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date: 21 May 2019

(p. 695) Index

(p. 695) Index

Abadinsky, Howard 173, 185
Abelson, Elaine 164, 166
Albini, Joseph 184
Aletrino, Arnold 390
anachronism 608
anarchism 8, 100, 192–205, 373
Anslinger, Harry 219–221
antiquity (Athens, Greece, Roman Empire) 9, 63, 599, 601–603, 638–639, 648
anti-semitism 216, 218, 381, 383
Asbinder, Tyler 177
Asbury, Herbert 177
Aschaffenburg, Gustav 389–390
assassination 196
Atcherley, Llewellyn William 488
Australia (Sydney, Botany Bay, New South Wales, Van Diemen’s Land, Tasmania, Port Arthur, Norfolk Island) 3, 45, 46, 48–49, 52, 134, 148, 398–399, 407, 409–410, 467–468, 497, 574–575, 579–581, 583–585, 587–590, 635–636, 642, 645–650, 675, 677, 685
Austria (Holy Roman Empire, Hapsburg Empire, Austria-Hungary, Vienna) 115, 145, 200, 203–204, 212, 214, 216, 253, 273–274, 304, 347, 443, 485, 488, 524–525, 529–531, 619, 628, 636, 642–643
Aviram, Hadar 254
Bean, Philip 180
Beattie, John 159, 252, 255, 439, 463
Beccaria, Cesare 63, 374–377, 385, 577–578, 580, 607, 615–621, 644
Becker, Peter 374, 377, 379
Becker, Howard 408
Behan, Tom 173
Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Flanders) 67, 98–99, 115, 137, 200, 270, 275–276, 279, 387, 392, 416, 513, 526, 530, 622, 643, 682
Bemmerlen, J. M. van 391
Bentham, Jeremy 577–578, 591, 605, 646, 657, 678
Bertillon, Alphonse 202, 325, 332, 400, 403, 486–488, 492
Bewley-Taylor, David 219
Bierne, Piers 374, 377, 388
Black International 199
Blackstone, William 575–576, 580, 599, 605, 607, 616
Bland, Lucy 182
Block, Alan 180, 184, 186, 216
Bonger, Willem Andriaan 390–392
Bourdieu, Pierre 237–239
Brazil 198, 200, 202, 640, 648–650
Brockway, Zebulon R. 581–582
Brodeur, Jean-Paul 503
Brogden, Mike 502
Brown, Alyson 182
Butler, Josephine 137
capital punishment 8, 68, 258, 302, 409, 523–524, 532, 545, 585–587, 615–634, 665, 673, 675, 688
abolition 313, 385, 619–623, 628–629
“Bloody Code,” the 159, 162, 312, 440, 616, 620, 674
commutation 576, 581, 584–587, 617 (see also pardons)
debates 357–358, 615, 620 (see also enlightenment debate)
defense of capital punishment 385, 387, 397, 440, 626–628
deterrence, questioning 618
forms of execution 617, 625
offenses, capital (felonies) 258, 399, 620
public execution, abolition 617, 623–626
(p. 696) public reaction to 305, 307, 624
retention in the US 629–631
spectacle of public execution 557, 615–618, 632
women and 586
Castan, Nicole 102, 252
Catholic Church 657
causationism 73–74
Chandler, Raymond 322, 333, 355, 361, 365
Chaunu, Pierre 60, 76
Chesney-Lind, Meda 264
Christie, Agatha 322–323, 355, 357, 360
chronocentrism 71–72
Chubb, Judith 179, 185
civilizing process. See Elias, Norbert
Cohen, Stanley 308, 410
Cole, Simon 177
colonial context of criminal justice 48, 63, 80, 176–177, 122, 211–212, 221–222, 547–548, 576, 584–585, 607, 672, 679–680, 689, 691
colonialism 175, 635, 682, 687–688
decolonization context 279–280
history 1 (see also policing)
postcolonial studies 1, 10, 568
prostitution 132, 134–137, 142–148
reverse colonization 211–212, 221
Colquhoun, Patrick 450, 452, 461, 605
Comte, Auguste 374, 419
Conan Doyle, Arthur 208, 211, 322, 324–327, 332–333, 355–356, 365, 404
courts
appellate courts 70, 411, 427, 586–587, 590
assizes 25, 42, 258, 519
courtroom journalism 560–561
ecclesiastical courts 441
inquisition 656–659, 669
kirk sessions 441–442
federal courts 586, 605–607
lower courts 25, 44, 446, 449, 459–460, 476, 648
