativity-oriented, 323–324
as political, 521
in prisons, 450–452
public, 34
purpose of, 554
queer, 233n20
in South Africa, 614–630
STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics), 662
for students with disabilities, 206–207
that changes students and society, 224, 229–230, 468–469
educational economics, 211
Educational Research for Social Justice (Griffiths), 358
Educational Review, 289–290
Education for all Handicapped Children Act (US), 206
education policy, 49. see also policy
education reform, 5–6, 78–90, 433–434
disability history and, 205–206
GERM (Global Education Reform Movement), 111
neoliberal, 62, 65
educator-educatees, 305
efficacy, 49
Efroni Choir, 507, 546
egalitarianism, 322
Egan v. Canada, 137n14
Egerton High School, 492–493
Eisteddfod (Wales), 543
“Ei Yow (Phata phata)” (Masuka), 620
“Ekhaya Madoda [Feel at home, everyone]” (Foley), 626
elaboration, 325
“El Camaleon” (The Chameleon) (Los Diferentes de la Sierra), 638
Eldridge, Roy, 146
electronically mediated composition, 475, 480–482
elementary school music programs, 158–159
elite knowers, 345–348
elite students, 345
elitism
leveraging, 576
of Western classical tradition, xiii, 70, 434–437, 463–464, 481–482, 515, 517, 567–568
Elle Magazine, 134
Ellington, Duke, 146
Elliott, David, 19
Ellis, Herb, 146
Ellison, Ralph, 598
Ellul, Jacques, 473
(p. 678) El Sistema (Fundación Musical Simón Bolívar), xiii, 39, 462, 542, 552, 567–581, 664
módulos (núcleo subsidiaries), 570
núcleos (free music education centers), 567–568, 570–571, 664
emancipatory discourse, 427, 441
emancipatory justice, 32–33
emcee-ing (MC-ing), 411
Eminem, 413
employability, 490
empowering school culture, 279
EMPOWERING SONG approach, 504–505, 509
empowerment
vs consumerism, 475–479
encouragement of, 392
female, 584, 592
integrated individual- and community-level, 398
music as, 622–623
opportunities for, 400–401
self-empowerment, 390–391, 400–401
social, 400–401
women’s, 587–589
youth, 389–396
encoding/decoding framework
concerns remaining, 594–595
example application, 587–590
limitations and critiques of, 591–594
engagement
as appreciative inquiry, 394–396
in critical reflection, 398
meaningful, 397
social, 326, 545
student, 492–493
surface compliance, 394
transformative, 332n9, 388–405, 558–559
England. see also United Kingdom
education reform, 65
music education, 288–289, 293–296, 426–445, 432t
Office for Standards in Education, 438
English music, 298
enhancement, 428
Enlightenment tradition, 332n2
Ennis Czech Boys, 638
ensembles, 158, 268
enterprise, 66–67
entrepreneurialism, 66–67, 320–323, 332n4
epistemology, 253–419
equal access, 69, 73, 474–475, 479
equality
affective, 359, 361
income inequality, 503
marketizing of, 322
of opportunity, xii
social inequality, 342–348
equitable power sharing, 397–398
equity, 253–256, 261
access as, 120
in classroom, 640–641
through multicultural education, 273–274
social, 640–641
equity pedagogy, 279
ERIC, 645–646
essentialist approach, 463–464
“Establishing Identity: GLBT Studies and Music Education” conference, 20–21
ethics of care, 569–570
ethics of policy, 47–61
ethnic cleansing, 193
ethnic identity, 641
ethnicity, 365
ethnography, institutional, 123–124
eurhythmics, 495
Eurocentrism, 238, 243
European music, 34, 567–568
European Parliament, 80
Europeans, 281
European Union (EU), 65, 79–81, 503
evaluation reports, 287–288
excellence, 65, 80
Exodus (Marley), 298–299
experiential education, 534
experimentation, 328–329
experts, 532
exploitation, 239–240, 319
expression
freedom of, 377–378, 475, 477–478
musical, 517, 620–622
extracurricular activities, 433
eye contact, 505
(p. 679) fairness, xii, 498
Fair Opera, 260
family bands, 637–638
fandoms, 100
Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis (Vaughan Williams), 298
Fassie, Brenda, 627
fear, 136n8, 212
feedback, 520
feedforward, 520–521
feminism, 122–139, 586–587
Ferguson, Jennifer, 626
Fiasco, Lupe, 416
field, 344
Fifth Symphony (Shostakovich), 575
“Fight the Power” (Public Enemy), 412
filial obedience, 95–98
Fillyau, Clayton, 411
Finland, 51, 58, 373–374
Finney, John, 330
First Nations, 135, 193
First Wave, 416–417
fitness, 212
Fitzgerald, Ella, 146
Fitzgibbon, Anne, 577–578
flexibility, 325
“A Flowering Season of a 16-Year Old” (Shiliu Sui Di Huaji), 94–95
fluency, 325
Foley, Jabex, 626
folk music, 366, 543
Afrikaans, 626
conjunto, 631–632, 636–640
Folksinging Together, 107
folk songs, 98, 108
“Follow the Drinking Gourd,” 407
Football World Cup, 186
Forbes, Jack D., 284n1
Forbes magazine, 413
“foreign” music, 35
formalism, 584
formative assessment, 513–515, 520–521
former Yugoslavia, 193
Fou, 97
Foucault, Michel, 50, 134, 591
Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, 109
Fowler, Charles, 19–20
frames of reference, 558
framing, 292, 394–395
Frankfurt school, 322
Fraser, Nancy, 254
free, appropriate, public education (FAPE), 206
freedom, 261
of expression, 377–378, 475, 477–478
from interference, 63
Freedom Charter (South Africa), 621
Freedom from Torture, 366–367
freedom songs, 410, 623
freedom struggle, 614–617, 625–626
free music education centers (núcleos), 567–568, 570, 664
Freer, Patrick, 130, 137n10, 232n18
Freeway, 414
Freire, Paulo, 10–11, 303, 399, 521, 556, 663
Front Page Magazine, 109
frozen metaphors, 294
“Fruits of Chinese Ethnic Folk Song Preservation” press conference, 98
Frye, Marilyn, 243
Fugees, 413
functionalism, 33, 35–37
Fundación Musical Simón Bolívar (El Sistema), xiii, 39, 462, 542, 552, 567–581, 664
funding, 50
funerals
brass band, 152n7
crack, 144
Furious Five, 412
future directions, 283–284
for classical music, 577
for research, 656
for social justice, 658–667
Gabriel, Juan, 632
Gagadgu, 149
Gaita, Raymond, 11
Gala Choruses Inc., 232n14
Galilee, 506–509, 664
Gandhi, Mahatma, 621
gangsta rap, 412
“Gangsta’s Paradise” (Coolio), 412
gaokao (national college entrance examinations), 95
Garage Band, 477–479, 603t
Garcia, Eugene E., 284n1
“Garden Song” (Mallett), 107
Garza, Omar, 638
Gay, Geneva, 284n1
Gay and Lesbian Association (GALA) movement, 502
Gaye, Marvin, 410
gay-straight alliances (GSAs), 232n9
Gaza, 546
Gazamtbide-Fernández, Rubén, 542
Gender and Sexuality Special Research Interest Group (NAME), 39
gender differences, 127, 489–490, 582–597
gender discrimination, 135, 241–242
gender diversity, 221–237
gendered musical instruments, 20–21
gender oppression, 241–242
Gender Research in Music Education (GRIME), 39, 136n7, 137n9
gender roles, 13, 126
General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), 488–490, 495
general education, 161–162
genocide, cultural, 193
Genuine Voice (Boston), 602t, 606t
GERM (Global Education Reform Movement), 111
Ghetto Boys, 410
Gielen, Pascal, 323
Girls in the Band, 153n14
Giroux, Henry, 481
Glee, 208–209
global capitalism, 259–260
global citizenship, xv, 91–92, 99–100
Global Education Reform Movement (GERM), 111
globalization, 99, 131–134, 137n13, 373, 576
globalization discourse, 263
global knowledge economy, 65
global music, 197–198
Godspell, 616
Goethe, Wolfgang. see Individual Education Plans
Goldberg, Morris, 622
“good” music, 434–437, 439
Good Vibrations project, 604, 606t–607t
Gordon, Berry, 408
Gordon approach, 158–159
Gould, Alice, 146–147
Gould, Deborah, 264
Gould, Elizabeth, 120, 128, 244, 248, 454n4
Gould, Liz, 147–148
governance, 53
graffiti art (tagging), 411
Grandmaster Flash (Joseph Saddler), 411–412
Grant, Carl A., 284n1
Gravity, 140
Greater China, 96
Great Leap Forward, 95
great music, 568
“The Great Peace March” (Near), 114
Green, Lucy, 254, 480–481, 542, 562