Old Bailey, the 3, 6, 30–31, 46, 182, 255, 258–259
quarter sessions 41, 42, 47, 258–259, 439
public opinion and 546
psychiatrists in courts 399, 401
Crapsey, Edward 377
Crawford, William 681
Cressey, Donald 170, 183–184
crime
black market 92, 182, 306, 530–531, 533
burglary 78, 98, 252, 447, 623
cultural construct 27–28
dark figure 164
definition 7–8, 27, 63–64, 80, 194, 293, 306, 609
female offenders (see gender)
fraud 155, 158–162, 165, 262, 383, 390, 428, 481, 529 (see also crime, white-collar)
homicide (see separate entry)
international (see organized crime)
petty 63, 155
passion crimes 242, 383, 563
robbery 61, 65–66, 97, 162, 231, 261, 291, 309, 424, 519, 522–523, 623
shoplifting 155, 184
smuggling (prohibition) 97, 148, 180, 184, 210, 215–216, 219–222, 528–529
street crime 306
treason 600–602, 623
urban 89, 95–101, 132
(p. 697) white-collar 28, 64, 476, 306 (see also fraud)
youth 148, 221, 402, 405, 408
crime fiction 354
crime genre 321–322, 354
crime memorial 347–348
crime museum. See Lombroso Museum
crime prevention
self-defense 287, 290–291
self-policing 162
criminal justice 293, 307, 320, 360, 365, 440, 549, 563
criminal law. See law
criminal responsibility 138, 243, 362, 376, 385, 387, 389, 398, 407, 409, 411, 425–429, 525
criminal sciences 343, 399–400
criminalistic fantasy 56
criminology
academic discipline, development 7, 399–401, 402
anomie theory (see social theory)
biological criminology (including socio-biological) 199, 325, 377, 379, 381, 384, 386, 388–390, 392, 396, 410–411, 418–419, 421–422, 425–428, 627
born criminal 138, 340, 343, 373, 381–385, 387–388, 390, 400, 403, 418, 686
criminal biology 374
criminal class (dangerous classes) 3, 29, 96, 176, 212, 215, 221, 306, 332, 377, 400, 402–403, 478, 483, 500, 584
criminalistics 374, 377, 417, 485 (see also forensic science)
cultural 321
Darwinism, social 380–382, 400, 419, 423, 430
deviance (see social theory)
eugenic movement 391, 400, 403–406, 686–687
habitual criminal 162, 175–177, 377, 389, 403–405, 483, 584–585
heredity 177, 389
historical criminology (see methodologies)
history, relationship with 1–4, 8, 47–48, 51
international criminal 212
moral imbecility 397, 404–407
moral statistics 345, 377–378
museums and history of 340, 349
phrenology 343, 374, 378
racial theory 343
recidivism 48, 176, 345, 384, 400, 403, 407–408, 410, 483, 486, 574, 580, 582, 657–658, 664
resocialization 376, 379, 387, 389
Sherlock Holmes and 332
sociology 419–420, 425
soviet 420–422, 426
Criminology, Schools of
School of Criminology, French 7, 59, 375, 384, 386–388, 400, 485
School of Criminology, Italian 7, 59, 138, 199, 343–344, 375, 384–387, 389, 391, 399–400, 681
criminology congresses 582
congresses of criminal anthropology 345
Criminology Congress 1885 in Rome 199, 345, 384, 386, 682
Criminology Congress 1889 in Paris 386–387
Criminology Congress 1892 in Brussels 387
Criminology Congress 1896 in Geneva 387
Criminology Congress 1901 in Amsterdam 387
Criminology Congress 1906 in Turin 387
Criminology Congress 1911 in Cologne 387, 389
Critchley, David 178
Crofton, Walter 580
culture of control 309
Damousi, Joy 3
Daniels, Kay 3
Danker, Uwe 174
Darwin, Charles 343, 379–382, 384–385
(p. 698) Davie, Neil 374
Davies, Andrew 185
D’Cruze, Shani 5, 44, 257, 262
De Candolle, Alphonse 59, 65, 68–69
Deflem, Mathieu 213
Denys, Catherine 444
detective novel 345–346, 353, 359, 481–482
detective, private 476, 481. See also police, detectives
Dickens, Charles 96, 176, 209, 627, 681
Dickie, John 175
discretion 574, 601–602. See also mercy
Dostoievski, Fyodor 384
Douglas, Mary 381
Dril’, Dimitri 418–419
drugs
dope fiends 309
dope rings 210
marijuana 211, 220–222
New Jim Crow 286
opium 140, 177, 209–217, 219
prostitution 140
trafficking 214–217
violence 366 (see also separate entry)
drunkenness 163, 235, 272, 401–402, 405, 439, 521, 661
DuBois, W. E. B. 388
Durkheim, Émile 64, 74–76, 80, 345, 390, 655, 659
Dykstra, Robert 3
Edwards, Laura 539
Egmond, Florike 172, 174
Eibach, Joachim 112, 251, 260
Eigen, Joel 398
Eisner, Manuel 23, 65, 76–78, 89, 112, 114–116, 231–232
Elias, Norbert 9, 23, 62, 72, 77, 113, 230–231, 376, 511, 657
emotion 311, 540, 562–563, 566
Emsley, Clive 2, 3, 9, 17, 21, 45, 171, 259, 271, 308, 436, 439, 447, 465, 510, 519
Enlightenment debates 111, 194, 236, 241, 342–344, 375–376, 380, 420, 436, 444, 447–449, 461, 463, 563, 574–577, 588, 598–599, 601–602, 604, 616–619, 657, 672, 675. See also Beccaria, Cesare
criminal law 598, 601
human nature 417
philosophy 344
political doctrine 194
punishment 657, 672
Evans, Richard J. 174
Exner, Franz 390–391, 524, 529–530
Eysenck, Hans 410
Farge, Arlette 252
Faulds, Henry 487
Feeley, Malcolm 6, 254–256
Ferri, Enrico 59, 384–385, 389, 391, 419–420, 582
Fielding, Henry 446, 450, 460, 477, 479, 483
Fijnaut, Cyrille 186
Fletcher, Joseph 378
Forman, James Jr. 286
Fosdick, Raymond B. 488–489
Foucault, Michel 2, 6–7, 22–23, 43, 60, 347, 374, 401, 410, 461, 557, 574, 600, 602–604, 611, 655, 658–662, 668–669, 678
Fouché, Joseph 502
Freud, Sigmund 44, 348, 396, 408
Friedman, Lawrence 539
Galeotti, Mark 185–186
Galton, Francis 176, 325, 487
Gambetta, Diego 171, 185
Gammon, Hugh 510
Garland, David 6–8, 417, 656, 659, 685, 689
Garofalo, Raffaele 374, 384–385
Gartner, Rosemary 72–73
Gatrell, Victor A. C. 2, 19, 574
gender
African-American women 285, 289
(p. 699) Canadian woman 72–73
confinement of women 656, 663, 667–668
crime drama 327
criminal offending, ratio of 5, 42, 231–232, 250–251, 260–263
criminal justice system, gender bias 5, 42, 250–255, 258–260
cultural constructions of gender 6, 18, 28, 250, 263
female criminality 28, 235, 251, 263, 383, 422–429
female deviance 5, 28, 42, 133, 138–139, 236, 257, 262, 307, 422–429
feminists, women’s movement 140–141, 145, 390, 685
kleptomania 158, 163–165
masculinity, concepts of 6, 112, 116, 120, 124, 229–230, 237–244, 307, 311, 519–521
medicalization of female offender 28
separate spheres 28, 250–251, 255
vanishing female 6, 28, 254–256
violence, female 6, 229–230, 233–235, 257, 260–263
violence, male 6, 229–230
women as victims 44, 258
Geremeck, Bronislaw 269
Gernet, Mikhail 420–421, 423
Gibson, Mary 383, 386
Glueck, Sheldon 406, 408
Godfrey, Barry 3, 47, 50, 105, 176, 259–260
Goring, Charles 387–388, 400, 404
Greenberg, Douglas 3
Greenwood, John 176
Gross, Hans 485, 488–489
Guerry, André-Michel 58, 324, 378, 386
Gurr, Ted 4, 62, 65, 67, 77
Habermas, Jürgen 559, 565
Hanway, Jonas 674–675
Hall, Stuart 52
Haller, Mark 180, 217–218
Hamel, Gerard Anton van 390
Haq, Aziz ul 487
Harrison, Brian 401
Havelock Ellis, Henry 387, 401, 404
Haviland, John 677
Hay, Douglas 2, 25, 42–43
Healey, William 405, 408
Heidensohn, Frances 5, 263
Heijden, Manon van der 6, 229, 232, 252, 255, 260
Henderson, Charles 400
Henry, Edward 487
Herschel, William 325, 487
Heymans, Gerard 390
Hill, Frederic 377
historiography 10
African-Americans 286–288
Annales School 11, 60, 76