Greene, Maxine, 12–13, 663
The Grey Album, 482
Griffiths, Morwenna, 358
Group Areas Act (South Africa), 620–621
Growing Up Complete: The Imperative for Music Education (National Commission on Music Education), 19–20
growth-first approach, 71
Guatemalan Americans, 168n1
guitar, jazz, 561
Guitar Concierto de Aranjuez (Rodrigo), 616
Guitar Hero, 477
Gujarat, India, 135
Gu Jianfen, 100
Guthrie, Woody, 107, 585
Gwangwa, Jonas, 625–626
Haaretz, 508
habits of mind, 558, 564
habitus, 344
Haddad, Rahib, 506–509
(p. 681) Hall, Stuart, 663
Hammurabi, 14
Han, 92
handicapism, 210
Haraway, Donna, 150
Harmony Day, 180, 187n5
Harmony Program, 577–578
Harvard University, 416
“Hashtag January 25,” 414
Hassler, Laura, 255, 363–366
Havel, Vaclav, 114
Hawes School (Boston, MA), 34
‘head’ arrangements, 142
“healthy” (jiankang) lifestyle, 94
“healthy” songs, 94–95
hegemony, 517–519
Help Increase the Peace Project (HIPP), 562
Helsinki, Finland, 376–377, 664
heroes, 102n1
heroes-and holidays approach, 279–280
Herzegovina, 363
heteronormative schooling, 223–224
heterosexism, 141, 222–223
Higgins, Lee, 544
higher education, 304
Hildegard of Bingen, 20–21
Hill, Lauryn, 412–413
Hill, Marc Lamont, 417
Hillman, Jamie, 450–452, 504
Hinduism, 16
hip-hop, 410–418
Hiphop Archive, 416
hip-hop therapy (HTT), 601, 602t
Hirsch, E. D., 11
Hispanics, 191, 633–634
historical awareness, 535
historical contexts, 530–531, 530t–531t
historical creativity, 360
history, 3–6, 39–42
of Black music, 407–410
of blues music, 408
disability history, 205–206
educational, 40, 206–207
life histories, 41
of music education, 29–46, 430–433, 432t
oral history, 41–42
of public school music, 30
“Sing and Shout! A History of America in Song” course, 42
of social justice, 430–433
of student voice strategies, 290
Ho, Wai-Chung, 5
Holmgren, Eric, 573
Holocaust, 193
homo economicus, 66–67
homophobia, 222–223, 231
homosexuals, 202n2, 223–224
Hong Kong, 99
honoring youth voices, 392–394
hooks, bell, 129, 555, 663
hope, 113–114, 448, 667
Horizons (Van Dijk), 626
Horner, James, 94–95
Horsley, Stephanie, 4, 108
hospitable approach, 424
hospitable justice, 447–448
hospitable music making, 448–454
hospitality, 268
“hot” playing style, 141–142
Jian, Hou De, 97
Howe, Emily, 504
Howell, Gillian, 454
Howkins, John, 321
Hubbs, Nadine, 230
humanism, 450
human potential, 535
human resources, 81–82
human rights. see rights
Human Rights Action Plan, 50
huqpangos, 636
Hurricane Katrina, 143
“A Hymn to My Motherland” (Gechang Zuguo), 96
Ibrahim, Abdullah (Dollar Brand), 622
Ice T, 412–413
idea-based policy change, 56–57
identification, 379
identity
Chinese, 96
cosmopolitan, 376
ethnic, 641
music as, 624
occupational, 132
self-identity, 557
social, 207–208
student, 375
ideology, 194–198, 465–466, 474
ignorance, 195
imagination, 110–113
immersion experiences, 654
immigrants, 379
collaborative music activities for, 173–189
ethographic research study, 176–177
musical agency, 373–374
music of, 175–176
newly arrived in Australia, 174–177
social participation of, 175–176
Immortal Technique, 416
imperialism, cultural, 34, 239–240
Impressions, 410
improvisation, 261, 368–370, 494–496
inauthenticity, 199–200
incarceration
prison programs, 450–452, 503–505, 542, 559–561
youth detention centers, 598–613, 664
youth studies, 601–604, 602t–603t
inclusion, 56, 329, 428
in music education, 288, 429, 525–538
social, 120
inclusivity, 543–544
income inequality, 503
independence, 350
“Independent Lens” (PBS), 412
India, 503
Indiana Arts Coalition, 20
Individual Education Plans (IEPs), 214
individualism, 93–94, 96, 332n3, 332n6
individual-level empowerment, 398
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) (US), 206, 211
inequality
affective, 361
income, 503
social, 342–348
informal learning, 254, 302–317
informal music pedagogy, 304–306, 309–313, 348–353
infra-instruments, 494, 497
injustice
cycles of, 340–356
institutionalized, 503
social, 3, 121
innovation, 626–627
“Innovation Strategy” (OECD), 80
inquiry
appreciative, 394–396
collaborative, 384
inquiry-based approach, 384
institutional ethnography, 123–124
institutional injustice, 503
institutionalization
of creativity discourse, 327–328
of (self-)exploitation, 319
instruction. see teaching
instrumental justice, 15
integrated approach, 467
integrated individual- and community-level empowerment, 398
Intensive English Centre (Australia), 176–177
intentionality, 399
intercultural creativity, 359–360
intercultural dialogue, 361, 365
intercultural exchanges, 376–377
interculturality, 357–358, 362
intercultural practice, 357–358
International Convention on the Rights of the Child, 504
International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, 187n5
“Internationale,” 99
internationalism, 576
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 79
Internet access, 475, 479
interpersonal processes, 398
interruption, 353
inter-sonic meaning, 307
Intsholo, 626
(p. 683) investment theory of creativity, 319
invisible males, 228–229
Invisible Man (Ellison), 598
“Invisible Wing” (Yinxing Di Chibang) (Chang), 94–95
iPads, 476
ipsative assessment, 521
Iraq War, 540
Irene Taylor Trust, 605, 606t
Isbell, Daniel S., 132
Israeli Arabs. see Palestinians
Israeli Defence Forces, 546
Israeli Jews, 545–546
Israel-Palestine conflict, 545
Italian opera, 20–21
Itard, Jean-Marc-Gaspard, 206
“It Don’t Mean a Thing If It Ain’t Got That Swing” (Mills), 146
Jackson, Michael, 99–100, 180, 184
The Jackson 5, 410
Jamaica, 418n2
James, Etta, 408
jam sessions, 603t
Jansen, Robbie, 622
Japanese wave, 100
Jasiri X, 416
Jay-Z (Sean Carter), 181, 413, 482, 587
jazz, 516, 622
jazz funerals, 141–151, 152n2, 152n7, 238, 244, 248
jazz guitar, 561
jazz musicians, women, 153n14
jiankang (healthy) lifestyle, 94
Jimenez, Flaco, 638
Johns, Vernon, 409–410
Jones, Papa Jo, 146
Jorgensen, Estelle, 3, 141
Joyce, James, 595
Juarez-Lincoln High School (La Joya, Texas), 638
Judaism, 16
“just” conduct, 8–9
justice, 7–12, 302. see also social justice
access to, 12
aporetic experience of, 331
call for, 660–661
of common welfare, 12–13
to community, 12–13
commutative, 13, 19–20
contributive, 13
cultural, 32–33, 37, 120, 175, 178
distributive, 12–13, 32–33
divine, 16–17
emancipatory, 32–33
hospitable, 447–448
instrumental, 15
music educators on behalf of, 18–25
negative, 62–68
Platonic, 448
poetic, 15, 22–23
positive, 63
procedural, 14, 21
restorative, 14–15, 22, 554–557, 561–565
retributive, 14, 21–22
right to, 17
transformative, 554–559, 561–565
just practices, 253–419
juvenile detention centers, 598–613, 664
Kakadu National Park (Australia), 148–149
Kamp, Skwatta, 627
Kanellopoulos, Panagiotis, 254
Kant, Immanuel, 9–10, 14, 448
Ka Nyamezele, Lungile Jacobs, 626
Karlsen, Sidsel, 254
“Karolina” (Longomba), 181
“Keep on Pushing,” 410
Kelly-McHale, Jacqueline, 120, 245
kena, 280
Kent, Clark, 411
key competences, 80
Keynesian welfare, 67–68
Key Stage 4 examinations, 488
Khumalo, Sibongile, 624–625
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 280, 282, 409–410
King, Rodney, 413
Klaasen, Lorraine, 624
Klaasen, Tandie, 621
Klaasen, Thandi, 624
Kleber, Magali, 454
Knight, Suge, 413
(p. 684) knower codes, 295
knowledge-based economy, 65, 80, 85
knowledge codes, 295
knowledge construction process, 278
knowledge workers, 65–66, 393
Knowles, Beyoncé. see Beyoncé
Kodály approach, 158–159, 215
Korean wave, 100
Kosovo, 363
Koza, Julia, 126–128, 130, 136n7, 141, 233n19
Kramer, David, 626
KRS-One, 412
Kubilius, Jason, 542
Kumashiro, 121, 224
Kunqu (Kunju, Kun Opera, or Kunqu opera), 97, 102n2