criminal justice history, development 2–4, 6, 8–9, 17–31 (see also methodologies; social science theories)
critical analysis 597–599
cultural history 6, 27–29, 43
exchange between history and social sciences 1, 3–4
global history 566
history from below 24, 40
labor history 133
legal history 9, 19–21, 25, 194, 492, 539–540, 597, 601, 608
Marxist approaches 2, 22, 24, 42–43, 74, 78–79, 669
media history 302–304
new imperial history 210
new social history 4, 25, 610
positivism (empirical) approach 19
postmodernism 27
urban history/studies
violence to theft thesis 60, 76–77
Warwick School 2, 24
Whig interpretation 19–21, 346, 435, 457, 462, 502
women’s history (gender studies) 1, 5–6, 43, 229–230, 250–251, 257, 262
Hobsbawm, Eric 2, 24, 98, 101, 172–173
homicide 7–8
causes of homicide 112
definition (murder, manslaughter, culpable homicide) 70, 605
infanticide 253–254, 427
interpretations of rates 75–80, 89, 92–93, 125–128
measuring homicide, methodological problems 66, 70–71, 114–120
popular culture, homicide in 305, 321
violence, as indicator for levels of 7, 24, 58–59, 65–66, 70–71, 112–113
Hoover, J. Edgar 219, 489
Howard, John 661–664, 674–675, 681
Hufton, Olwen 253
Hugo, Victor 63, 620
Ianni, Francis & Elizabeth 184
Ignatieff, Michael 22–23, 665, 669, 678
immigrants 202
incarceration
African-Americans 285
asylum, mental institution [Bedlam] 8, 398, 655, 663
Auburn penitentiary 677
Borstal 402, 582, 584, 686
chain gang 289, 409, 648, 687–688
convict lease 687
conviction statistics 67–69
early-modern prison (House of Correction, Bridewell, Hôpital général, Zuchthaus) 655, 659–661, 665, 669, 673–676
Eastern State Penitentiary 677
Elmira reformatory 581–582, 685
female prison inmates 406, 581, 685
mass incarceration 688
medicine and 659–660
military organization in prisons 581
modern prison, rise of 8
panopticon 610–611, 645, 678
penal colony (see transportation)
penitentiary 578
Pentonville prison 677, 684
private prisons 589
psychiatrists in prisons 583, 687
reform, prison 674, 676
reformatory 581–582
solitary confinement 376, 390, 579, 647, 674, 677–678, 679, 690–691
welfarism, prison 6, 262, 688
wheelbarrow men 675
women (see gender)
workhouse 8, 140, 639, 644, 655–657, 662, 674, 676
indeterminate sentence 580
Inquisition 656–659
international criminal register 202, 214–215
international society 208–209
internationalism 196, 363–364
Ireland (Dublin) 114–117, 121–122, 124, 126, 139, 171, 398, 402, 436, 438, 441, 444, 456, 460, 462–463, 466, 513, 580
Italy (Sicily, Naples, Rome, Florence, Piedmont, Turin) 67, 89, 100–101, 103, 114–115, 124, 171–173, 175–180, 182, 185, 195–197, 200, 242–244, 252, 269, 275–276, 311, 323, 338–341, 343, 345, 382–383, 385, 389, 392, 418, 465, 523, 528, 530–532, 627–629, 642–643, 656, 662, 667
Jackson, Mark 254
Jackson, Louise A. 166, 262
Japan (Meiji) 466–467, 557, 680–682
Jamaica 676
Jebb, Joshua 579
Jefferson, Thomas 607–608
Jensen, Richard Bach 196–197
Johnson, Eric 57, 77
Joly, Henri 387
judicial torture 68, 619, 657–678
jury nullification 548–549
justice
jury trial 59, 69, 159, 162–163, 362, 396, 399, 406, 417, 524, 545, 546, 548–549, 603, 629
Mexican 360, 365
(p. 701) outside courts 539, 550
traditional/early-modern
juvenile (youth)
crime 166, 236–237
criminal justice 397, 402, 411, 686 (see also gender)
drugs and 220–221
gangs (sub-cultures, hooligans, skinheads, apaches) 99, 237–239, 307, 309
gender difference 260–263 (see also gender)
juvenile offender 402–403, 405, 519, 531, 559, 581–582, 604
release 584
young offenders’ institutions 262, 402, 405, 407–408, 581–582, 684, 686 (see also Borstal)
Kalifa, Dominique 176
Kaluszynski, Martine 374
Kempa, Michael 341–342
Kirchheimer, Otto 22–23, 59, 67, 59–60, 655, 659
Klockars, Carl B. 184, 501
Knepper, Paul 186
Kohn, Marek 182
Kraepelin, Emil 388–389, 401
Kraut, Julia Rose 204–205
Küther, Carsten 173
Labrie, Arnold 381
Lacassagne, Alexandre 345, 385–387, 392, 400, 485–486
LaFree, Gary 73
Laite, Julia 144
Lane, Roger 4, 112, 120–121
Lange, Katrin 173
Larson, Stieg 323
law
anarchist illegalism 195
anarchist laws 200–201
“Bloody code,” the (see capital punishment)
common law 161, 476, 575, 583, 600–601, 605–607
criminal law 597
Criminal Tribe Act 176
critical analysis of 598
caveat emptor 155, 161
femme covert 160–161
Garotting act 310
Habitual Criminal Act 176
legitimacy of 563, 597–601, 604–607
Metropolitan Police Act 1829 451, 462
M’Naghten rules 398–399
Napoleonic Codes 174, 620
Penal Servitude Act 1857 584
unwritten law 545
wicked laws (lois scélérates) 200
Worsted Acts 1777 448
Lawrence, Paul 4, 39
Liepmann, Moritz 524–525, 530
Loader, Ian 9, 328, 328
Locard, Edmond 485–486
Locke, John 575
Lombroso museum 338–347, 349, 383
Lubbock, John 380
Lubin, Nancy 180
Lucas, Netley 172
lynching 545
MacDonald, Arthur 388
Maconochie, Alexander 579–581
McIntosh, Mary 172, 184
magistrates 44, 259, 376, 399, 438–440, 446, 448, 450–451, 456, 459–460, 463, 467–469, 476–477, 502, 524, 528, 662, 675
defense council 399, 417, 563, 591
lawyers 143, 305, 312, 376–377, 387, 546
prosecutors 339
Malta 656–669
Manning, Peter 498
Manouvrier, Léonce 387
Maudsley, Henry 404
Mayhew, Henry 176, 377
Mayr, Georg von 378, 391
(p. 702) Maxwell-Stewart, Hamish 3, 8, 48–49
Mc Mahon, Richard 4, 8, 260
McLennan, Rebecca 687
Mearns, Andrew 176
media
concordance perspective 321
dominant ideology approach 565
fallacy perspective 320
law and order dialogue 556
law of opposites 305, 320
magazines 359
new journalism 301
police and 308
popular narratives 147–148, 360
radio 303–304, 555
sensationalism 303, 310, 564
television 303–304, 321–322, 555, 567
yellow journalism 357
mental illness. See psychiatry
sexual psychopath 409
mercy 575–576, 585
Merton, Robert 408
methodologies
comparative analysis 3, 20, 31, 57–59, 61–63, 69, 70–73, 76, 79, 310–311, 498, 499, 504, 506–507
crime fiction as source 355–357
Digital Panopticon Project 3, 30, 46
digitization 3, 45–46
digitized press, newspapers, broadsheets 45–46
forensic archaeology 67, 80
historical criminology 30
Historical Violence Database 42
interdisciplinarity 1–2, 129, 238
London Lives Project 3, 30
micro-history 1, 25, 49–51, 212, 231
model construction 4
models, criminal justice 8
Proceedings from the Old Bailey 3, 6, 30, 46, 255, 302, 307, 445
oral history 40, 44, 48, 51, 259
quantification 3, 41, 146, 229, 344
Quetelet project 42
sources revolution 40
statistical approach (quantification, crime statistics) 1, 3, 21, 41–42, 50, 58–60, 66–69, 70–74
statistics, national (judicial statistics, crime, police, victim) 524
Metternich, Klemens von 500
Meyer, Adolf 404–405, 406
Mildsmay, William 460
military 581
minorities 52, 63, 119, 146, 231, 237, 257–258, 268–284, 340, 388, 500, 502, 507, 510, 545, 586–589, 630, 689–690
aboriginal 343, 468
Algerians in France 279
black minorities in Europe 52, 279–280, 306, 382, 388, 527
Chinese 182, 209–215, 306, 542
criminal Justice system, treatment within 29
Irish 29, 95, 115, 177–180, 257, 306, 388, 580, 641, 650