Kwaito, 627
KWL processes, 267
Ladder of Participation, 291
Ladson-Billings, Gloria, 255, 406
Lady Buck Jumpers, 153n13
Lady Gaga, 181
Ladysmith Black Mambazo, 530, 626
laissez-faire approach, 312
La Joya High School (La Joya, Texas), 638
La Joya School District (Texas), 638–639
Lamar, Kendrick, 416
language
and ethnic identity, 641
guidelines for reducing bias in, 210
of legitimation, 295
person-first, 210
Lascia ch’io Pianga (Handel), 450–451
Lathlin, Oscar, 152n5
Latinos, 120, 156–172
La Tradicion, 638
law(s), 447
Law, Wing-Wah, 5
Law of Moses, 14
Leading the Creative School (NCSL), 323
learner voice approaches, 393–394
learning
informal, 254, 302–317, 348
lifelong, 80–81, 321
lifewide, 394–395
to live together, 100
musical, 527–528
recommendations for, 80–81
safe spaces for, 378–379, 391, 397, 450–452, 505, 569
in school, 107–115
student-centered, 264, 269n3
transformative, 558
learning activities, 563
learning lives approach, 394–395
Leaves of Grass (Whitman), 43
Lee, Spike, 412
left-behind children, 449–450
legislation, 49
legitimacy, 352
legitimation, 295
legitimation codes, 295, 343
Leigh-Bartleet, Brydie, 454
lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) students, 135, 223, 225
lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) studies, 230
lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning (LGBTQ or LGBTQ2) students, 230, 238, 244–245
Lesbian and Gay Band Association, 232n14
lesson planning, 84–85
“Let There Be Peace on Earth” (Miller and Miller), 100
Levinas, Emmanuel, 450
liberalism, classical, 66–67
liberating education, 304–306, 399–400
life histories, 41
lifelong learning, 80–81, 321
lifewide learning, 394–395
Limba, 186n3
Lincoln, Yvonna, 664
Lindberg, Dawn, 616
Lindberg, Des, 616
linguistic terrorism, 640–641
listening, 308
literacy, social, 33, 554, 557
literature review, 645–646, 646t, 647, 647t
“Little Sheep Have to Return Home” (Xaioxiao Yanger Yaohui Jia), 97–98
(p. 685) living conditions, 135
Lomawaima, K. Tsianina, 284n1
loneliness, 262
Longomba, Awilo, 181
Loots, Ansie, 627
Lorde, 594
Lorraine and the Polka Queens, 147
“Lorraine’s Polka,” 147–148
Los Diamantes, 638
Los Diferentes de la Sierra, 638
“Losing My Religion,” 515
Los Texamaniacs, 638
Lost Voices, 607t
“Love on the Earth” (Ai Di Renjian) (Gu), 100
L.T.C. (Lyrically Talented Crew), 492
Lucey, Roger, 625
Jianhua, Lu, 99
Luthuli, Albert, 620
Lynch, Michael, 240
maafa, 407–408
Machu Picchu Concerto for Kena and Orchestra (Ulloa), 280
“Madam Please,” 620
Mahlasela, Vusi, 626
Mahler, Gustav, 595
majority rules, 72
Makeba, Miriam, 620, 622–623
Makhene, Motsumi, 625
male bias, 242
males, missing or invisible, 228–229
Mallett, David, 107
Mambo (Bernstein), 575
Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU), 491–496
Mandarin popular songs, 99
Mandela, Nelson, 621–622, 627
Mango Groove, 626
manipulated man, 66–68, 71
Mankunku, Winston, 621
Mann, Horace, 33–34
Mannenberg: Is Where It’s Happening, 622
Mansfield, Janet, 474, 482
Maoism, 93
Maoist songs, 96
Mao Zedong, 92–93
mappa mundi, 373, 380–382
“March of the Volunteers” (PRC), 96
marginalization, 503. see also social exclusion
of LGBTQ students, 238, 245
of New Orleans jazz funerals, 238
of non-Western music, 554–555
of students with disabilities, 240–241
of women, 242
Mariachi ensemble study, 166
Mariachi music, 165–166, 280, 635
Marley, Bob, 298–299
Marsh, Kathy, 120, 248
Martha and the Vandellas, 409
Martinez, Narcisco, 639
“masculine” instruments, 20–21
Masekela, Hugh, 622–623
Maslow, Abraham, 22
Mason, Lowell, 34
Massachusetts Correctional Institution, 450–452, 504, 506f, 542
mass art, 95–96
Master P, 413
Masuka, Dorothy, 620
Matsh, Kathryn, 247
Matthews, Richard, 121
MayDay Group, 19–20, 39
Mayfield, Curtis, 410
Mayibuye Cultural Ensemble, 625–626
mbaqanga, 619–620
Mbeki, Thabo, 627
McClary, Susan, 586
MC-ing (emcee-ing), 411
Mcinga, Sophie, 620
McLean, Don, 409–410
McLuhan, Marshall, 474
MC Lyte, 412
meaning, musical, 307–309, 479–483
meaningful engagement, 397
meaningful participation, 397
Measure of Creative Thinking in Music (MCTM), 325
Measures of Musical Divergent Production (MMDP), 325
media, 208–209
mediation, 556–557
melting pot theory, 35, 37
(p. 686) Memorial Day parades, 282
memory, 126–131, 145, 448
Mende, 186n3
Ménélik, 414
meritocracy, 194
metaphors, frozen, 294
Mexican Americans, 164, 168n1, 552, 631–643
Mexican music, 166
Mgcina, Sophie, 624
“Mhlaba” (Masuka), 620
Miao, 98
Michaels, Paul, 622
MIDI keyboards, 477
MIDI labs, 482
migration patterns, 379
“The Military Anthem of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army” (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Junge), 96
“Military Song for Saving the Nation” (Jiuguo Junge), 96
Miller, Glenn, 147
Miller, Jill Jackson, 100
Miller, Sy, 100
Miller v. Alabama, 504
Mills, Carmen, 552–553
Mills, Irving, 146
Mills, Janet, 516
Mini, Vuyisile, 620
minority groups, 98
Miracles, 409
“The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill” (Hill), 413
misogyny, 141
missing or invisible males, 228–229
Mitchell, Joni, 107
Mitchell, Tony, 414
Mitrovica Rock School, 363
Mode Melody (Tallis), 298
modernism, 319
modernity, fluid, 390
Modise, Thandi, 624
módulos (núcleo subsidiaries), 570
Monash University, 649t–650t
Mongolia, 98
Monk, Augusto, 326
monological approach, 296–299
moral damage, 238
Morton, Charlene, 126
Mosaic Law, 14
Mos Def, 412
Mostar Rock School, 363
Motown, 408–410
“Mountain Song” (Near), 148
MP3 players, 491
“Mr. Magic’s Rap Attack” show, 412
Ms. Magazine, 153n15
Mullen, Phil, 454
multicultural citizens, 99–100
multicultural education
Banks’s dimensions of, 278–279
equity through, 273–274
evolution of, 284n1
goals of, 634
music education, 274–275
multiculturalism, xiv, 37–38, 164, 190–191, 254, 272–286, 381
multicultural music, 375, 652, 654
multicultural music materials, 275
Multicultural Policy (Australia), 175
multicultural social action, 279–283
multiple citizenship, 91–106, 380
Mumford, Lewis, 473
Murphy, Lis, 255, 366–368
museum approach, 200, 436
music
for advancing the struggle, 625–626
Afrikaans folk music, 626
benefits of, 546–547
choral, 501–512
as civilizing, 439
classical, 84, 576–577
classroom, 433
commercial, 583–584
as commodity, 436
community, 446–455, 454n5
complexity of, 436–437
as conduit, 294
(p. 687) and conflict, 545–546
conjunto, 631–632, 636–640
construction of, 439–440
in correctional institutions, 450–452
as creation, 626–627
creative music movement, 480
criteria for, 518
in curriculum, 439–440
definition of, 37, 353–354
democratic, 101–102, 112
didactics of, 83–84
in educational history of students with disabilities, 206–207
elements of, 294–295, 464
as elite, 343, 576
as emotional, 439
as empowerment, 622–623
English, 298
European, 34
exotic, xv
as expression of pain, 620–622
of foreign lands, 35
forms of, 517
frozen metaphors for, 294
future directions for, 577
global, 197–198
“good,” 434–437, 439
great, 568
as identity, 624
improvised, 494–496
as innovation, 626–627
internationalism of, 576
as international language, 36
interpretations of, 585–587, 590–591
justification for, 439–440
long-term effects of, 546–547
making, 448–454
mariachi, 280
market, 583–584
meaning of, 479–483
Mexican American expressions, 631–643
multicultural, 375, 652, 654
of newly arrived immigrants, 175–176
as object, 293–294, 435–436
participation in, 176
as political, 465–466
popular or pop, 293, 430–431, 432t, 582–583, 619–620, 627
power of, 436
as product, 531, 531t
protest, 619–620
as public pedagogy, 481