Italian 95, 100, 104, 173, 175, 177–180, 182, 185, 195, 198, 306, 388
homosexual 327, 331, 327–328, 331, 361, 373, 390, 410 (see also sexual crime)
Latino 219–220, 545
Maori 468, 649
policing 268–281, 500, 502, 507, 510
Polish 103, 276, 637
race bias 29
racism 3, 183, 261, 279, 287, 290, 327–331, 338, 373, 379, 381, 542, 586, 634, 646
Roma (Gypsy) 98, 173–174, 269, 273–275, 277, 333, 340, 637
travellers 269, 274–275 (see also Roma)
vagrants (beggars, homeless, tramps, vagabonds) 94–96, 173–174, 269–278, 344, 388, 470, 500, 459, 637, 643–644, 660–662, 665, 669, 673
Moch, Page 252
Monkkonen, Eric H. 3–4, 57, 70–71, 77, 89, 230
moral panic 2, 27, 174, 182, 193, 198, 302, 308–311, 410. See also popular culture
Morel, Bénédict 176, 380
Moya, Jose C. 195
Muchembled, Robert 259, 261
Müller, Christian 374
Murakawa, Naomi 539, 550
Mussolini, Benito 179, 385, 389, 392, 531, 627
Nazism (Third Reich) 145, 274, 338, 346, 389, 391, 497, 504–506, 528, 628, 688
Netherlands (low countries, Holland, Amsterdam, Leiden, Rotterdam, Dutch) 58–60, 67, 98, 115, 123–124, 137, 147–149, 172, 174, 211, 214, 219, 232–233, 250–253, 255–257, 259–260, 270, 275, 279, 325, 387–388, 390–392, 443, 513, 522, 529, 622, 636, 639, 674
Newburn, Tim 379
New Zealand (Maori) 134, 137, 401, 467–468, 497, 503, 560, 649
Nordau, Max 373, 401
Nye, Robert 2, 7, 627
organized crime 170–191, 217
betting (race course) 181
definition 170–172
gangs 177–180, 261 (see also juvenile, crime)
Gauner 173–174
Mafia (Cosa Nostra, Camorra, Ndrangheta) 99–101, 103, 171–173, 175, 177–179, 183–184, 186, 219–220, 244
trafficking 186
Triad (Tong, Yakuza) 177
Osborne, Thomas M. 399
Ottolenghi, Salvatore 392
Oxley, Deborah 3
Ozerov, I. 423–424
Painter, Nell Irvin 287
Palmer, Stanley 463
Paoli, Leitizia 175, 186
parochialism 62, 72–73
parole 573, 582–583, 587, 587–588. See also release
Peel, Robert 450, 456, 462, 500–502, 620. See also police, Peelite principles
Pinel, Philippe 377, 404
Pinker, Steven 62, 65, 72, 77, 111–113, 115, 126, 235, 244
Poe, Edgar Allan 322
police/policing 9
accountability 462, 464, 469–470, 489, 498, 501–504, 507, 509–510, 513
Bow Street Runners 160, 446–447, 450, 460
civilian, 457, 469
crime drama 328
crime statistics (police) 69
definition 436
early-modern 26, 436–453
forensic science 67, 202, 321, 326, 363, 416–417, 475, 484–492
identification methods (Bertillonage, fingerprinting) 202, 273, 325, 332, 400, 403, 483–484, 486–487
international cooperation 212–215, 364
interpretations 3, 26, 435–436, 452, 497–514
law and 588, 606
legitimization 353, 465, 497–514
lieutenant général of Paris 437, 452, 459
media (see separate entry)
Metropolitan Police, London 304, 435, 451–452, 456–458, 460, 462–463, 479, 483, 487, 490, 500–502, 504, 512, 532
(p. 704) military style (maréchaussée, gendarmerie) 104, 272–273, 275, 436–437, 443–444, 458–459, 465–467, 469–470, 479, 498–499, 501–502, 504, 508–513, 522, 531–532 (see also minorities)
moral panic 2, 27, 174, 182, 193, 198, 302, 308–311, 410
modern, rise of 435, 443, 450–451, 456–470
museum 7, 346–347
Peelite principles (Anglo-American) 457, 462, 464, 497–508, 512
Popular Culture, Crime in 6, 26
print culture 175
professionalization 475, 481–482, 484–486, 488–491
public relations 304, 310, 463, 465, 470, 497–514, 549–550
racial violence 286
reform, police 436, 461
Scotland Yard 204, 400, 479, 481, 487–489, 492
social control, police as 436
Thames River Police 447
theory of 499, 599
thief-takers 174, 184, 439, 478