public school, 30
purpose of, 114n3
race, 408
real-world, 305
of refugees, 175–176
Reggae, 298–299
as resistance to oppression, 619–620
sacred, 418n1
school, 516
as social activity, 567
for social change, 627–628
in social justice education, 406–419
son jarocho, 633
soukous dance music, 181
soul, 408
as sound, 294
as storytelling, 623
as system of traditions and practices, 37
Tejano, 632
as therapeutic, 439
traditional, 200, 380
transformative power of, 183–185
Turkish, 280–281
as universal language, 190–191, 196, 201
urban, 459
value of, 439
as voice, 627–628
Western classical, xiii, 70, 434–437, 463–464, 481–482, 515, 517, 567–568
of working class, 636
world, 463
musical activities. see activities
musical belongings, 382
musical capital, 341, 348–353
musical citizenship, 91–92
musical collaborations, 180–181, 626–627
Musical Connections project (Carnegie Hall), 607t, 608–609
musical creativity, 318–339, 359–361, 369–370
musical diversity, 374–375
(p. 688) Musical Futures, 305, 309, 349, 431, 432t, 437, 444, 517–518, 542, 664
musical instruments, 496–497
classical, 439
classical Chinese, 97
digital, 491–496
gendered, 20–21
infra-instruments, 494, 497
“masculine,” 20–21
Orff, 431
musicality, 342, 353–354
Music Alive! in the Yakima Valley! (Soto, Lum, & Campbell), 283
musical learning, 527–528
musical meaning, 307–309
musical practice, 310–313
musical quality, 425
musical values, 108
music cultures, 274
music curriculum. see curriculum
music education, 266–268. see also teaching
ableism in, 240–241
access to, 461–462
active methods, 83–84
alternative, 614–630
American, 40–41
assessment of, 513–524
caring instruction, 166–167, 268, 359, 569–570
case illustrations, 293–296, 503–505
in China, 91–106
classical music teaching, 84
commutative justice in, 19–20
compulsory, 343
content-based practice of, 84–85
context for, 92–93
core, 318–339
creativity in, 324–327
culturalist approach to, 463
culturally diverse, 275, 376–379
culturally responsive, 163–167
cultural production approach to, 466–469
democratization of, 519–520
dialogical approach to, 289, 296–299
difference in, 119–249
disability in, 204–220
distributive justice in, 12
economic disparity in, 73
in economy-based curriculum, 79–81
essentialist approach to, 463–464
example projects, 551–667
as facet of cultural and public policy, 9–10
feminism in, 122–139
foundations of, 124
gender issues, 221–237, 241–242, 582–597
gender-restricted, 20–21
hidden curriculum of, 23
history of, 29–46, 430–433
hospitable approach to, 424
as human right, 36–37
inclusion in, 288, 525–538
jazz funeral in, 140–155
for Latinos, 156–172
monological approach to, 296–299
multicultural, 99–100, 274–275
as national asset, 34–36
negative rights and, 68–71
in North America, 7–8
oppression in, 224, 240, 244–245
papal restrictions, 20–21
participation in, 288
popular culture in, 582–597
in prisons, 450–452, 504, 559–561, 600
privilege in, 240
procedural justice in, 21
in public schools, 40
purpose of, 91
questions to consider, 453
racism in, 190–203, 242–244
reasoned approach to, 11–12
reform, 433–434
religious, 20–21
repertoire choices for, 372–387
responsive instruction, 165–167
restorative practices in, 561–564
role of, 341–342
score-centered approach, 158–159
secondary, 84, 426–445
sequence-centered approach, 158–159
sexual diversity challenges, 221–237
social function of, 92–93
(p. 689) socially just pedagogical approach to, 487–500
and social reproduction, 341–348
as social responsibility, 38–39
social shift in, 383
as sociocultural good, 33–34
as sociopolitical good, 37–38
for students with disabilities, 206–207
student voice in, 393
with technology, 477–478, 484, 487–500
transformative practices, 561–564
in United States, 33–39
Universal Design for Learning in, 215
urban, 456–472
as vocational training, 165–166
Western classical tradition, xiii, 70, 434–437, 463–464, 481–482, 515, 517, 567–568
what we think we know, 257–271
Whiteness in, 194–198
world music education, 275, 281, 382
in youth detention centers, 604–605, 606t–607t
music education associations, 128
music education centers (núcleos), 567–568, 570–571, 664
Music Education Research, 272
music educators, 57, 260–262. see also music teachers
on behalf of justice, 18–25
as co-musicians, 261
interest in justice, 7–12
occupational identity of, 132
Music Educators Journal, 38–39, 130, 272
Music Educators National Conference (MENC), 19–20, 36–37, 127–128
“The Child’s Bill of Rights in Music,” 36
Gender Research in Music Education (GRIME) meetings, 136n7, 137n9
“music for its own sake” slogan, 427–428
musicians, 295–296. see also individual musicians by name
digital, 499
music educators as co-musicians, 261
students as, 352
women jazz musicians, 153n14
musicianship, 353–354
Musicians without Borders, 255, 358–359, 363–367, 664
Music in Detention, 607t
Music Index Online, 645–646
Music in Prisons project, 605, 606t
musicking, 467
Music Matters: A New Philosophy of Music Education (Elliott), 374–375
Music Matters (Elliott & Silverman), 374–375
“Music Matters,” 399
music methods, 83–84
Music National Strategy (DfES) (UK), 293
musicology, 595n1
music pedagogy. see pedagogy
musics, 436
music students, 484. see also students
population, 504
(now) visible, 229–230
Music Supervisors National Conference (MSNC), 19–20, 35–36
music teacher education, 78–90, 644–657
literature review, 645–646, 646t, 647, 647t–651t, 652–655
for social justice, 665–666
music teachers, 266–267. see also music educators
as aware, 535
beliefs and attitudes, 159–160
biased, 312
as educator-educatees, 305
as experts, 532
general music teachers, 85–86
preservice teachers, 84
reasons to take up social justice causes, 662
repertoire choices, 372–387
role of, 536
socialization of, 437–439
ways to establish climate of critical reflection for, 536
women, 126–127
music technology, 498–499
in education, 473–486
gender issues, 490
music therapy, 363, 601–604
Muslim Brotherhood choir, 502
Muslims, 16–17, 98
(p. 690) “My Chinese Heart” (Wo De Zhongguo Xin) (Wong), 97
“My Heart Will Go On (Love Theme from Titanic)” (Horner), 94–95
“My Man,” 147
myths, 196, 223–224
“My Tomorrow Is Not a Dream” (Wodi Weilai Bushi Meng) (Yusheng), 94
NACCCE, 324
Namba, Mthunzi, 624
Narcissism, 414
Narcissus, 474
Narita, Flávia, 254
national anthems, 96, 99
National Association for Music Education (NAfME) (US), 19–20, 136n6, 168n5, 640
Gender and Sexuality Special Research Interest Group, 39
Strategic Plan 2011-2016, 39
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) (US), 413
National Association of Music Education (UK), 287–288
National Association of Scholars (US), 109
National Children’s Traditional Culture Festival (China), 101
national college entrance examinations (gaokao) (China), 95
National Commission on Music Education (US), 19–20
National Convention of the Congress of the People (South Africa), 621
National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) (US), 109
National Curriculum (UK), 437, 488, 542
nationalism, 39, 97–98
Nationalist party (South Africa), 620–621
nationality, 36, 91
National Music Curriculum Standard for Full-time School Compulsory Education (China), 100
National Organization on Disability (US), 210
National Outline for Medium and Long-term Educational Reform and Development (2010-2020) (China), 100
National School Climate Survey (US), 225
National Standards for Arts Education (Blakeslee), 19–20
nation building, 95–98
nationhood, 32
Native Americans, 280–281
Natives Resettlement Act (South Africa), 620–621
naturalization, 198
natural law, 17, 24
NCSL (UK), 323
“Ndodemnyama” (Mini), 620
Near, Holly, 114, 148
negative justice, 62–68
negative rights, 63–71, 74
negotiated readings, 585–586
neoliberalism, 62–77, 259–260, 262–266, 322, 324, 332n3
NeON program, 605
Ness, Daniel, 556
the Netherlands, 359
neutrality, political, 571
New Horizons Music Programs (NHMP), 227, 232n14
new musicology, 595n1
New Orleans, Louisiana, 141nn8–9, 407
brass band musicians, 153n11
jazz bands, 244
jazz funerals, 141–151, 152n2, 238, 244, 248
newsletters, 563
New Zealand, 479, 482, 556–557
“N**gas in Paris” (Jay-Z/West), 413
“N**gas in Poorest” (Bey), 413
Nieto, Sonia, 284n1
“Nkosi Sikelel’ i’Afrika [God bless Africa]” (Santonga), 623
noble conduct, 8–9
No Child Left Behind, 49, 69, 109, 111
Nodding, Nel, 569–570, 663
(p. 691) nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 51
“Nongqongqo,” 622
“Non-resistance Is the Only Fear” (Zhipa Bu Dikang), 96
normalization, 325
North America, 7–8
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 65
Northern Ireland, 363
Northwestern University, 610n3
Norway, 373–374
Noteflight, 479
Notorious B.I.G., 413
núcleos (free music education centers), 567–568, 570–571, 664
Núñez, Francisco, 502
Nussbaum, Martha, 8
N.W.A., 412
Oakdale Community Choir (Iowa), 559–563
Obama, Barack, 50
obedience, filial, 95–98
objectification, sexual, 589–590
occupational identity, 132
Offendum, Omar, 414
Ohio State University, 416
Olsson, Bengt, 129
Olympic Games, 96–97
O’Neill, Susan, 255, 558
“One (hu)man, one vote” (Clegg and Savuka), 626
“Open Door Policy,” 93
open-ended reflection, 563
Open University of Brazil, 304, 309
opera
Baroque Italian, 20–21
Fair Opera, 260
Kunqu (Kunju, Kun Opera, or Kunqu opera), 97, 102n2
Operation PUSH, 413
opportunity, xii
oppositional readings, 585–587, 592
oppression, 114n3, 229–230, 238–245, 556
aesthetics of, 503–505
definition of, 222
gender, 224, 241–242
music as resistance to, 619–620
responses to, 248
types of, 222–223, 231n3
opulence, universal, 64
oral history, 41–42
Orff approach, 158–159, 431
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 65, 79–81, 85
originality, 319, 325
Oslo, Norway, 377–379
Other, 231n2, 448
confirming, 396
definition of, 460
education about and for, 224–227, 460, 462–463
humanism of and for, 450
recognition of, 453–454
sharing improvised music with, 494–496
Othering, 224, 227–229, 460
Otherness, 191
O’Toole, Patricia, 126–127, 141
Outkast, 413
“O Waly, Waly,” 505
ownership, 329
paideia, 8
pain: music as expression of, 620–622
Palestine
Arab Israeli Galilee music program, 506–509, 664
Musicians without Borders, 363, 366
Palestinians, 506, 509, 545–546
Palmer, Parker, 12–13
Palmview High School (La Joya, Texas), 638
Pan African Congress (PAC), 618
papal restrictions, 20–21
Paris, Django, 417
parity of participation, 120, 254, 303–306
Parks, Rosa, 409–410
participation, 428
Ladder of Participation, 291
meaningful, 397
in music classroom, 288, 429
in music making, 502
parity of, 120, 254, 303–306
in performances, 120, 181
(p. 692) processes of, 384
in rehearsals, 120
in sociopolitical processes, 398
participatory action research, youth-led (YPAR), 398
participatory democracy, xiii
Pascal, Blaise, 447
“Pata Pata” (Makeba), 620
patriotism, 96, 98
Paul Hamlyn Foundation, 542
Paulo Freire Charter School (Philadelphia, PA), 50
Pavarotti Music Centre, 366
Paxton, Tom, 107
Paynter, John, 293, 325
peak experiences, 22
pedagogical approach, 57, 464–465
pedagogical capital, 341, 348–353
pedagogical voice, 292
pedagogy
alternative, 348
constructivist, 475–476
of crisis, 229
critical, 441, 443–444, 535–536
culturally affirming, 468
culturally relevant, 201, 255, 415
development of, 431
El Sistema, 570
equity, 279
to explore cultural dissonances, 328–329
gender effects of, 490
of interruption, 353
music, 347–348
prefigurative, 320
of pride, 262
public, 481
of readings, 590–591
of recognition, 258, 264, 268–269
restorative possibilities, 562–563
role of, 347–348
social justice, 423–547
“sound before sign” principle, 318
as symbolic violence, 345
in teacher education distance learning, 309–313
transformative possibilities, 562–563
voice of, 292
of world alienation, 262–266
World music, 275
Peircian semiotic theory, 133
Peking Opera, 97
Penny, Laurie, 134
“People Get Ready,” 410
People’s Liberation Army, 96
People’s Republic of China (PRC), 92, 95
anniversary of, 97
Campaign for Preserving China’s Ethnic Folk Songs, 98
citizenship education, 97–98
Cultural Revolution, 93
education policy, 101
“Fruits of Chinese Ethnic Folk Song Preservation” press conference, 98
Great Leap Forward, 95
great renewal of, 101
income inequality, 503
Japanese wave, 100
Korean wave, 100
Ministry of Education, 97
music education, 91–106
national anthem (“March of the Volunteers”), 96
National Children’s Traditional Culture Festival, 101
national college entrance examinations (gaokao), 95
nationalism, 97–98
National Music Curriculum Standard for Full-time School Compulsory Education, 100
National Outline for Medium and Long-term Educational Reform and Development (2010-2020), 100
Olympic Games Opening Ceremony, 96–97
Shanghai Municipal Education Commission, 94
“Tibetan classes” (Xizang ban), 98
performance(s), 497
in family band, 637–638
participation in, 120
participatory, 181
(p. 693) presentational, 181, 186
in school conjunto ensemble, 638–639
performativity, 321, 323–324
performing entrepreneurialism, 321–323
Perlman, Itzhak, 214
permanent receivership, 55
Perrine, Laurence, 110–111
personalization, 291, 299, 319, 321
personal values, 93–95. see also value(s)
person-first language, 210
persons with disabilities, 208–210
Pestano, Catherine, 454
Peters, Michael, 321
Peters, R. S., 19
Peterson, Hector, 615
Peterson, Oscar, 146
Philpott, Chris, 542
Physical Disability: A Psychological Approach, 209
Pipa, 97
Pitts, Lilla Belle, 36–37
planning, 84–85
Plato, 8, 16, 31
Platonic justice, 448
play, radical symbolic, 468
Plumwood, Val, 148–150
Plumwood Mountain, 150
pluralism, cultural, 35
plurality, 258, 261
of identification, 376–379
of selves, 379–380
poetic justice, 15, 22–23
points of view, 558
police, 327–328, 333n10
policy, 4, 47–61
cultural, 50
educational, 78–90
growth-first approach to, 71
idea-based change, 56–57
student injury, 55
policy scholarship, 53
policy thought, 47, 49–51, 53–55, 57–59
political activism, 430
political awareness, 535
political correctness, 375
political interventions, 327
politics, 327–328
critical reflection on, 530, 530t, 532, 533t
of music, 465–466
of musical creativity, 328, 330–331
of music teacher education, 78–90
proletarian, 93
polysemy, 584–587
poor bashing, 240
popular culture, 582–597, 627
popular (pop) music, 293, 430–431, 432t, 582–583, 619–620, 627
“healthy” songs, 94–95
popular songs, 97–99
Porter, Cole, 515
positive approaches, 496–498
positive justice, 63
positive rights, 64
“Positive Youth Development” (PYD) model, 599
postmodernism, 584
potential, human, 535
poverty, 135, 240, 340, 573–574
power, 393
culture of, 102
equitable sharing of, 397–398
Powers, P.J., 626
prefigurative pedagogy, 320
prejudice reduction, 278–279
presentational performance, 181, 186
preservice teachers, 84–85
Price, Lloyd, 408
pride, 262–266
Prison Arts Coalition, 604
prison programs, 450–452, 542, 559–561
case illustration, 503–505
choirs, 664
El Sistema, 572
Music in Prisons project, 605, 606t
youth detention centers, 598–613, 664
problematization, 313
problem-posing, 313
procedural justice, 14, 21
(p. 694) profanation, 330–331
professional choices, 544–545