watchmen (night watch) 234, 273, 435, 438–439, 441, 447–449, 451–452, 459–460, 462, 464, 467
Porret, Michel 375
prison
African-Americans 285
Auburn penitentiary 677
conviction statistics 67–69
Eastern State Penitentiary 677
Elmira reformatory 581–582, 685
female offenders 406, 581, 685
medicine and 659–660
military organization 581
pardons 578
penitentiary 578
Pentonville prison 677, 684
private 589
psychiatrists in 583, 687
wheelbarrow men 675
See also incarceration
Prison Conferences, International 681–682
Pritchard, James C. 404
prostitution 212, 220, 253
black women 291, 142–144
campaigns against 137, 141
child prostitution 140–141, 148, 168, 217
colonial context 134, 135, 137, 143
definition 133–135, 384
legal situation 134–136
Magdalen homes 139–140, 667–668
policing 140, 149
popular narratives 147–148, 307
procuring [pimping, pimps, madams] 137–138, 142, 145, 148–149, 160, 182, 195
red light districts 145
stigma 143
white slave trade 141, 217, 406
psychiatrists 399, 411, 583
psychiatry 7, 43–44, 163–165, 263, 373, 377, 379, 405
public opinion 5
punishment
capital punishment (see separate entry)
corporal public 673
fines 90, 140, 290, 403, 573, 658, 659, 674
incarceration (see separate entry)
penal-welfarism 6, 411, 684–685, 687–690
shaming [humiliation, pillory] 546–549, 600, 617, 674
torture 68, 144, 334, 346, 358, 375, 564, 574, 600, 619, 657, 665 (see also judicial torture)
transportation (see separate entry)
utilitarian philosophy 577, 616, 625, 661
unemployment 67
Quakers 578, 621, 674
Quételet, Alphonse 58–59, 65, 69, 324, 377–378, 384, 386
Radbruch, Gustav 602–604
Rafter, Nicole 5–6, 374, 383, 656
Rapaport, Erika 165
Rapoport, David 194
(p. 705) Reiss, Rudolph Archibald 485–486, 488
Reith, Charles 20–21, 457
release
probation 139–140, 411, 686–689
ticket of leave 574, 579–580, 583–584
religious offenses 253
blasphemy 230
heresy 656
witchcraft 251, 253, 397, 638, 658
Reuter, Peter 184
Reynolds, Elaine 449
Reynolds, G. W. M. 176
Rockefeller, John D. Jr. 406
Romanticism 344, 380
Romilly, Samuel 159, 620
Rosen, Ruth 148
Roth, Randolph 3, 24, 50, 113–114, 117–118, 121–122, 125, 244, 260
Rothman, David 678
Rousseaux, Xavier 9, 67, 98–99
Rusche, Georg 59–60, 67, 655, 659
Russell Pasha, T. W. 215–216
Russia (Soviet, Siberia, Crimea, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Leningrad, Odessa) 137, 140, 145, 147, 185–186, 195–196, 204, 220, 276, 323, 364, 416–430, 527, 557, 635–638, 643–644, 650–651, 688
Scandi-crime 323
Scandinavia (Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark) 59–60, 67, 70, 90, 102, 114–115, 117, 123–124, 141–142, 144, 200, 204, 323, 342, 402, 622, 636–637, 642–643
Schlor, Joachim 176
Schober, Johan 212–213
scientific racism 343, 418
Scotland (Scottish, Edinburgh, Glasgow) 5, 41, 45, 47, 68, 89, 117, 121, 125–126, 139, 185, 306–307, 398, 409, 436–438, 440–442, 446–451, 460–461, 463, 485, 649
Seddon, Toby 411
Sellin, Thorsten 69, 388, 392, 408, 525
Selling Sex in the City 132, 136, 148
sentencing 574, 580, 589
Servadio, Gaia 179
sexology 150, 383, 387
sexual crime
adultery (fornication) 134, 235, 253
bigamy 656
homosexuality (sodomy) 47–48, 136, 307, 409
incest 657
paedophilia (underage sex) 44, 212, 288, 409, 422
See also prostitution
Shapiro, Ann-Louise 5
Shoemaker, Robert 3, 45, 94, 112, 241, 252
Shpayer-Makov, Haia 311
Shtier, Rachel 165–166
Siemens, Daniel 310, 313
Simon, Jonathon 690
Simpson, O. J. 565–566
Smith, Dwight 177
Snell, Esther 446
social theory 2
anomie 63, 75–76