professional development, 57
professionalism, 54
profitable creativity, 328
Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 79
Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 79
proletarian politics, 93
propaganda, xiii, 97
property, 63
Proquest, 645–646
“Protect the Yellow River” (Baowei Huanghe), 96
protest music, 619–620
psychological creativity, 360
Public Broadcast System (PBS), 412, 639
public education, 34
Public Enemy, 412–413
public pedagogies, 481
public policy, 9–10. see also policy
public school music, 30
public schools, 40
Puerto Rican, 168n1
Puff Daddy, 413
Pula, 625
The Purple Piano Project, 209
Putonghau, 92
Qinghai, 98
qualifications, relative, 332n6
quality
assessment of, 518
educational, 79–80
ensuring, 85
musical, 425
Quasthoff, Thomas, 214
Quatour pour la fin du temps (Messiaen), 530
quattro, 575–576
Quebec Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 137n14
Queen Latifah, 412
queer education, 233n20
queer theory, 130, 233n20
Quibell Three Arts Theatre, 616–617
quinceañeras, 638
Quinn, Therese, 554
Quqin, 97
race and racism, 71, 120–121, 135, 191–192
race music, 408
Race to the Top, 50, 111
racism, 141, 192–194, 231, 242–244, 575. see also race and racism
color-blind, 190–191, 196–198
ideology of, 194–198
radical symbolic play, 468
radio, 408
Raeburn, Bruce, 152n7
Rainey, Ma, 408
rancheras, 636
Randolph, Boots, 147
rap (rap music), 411–412
rappers, 412
“Rapper’s Delight,” 412–413
rapping, 411
RAP therapy, 601
rationalist approach, 466
Rattle, Simon, 577
Rawls, John, xii, 12
Reagan, Ronald, 65
Reagon, Bernice, 410
real-world music, 305
real-world songs, 310–311
recognition, 254
of difference, 469
pedagogy of, 258, 264, 268–269
of victims of armed violence, 540
re-colonization, 554–555
reconciliation, 556
“Recycled Audio Portraits,” 493
redistribution, 254
referral, 595n1
reflection
critical, 398, 525–538, 530t
indicators of socially just music classroom, 429–430
open-ended, 563
self-reflection, 557
reflection-in-action, 527–528
reflection-on-action, 527–528
(p. 695) reflective writing, 563
reflexivity, 240
reform schools, 601
refugees
in Australia, 174–175
collaborative music activities for, 173–189
ethographic research study, 176–177
music of, 175–176
social participation of, 175–176
young, 173–189
Reggae music, 298–299
regional traditions, 543
Regular Education Initiative (REI), 206
regulative discourse, 441–442
rehearsals, 120
Reid, Duke, 411
related unknown, 516
relevance, cultural, 255
religious dogma, 14
religious music education, 20–21
R.E.M., 515
remixes, 482
repertoire choices, 372–387
representation, 462–464
reproduction, 341–344
Republic (Plato), 31
Rereational Music Making protocol, 603t
research
disability literature, 214
diversity literature review, 645–646
future directions for, 656
literature review, 645–646, 646t, 647, 647t–651t, 652–656
on music teacher education, 644–645, 648t–651t, 652–656
on music with incarcerated youth, 601–604, 602t–603t
“respectable,” 20
from social justice perspective, 40–42
youth-led participatory action research (YPAR), 398
resistance, 327–331
resonance, 595n1
respectful disagreement, 393
responsibility
social, 38–39
student comments about, 350–351
responsible citizenship, 101
responsive curriculum, 493–494
responsive instruction, 166–167
restorative justice, 14–15, 22, 554–557, 561–565
retributive justice, 14, 21–22
Reynolds, Malvina, 107
rhizomes, 595n1
rhythm and blues (R&B), 408
Rice, Tim, 100
“right” conduct, 8–9
rights
children’s rights, 16, 23–24, 504
“The Child’s Bill of Rights in Music” (MENC), 36
Civil Rights movement, 22, 125, 273–274, 284, 409–410, 622–623, 660
in education, 50
to justice, 17
music education as human right, 36–37
negative, 63–71, 74
to policy, 56–59
positive, 64
“Rights Education” initiative, 50
RILM Abstracts of Music Literature, 645–646
risk factors, 608–609
risk taking, 247
Risner, Doug, 129
Roberts, Christopher, 254
Robertson, Heather-Jane, 473
Rodriguez, Nelson, 229–230
Rogers, Carl, 451, 558
Roland Martin, Jane, xii–xiii
Roland UK, 488
Roman Catholic Church, 20–21
Romani, 193
Rose, Leslie Stewart, 542
Rose Report (DCSF), 56
Royal Northern College of Music, 491
“Royals” (Lorde), 594
ruling relations, 136n4, 660
Run the World (Girls) (Beyoncé), 584, 587–590, 588t, 592–593
Rusinek, Gabriel, 4–5
Rwanda, 193, 363
(p. 696) Sabbara, Hania Soudah, 507–508
“Sabela” (Makhene and Khumalo), 625
sacred music, 418n1
Saddler, Joseph (Grandmaster Flash), 411–412
Saenz, Mario, Jr., 638
safe spaces, 378–379, 391, 397, 505
in correctional institutions, 450–452
núcleos, 569
Sahlberg, Pasi, 111
Sakakeeny, Matt, 152n7
Salt-N-Pepa, 412
Salvadoran Americans, 168n1
Salvation Army, 177–179, 184
salvationism, 34
sampling, xv
San Benito School District (Texas), 637
Sangari, Kumkum, 132–133
Santonga, 623
Saregam, 502
Savage, Jonathn, 542
Savuka, 626
Sawa Centre, 508–509
Sawa Children’s Choir, 507–509
Sawa Choir, 507, 546
“Say it Loud, I’m Black and I’m Proud,” 410
“The scandal of (musical) democracy” research project, 330
Schmidt, Patrick, 4, 12
school(s), 107–115, 210–212
community-oriented, 50
consumer-friendly, 67
culturally diverse, 376–379
as heteronormative, 223–224
public, 40
restorative justice in, 556–557
socially critical, 534
school choice, 67, 69–70
school culture, 279
school ensembles, 158
school learning support officers (SLSOs), 177
school music, 516–517
school music education, 34, 92, 158
school populations, 633–634
Schools Council, 289–290, 293
science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education), 80
science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM education), 662
“The Score” (Fugees), 413
score-centered approach, 158–159, 293
Scottish Ensemble, 603t
Seattle Fandango Project, 633
secondary music education, 84, 426–445
second line parades, 143–144
Seeger, Pete, 107
Segrest, Mab, 246–247
Seidel, Sam, 416
self-actualization, 22
self-assessment, 521
self-empowerment, 390–391, 400–401
self-esteem, 248
self-exploitation, 319
self-expression, 319
self-identification, 379
self-identity, 557
self-interest, 64, 68
self-knowledge, 390–391
self-love, 70
self-perceptions, student, 350–353
self-reflection, 557
self-respect, 10–11
self-worth, 10–11
Selota, Selaelo, 626
Sensational Sisters, 178–179, 183, 247
“Sentimental Journey,” 147
sequence-centered approach, 158–159
service learning, 283
“777 Heaven” (Kramer), 626
sex differences, 126
“Sex-equity in Music Education” (Lamb), 126
sexism, 153n15, 442–443
sexual diversity, 221–237
sexual objectification, 589–590
sexual orientation, 227
Shanbei, 98
Shanghai Municipal Education Commission, 94
Shanxi, 98
sharing improvised music, 494–496
Shavit, Maya, 507, 509
Shefar’amr, Galilee, 506–509
Shieh, Eric, 39, 552
“Shona Malanga,” 624
(p. 697) Shuttlesworth, Fred, 409–410
Sibelius Academy Faculty of Music (University of the Arts, Helsinki), 24
Sierra Leone, 177, 186n3
Sierra Leone Youth Group, 176–186
Silva, Elena, 291
Simmons, Russell, 413
Simon, Paul, 530, 626
“Sing and Shout! A History of America in Song” course, 42
Singing the Bridge, 363
Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It) (Beyoncé), 587
6daEXIt, 330
1960s, 409–410
“Skills Strategy” (OECD), 80
Skrillex, 595
“The Slim Shady” (Eminem), 413
Sloboda, John, 425
slut shaming, 592
Small, Christopher, 318
small ensembles, 268
Smith, Adam, 64–67
Smith, Bessie, 408
Smith, Chris, 324
Smith, Dorothy E., 123–125
Smith, Jean Kennedy, 216n1
Smithsonian Folkways, 639
“Snail” (Chou), 94
Snoop Doggy Dog (Snoop Dog or Snoop Lion), 412–413
social action approach, 282–283
social activism, 430
social awareness, 535
social change, 576
social cohesion, 37–38
social empowerment, 400–401
social engagement, 326, 545
social equity, 640–641
social exclusion, 503, 509
social identity, 207–208
social inclusion, 120, 173–189
social inequality, 342–348
social injustice, xi–xii, 3, 121
socialization, 132
of music teachers and students, 437–439
secondary, 132
of value of equity, 253–256
social justice, 40–42
adaptations to further engagement in, 358
assessment of, 541–542
assessment with principles of, 521–522
call for, 660–661
commitments, 459–461
community music site for, 446–455
concept of, xi–xii, 3–4, 108
contributive aspects, 20–21
critical reflection for, 528–530, 529f, 530, 530t
definition of, 12–18, 185, 272, 288, 302–303, 459–461
and democracy, 107–115, 382–384
democratic approach to, 434
demonization of, 109–110
dilemmas, 459–461
education for, 31, 275–276, 473–486
embracing, 213–214
in English secondary music classroom, 426–445
example practices, 424
formative assessment for, 520–521
future directions, 658–667
historical perspective on, 29–46
history of, 430–433
hope for, 658–667
indicators of, 428–430, 432t
interventions for, 541–542
key themes of, 492–493
legal notions of, 23–24
multiculturalism and, 272–286
musical creativity for, 361–370
in music education history, 39–42
in music teacher education, 644–657, 665–666
and music technology, 473–486
as parasitic, 23
and policy, 48–49
in practice, 357–371, 551–667
project of, 222
promoting, 526–527
pursuit of, xii
(p. 698) reasons to take up causes, 662
as red herring, 149–150
and reform, 433–434
sites of, 663–664
standardization as enemy of, 110–112
types of, 12–18
and urban music education, 456–472
vignettes, 428–429
violations of, 222–223
vital components of, 370
Social Justice Critical Reflection model (Ingram and Walter), 528–529, 529f
social justice education, 62–63, 221–222, 406–419, 554
social-justice-oriented teacher education, 83–84
social justice pedagogy, 423–547
social justice teacher education, 309
social literacy, 33, 554, 557
socially critical schools, 534
socially just curriculum, 81
socially just education, 54–56
socially just pedagogical approach, 487–500
socially just policy thought, 53–54
social media, 260
social participation, 175–176
social reproduction, 341–348
social responsibility, 38–39
social status, 303
social uncertainty, 663
social welfare, neoliberal, 65
Society for Ethnomusicology, 505
sociopolitical processes, 398
Sol (conjunto group), 638
solidarity, 372–386
solitude, 262
“Somlandela Luthuli, Lelijele licwele uyalandelwa [We shall follow Luthuli, the jails are full, they show that we struggle for our freedom],” 620
song(s), 358. see also specific songs
anti-Japanese, 96
chants, 625
choral singing, 560
folk songs, 98, 108
freedom songs, 410, 623
“healthy,” 94–95
Maoist, 96
national anthems, 96, 99
patriotic, 94, 96
popular, 94–95, 97–99
propaganda songs, 97
real-world, 310–311
revolutionary, 95–96
“Sing and Shout! A History of America in Song” course, 42
singing, 370
spirituals, 407–408
“A Song for Mother,” 97–98
“Song of the Broad-Axe” (Whitman), 43
Songs of the Homeland (Galán), 639
songwriting, 358, 370
son jarocho, 633
“Sophiatown” (Boss and Klaasen), 621
Soto, Amanda, 552, 632–633, 637–638, 641–642
soukous dance music, 181, 184
soul music, 408
“Soul Train,” 413
Sound and Sense: An Introduction to Poetry (Perrine), 110–111
“sound before sign” principle, 318
Sounding Out (“Music in Prisons”), 605
South Africa
Freedom Charter, 621
freedom struggle, 614–619
Group Areas Act, 620–621
Natives Resettlement Act, 620–621
South African Broadcast Corporation, 619–620
South African Communist Party (SACP), 618
South African jazz, 622
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 413
“Soweto Blues” (Todd and Masekela), 623
Spades (gang), 412
Spain, 82–83
spirituals, 281, 407–408
Spivak, Gayatri, 575
Spruce, Gary, 254
Sputnik I, 269n2
St. Cloud State University, 416
(p. 699) stakeholder society, 58
standardization, 110–113
standardized assessments, 79–80
standards, 568
standpoint reflexivity, 240
Stanford University, 416
Starr, Irwin, 410
“Steal Away,” 407
STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) education, 662
STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education, 80
Stern, Sol, 109
Stone Flowers, 366–367
Stonewall riots, 124
Storycatchers Theatre, 605, 607t
storytelling, 623
Stovall, David, 554
straightening-up, 232n16
Strategic Plan 2011-2016 (NAME), 39
street protests, 625
Strong, Karen, 556
struggle
against apartheid, 614–617, 625–626
cultural, 595
student-centered learning, 264, 269n3
student competency, 58
student enrollments, 504
student injury policy, 55
student-led groups, 464
student population, 156
students
as agents of knowledge and cultural production, 425
alienation of, 293–296
as aware, 535
as creators, 468
as curriculum consumers, 295
as curriculum makers, 295
with disabilities, 205–207, 210, 240–241
as educatee-educators, 305
education that changes, 224, 229–230, 468–469
elite, 345
engagement of, 492–493
identities of, 375
interactions with conjunto music, 636–637
LGBT, 135, 223, 225
LGBTQ or LGBTQ2, 230, 238, 244–245
Mexican American, 635–636
as musicians, 352
music students, 229–230, 484, 504
perceptions of pedagogical capital, 349–351
school populations, 633–634
self-perceptions of musicality and musical potential, 351–353
socialization of, 437–439
ways to establish climate of critical reflection for, 536–537
student voice, 254, 287–301, 582
student voice approaches, 393–394
student voice strategies, 290
subcultural capital, 360
Success Academy (New York City, NY), 50
Sue, Derald W., 284n1
Sugar Hill Gang, 412–413
Sugar Hill Records, 412
Suliman, Amir, 414
summative assessment, 513–515
Summers, Donna, 410
Sunni Muslims, 506–507
superchildren, 324
“Super Learning Week” (Egerton High School), 493
Supremes, 409
surface compliance, 394
sustainability, 543–544
Susu, 186n3
Suzuki method, 544
Sweden, 261, 373–374
“Swing Low Sweet Chariot,” 407
Sydney Conservatorium of Music, 180
symbolic play, radical, 468
symbolic violence, 344–345
Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven), 586
synthesizing, 416
systematization, 542
tagging (graffiti art), 411
Taikang, Henan (China), 449–450, 452
Taiwanese songs, 94, 99
“Take Me Home, Country Roads” (Denver), 97–98
Takemura Nobukazu, 414
(p. 700) talent, 86
talk over or dub, 418n2
Tallis, Thomas, 298
Tan, Leonard, 24
taquitos, 167
teacher competency, 58
teacher education, 51, 78–79, 162–163. see also music teacher education
distance learning, 309–313
informal music pedagogy in, 309–313
social justice, 309
teacher in-service, 214
teacher preparation, 57
teachers, 265. see also music teachers
teachers with disabilities, 214
teaching. see also education
active methods, 83–84
color-blind, 121
culturally responsive, 74, 160–164
musical approaches to, 108
musical practice as, 310–313
responsive instruction, 161–162, 165–167
sequence-centered practices, 158–159
for social justice, 40–42, 539–547
“Tears in Heaven” (Clapton), 97–98
technological imperative, 473–474
technology, 431, 473–500, 519
Tejano music, 164, 632
Tejanos, 636
television, 413
Temne, 186n3
Temptatons, 409
terminology, 209–210
terrorism, linguistic, 640–641
Tessman, Lisa, 238
testing, 514–515
Texas, 156, 637–639
Texas Big Squeeze competition, 638
Tex Mex: Music of the Texas-Mexican Borderlands (Marre), 639
“Thabane” (Lucey), 625
Thasymachus, 16
Thatcher, Margaret, 62, 65, 67–68
Thicke, Robin, 594
“Thina Sizwe,” 624