Chicago School 184, 388, 392, 567
civilizing process, criticism of 112
civilizing process, theory of the 68, 72–74, 77, 111–112 (see also Elias, Norbert)
conflict theory 78–79
elite studies 2
feminist theory 5, 39, 133, 135, 238, 257
historians, engagement with 1–4, 8, 47–48, 51, 170
historical sociology 10
labeling theory 236, 408
Marxism 194–195, 385, 390
modernization (modernizing, modernity) theory 11, 73–77, 80–81, 89, 102, 115, 128, 166, 171, 173–174, 197–198, 230, 243, 305, 310, 345, 365, 428–430, 504–506, 672, 678–679
rational choice theory 237
social control/social regulation 2, 4, 7, 31, 88, 236–237, 240–241, 410–411, 436, 458, 503, 509–510
state monopoly of violence 9, 77, 80, 113, 550
Spencer, Herbert 380
Spierenburg, Pieter 7, 9, 23, 112–113, 116, 118, 232, 237, 239, 241, 244, 259–261, 373, 655, 657, 669
Stansell, Christine 146
Steffensmeier, Darrell 261, 263
Storch, Robert 2, 26, 42, 451
Strange, Carolyn 656
Styles, John 445
Sue, Eugène 96, 176
Surette, Ray 320
Sutherland, Edwin 408
Tabbs, Hannah 291–293
Tarde, Gabriel 59, 386–387, 391
Tarnovskaia, Pauline N. 383, 418, 422
technology 324
terrorism 192, 194, 197, 332–333, 563
Thiele, A. F. 377
Thompson, E. P. (Edward Palmer) 2, 24, 42
Tocqueville, Alexis de 681
trafficking 216–217, 133. See also organized crime
transportation 3, 8, 25, 46, 48, 359, 467, 619, 635–651, 659, 672–674
American colonies 635, 641
Australia 46, 48, 636, 642
colonization and 635, 639, 647–651
French penal colonies (Algeria, Guiana and New Caledonia) 635, 642
galleys 639–640, 642
politics of transportation, the 359, 574, 579–580, 619, 646, 659, 672–675, 677, 684
Portuguese penal colonies (Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Goa) 636, 640
Roman Empire 638–639, 648
Russia, Katorga (penal labor) 383, 644
slavery and indenture 635, 639, 649–650
Van Houten, Marius 212–214
Vexliard, Alexandre 269
Vidocq, Eugène-François 96, 478–479, 481, 483
Viernstein, Theodor 389–390
Vigilante 543, 550
violence
attitudes to, changing 68, 238, 241–243, 256–258
class-based 260
decline 57, 88, 111–112, 258–260 (see also homicide)
definition 64–65
domestic 44, 64, 257–258, 383, 524
drug trafficking and 366
evolutionary psychology (neuro science) 23–24, 112, 126–128, 229, 235
gun violence 3
honor and masculinity (see gender)
interpersonal, Interpreting 23, 62–64, 123–126, 235–241, 519
political 193
popular justice and 539–540, 549
prostitution and 144–145
race and 286
rape (sexual violence, sexual assault) 44, 64, 66, 78, 135, 257–258, 260, 262, 286–290, 378, 407, 519, 526–527, 547, 550, 623
recreational 236
rural 62, 88, 91–93, 522
social studies on 4, 236–237
state (see police, violence)
United States, patterns of violence in the 3, 24, 113, 117–121, 244
violence to theft thesis (see historiography)
Vollmer, August 489
Voltaire, François 375, 616
Vucetich, Juan 487
Vyleta, Daniel 304–305
Wadauer, Sigrid 274
wartime crime 519–533
army personnel, by 519–520, 525–529
civilians, by 529–530
crime, rates during and after 519, 524
ex-soldier-criminal, the 522–524
prosecution and policing of army personnel 521–522, 526, 528, 531–533
Weber, Max 76. See also state monopoly of violence
welfare (poor relief) 270
(p. 707) Wells, Ida B. 388
Wetzell, Richard 374
White, Luise 143–144
Wickmann, Clara 390
Wiener, Martin 6, 28, 237, 242, 257–259, 311, 376, 379–380
Woodiwiss, Michael 180
Worrall, Anne 262
Wright, Alan 173, 181, 185
Zedner, Lucia 5, 28, 41–42, 255, 257–258, 469, 656 (p. 708)