“This Land Is Your Land” (Guthrie), 585
Tibet, 98
“Tibetan classes” (Xizang ban), 98
Tibetan patriotism, 98
Tillich, Paul, 24
Tiuna El Fuerte, 579n6
toasting, 418n2
Tocar y Luchar, 571, 577
Todd, Stanley Kwesi, 623
tolerance, 119–121, 238–249, 557
“Tomorrow Would Be Better” (Dayou), 94
“Tone Deaf ” (Lamb), 128
Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Torrance), 325
totalitarianism, 19, 114n3
toyi-toyi, 625
traditional music, 200, 380
conjunto, 631
folk music, 366, 543, 626, 631–632, 636–640
regional traditions, 543
Western classical tradition, xiii, 70, 434–437, 463–464, 481–482, 515, 517, 567–568
training, 476
transformation
cultural, 576–577
forms of, 310
transformation approach, 281
transformative engagement, 332n9, 388–405, 558–559
transformative justice, 554–559, 561–565
transformative learning, 558
transformative measures, 303
transgender experiences, 222
translation issues, 362
Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 79
trickle down economics, 74
Trollinger, Laree M., 126
Troubadour studio, 619–620
Tshaka, 625
Tucker, Earl (Snake Hips), 411
Tunstall, Tricia, 569
Tupac Shakur (2Pac), 412–413
Turino, Thomas, 133
Turkish music, 280–281
Tuxedo Brass Band, 141–142
Twala, Sello Chicco, 627
(p. 701) twerking, 594
Twitter, 414
2 Live Crew, 413
UCan.tv, 491–496
“uDr. Malan Unomthetho Onzima (Dr. Malan’s government is harsh)” (Troubadour studio), 619–620
UK TRAP, 492
Ulloa, Nayo, 280
Ulysses (Joyce), 595
UNESCO, 50
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), 95
United Kingdom
Cambridge Review (Alexander), 56
citizenship education, 37–38
creative music movement, 480
education reform, 65
examinations, 488–490, 498
General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), 495
music education, 288–289, 293–296, 348, 426–445, 432t, 481, 488–499, 519
Musicians without Borders in, 363, 366–367
music teachers, 437–438
National Curriculum, 437, 488, 542
poverty, 340
restorative justice, 556–557
Rose Report (DCSF), 56
school choice, 67
secondary music education, 426–445
Thatcher administration, 65
wealth, 340
United Nations, 16, 187n5
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 79
United States, 18–19, 67
charter schools, 59n1
children's rights, 16, 23–24
Civil Rights movement, 22, 125, 273–274, 284, 409–410, 622–623
Department of Education, 109
education reform, 65
incarcerated population, 503–504
incarcerated youth, 599–600
income inequality, 503
Latino students, 157–159
music education, 461
music education history, 33–41
music students, 504
music teacher education, 647, 648t–649t, 652–655
post-World War II, 36
racism, 193
Reagan administration, 65
restorative justice, 556–557
school choice, 67
school populations, 633–634
STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics) education, 662
student population, 156
Voting Rights Act, 124
United States Constitution, 17
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 36
Universal Design for Learning (UDL), 214–215
universal opulence, 64
University of Brasilia, 304
University of Brasília, 309
University of North Texas, 649t
University of Oregon, 123–124
University of Plymouth, 491
University of Sydney, 650t–651t
University of the Arts, Helsinki, 24
University of Thessaly, 330
University of Western Sydney, 651t
University of Wisconsin, 416–417
University of Wisconsin-Madison, 649t
university prison education, 450–452
Urban League, 413
urban music, 459
urban music education, 456–472
urban renewal, 202n3
urban spaces, 458
Urumqi, Xingjiang (China), 98
Uyghurs, 98
Vaid Sudesh, 132–133
Väkevä, Lauri, 19
value(s), 181–183, 515, 544–545
added, 58, 70
aesthetic, 70, 435
of difference, 469
“good” music, 434–435
(p. 702) of music, 108, 439
personal, 93–95
value-added economy, 58, 65–66, 70
valuing, 515–517
Van Dijk, Pieter Luis, 626
van Eck, Fabienne, 366
Vaugeois, Lise C., 134
Vaughan Williams, Ralph, 298
Venezuela
barrios, 579n5
El Sistema (Fundación Musical Simón Bolívar), xiii, 39, 462, 542, 552, 567–581
núcleos, 567–568
social change, 573
Ventura, Michael, 407
Very Special Arts (VSA), 216n1
Very Special Arts Festivals, 207
victims
of armed violence, 540
blaming, 240
as oppressors, 556
Victorian era, 130
Vilakazi, Strike, 621
violence, 135, 238
armed, 540
recognition of victims of, 540
structural, 240
symbolic, 344–345
systemic, 246
Visions of Research in Music Education (VRME), 136n5
visiting, 534
Vivien, C. T., 409–410
vocational training, 165–166, 489
voice
music as, 627–628
of pedagogy or pedagogical, 292
student voice, 254, 287–301
youth, 392–394
“Vol 2: Hard Knock Life” (Jay-Z), 413
volksliedjies, 626
voodoo, 568
Voting Rights Act (US), 124
“Wade in the Water,” 407
Walker, Wyatt Tee, 409–410
LinLin, Wang, 449–450, 452, 544
“War … What Is It Good For?,” 410
Warchild, 366
“Watch the Throne” (Jay-Z/West), 413
Watson, Ben, 330
WBLS, 412
wealth: leveraging, 576
“We Are Friends” (Women Shi Pengyou), 98
“We Are One” (Donnelly), 100
Weaver, Molly, 126–127
Weber, Monty, 622
Webster, Peter, 325, 475–476
welcoming spaces, 397
welfare, 63–68
common, 12–13
social, 62–63, 65
“We Shall Overcome,” 410
West, Cornel, 247
West, Kanye, 413
West-Eastern Divan project, 545–546
Westerlund, Heidi, 19, 254
Western cultures, 70
Western music
art music, 437, 515–517
in China, 99
emphasis on, 554–555
Westheimer, Joel, 5–6, 553
“What’s Going On?,” 410
“When the Saints Go Marching In,” 147–148
Whiteness, 121, 194–199, 201n1, 242–243
cultural, 200–201
leveraging, 576
White privilege, 202n1, 243, 567–568
Whites, 194–195
Whitewashing, 197–198
Whitman, Walt, 43
“A Whole New World” (Rice), 100
whole school approach, 561–562
Wicked, 152n1, 208–209, 212
Widlake, Brian, 621
“Wild Things” (Williamson), 150–151
William, Dylan, 514
Williamson, Cris, 148, 150–151
Wise Intelligent, 416
Wolbring, Gregor, 240–241
(p. 703) women
discrimination against, 135, 241–242
empowerment of, 584, 587–589, 592
jazz musicians, 153n14
marginalization of, 242
music teachers and educators, 126–127, 141, 152n9
objectification of, 589–590, 592
rappers, 412
“women’s issues,” 131
Women’s Liberation, 125, 128
Women’s Movement for Peace, 616
Wong, James, 97
Wong, Tom (Tom the Great), 411
Woodford, Paul, 11, 19, 482
Woodward, Sheila, 552, 614–617
working class music, 636
world alienation, 262–266
World Bank, 79
world citizenship, 99. see also global citizenship
World Institute on Disability, 210
world music, 463
world music education, 382
World music pedagogy, 275
world music project, 373–375
world music survey classes, 281
World Trade Organization (WTO), 65
“The World Would Be Better” (Shijie Geng Meihao) (Lu), 99
Wortham, Simon, 447
Wright, Beatrice, 209
Wright, Ruth, 255
writing, reflective, 563
Wu Tang Clan, 412
Jinping, xi, 101
Xu, Peidong, 97
“Yakety Sax,” 147
“Yakhal’Inkomo [The bellowing bull]” (Mankunku), 621
Yasmeen Choir, 507–508
Ybarra, Eva, 639
“Yo! MTV Raps,” 412
“You Are Not Alone” (Jackson), 180, 184
Young, Iris, 239
Young, Raynaldo, 330
Young, Susan, 326
Young People’s Chorus, 502
youth
at-risk, 600–601
equitable power sharing with, 397–398
incarcerated, 598–613
refugees, 173–189
youth detention centers, 598–613, 664
music programs in, 604–605, 606t–607t
research studies of, 601–604, 602t–603t
youth empowerment, 389–396
Youth League (ANC), 621, 625–626
youth-led participatory action research (YPAR), 398
Youth Orchestra Los Angeles (YOLA), 573
youth voice approaches, 393–394
Yuanyuan, Liu, 97
Yugoslavia, former, 193
Zelda Glazer Middle School (ZGMS), 58
zero tolerance, 557
Zhang Yusheng, 94
Zinn, Howard, 114
Zubillaga, Veronica, 576