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date: 17 October 2019

(p. 803) Index

(p. 803) Index

Abdurashidov, Abdulvali, 619f
Abraham, Otto, 679–680
Abrahams, Roger, 174
Academia, in China, 746–748
Access, on music education, 576–583
Accordion, 695–696
Acoustemology, 96
Action ethnomusicology, 546
Action points, for scholars, 339–340
Action research, 109
Action research, participatory, 109–131, 128. See also Participatory approaches
empowerment in, 128, 130
ethnomusicologist role in, 128–129
Activism
in CASES methodology, 211–217, 213f
marginalized music of South Asia and (See South Asia, activism and marginalized music of)
musical, 368
pop(ulist), 792–797 (See also Pop(ulist) activism)
in survivors’ music, 498–501
university-based (See Conflict resolution)
Activist ethnomusicology, 350
Adaptive management, 159. See also Sustainability, resilience, and adaptive management
resilience and, 180–182, 193
in Old Regular Baptists, 183–187, 184f, 191
in old-time string band music revival, 183, 188–191
Adler, Guido, 229–230
Advocacy, 7, 28–29, 54–55, 199–226, 350
in Austria (See Intercultural mediation)
capacity assessment and project conceptualization in, 205–208, 206f
CASES methodology in, 208–221
advocacy and activism in, 211–217, 213f
community partnerships in, 208–210
education in, 218–220
other partnerships in, 210–211
service in, 217–218
sustainability in, 220–221
Clifford on, 199
concerts as, 463–464
energy and commitment in, 221–222
expectations in, success and, 223
history of, early, 28–29
impact of
reciprocal, 224–225
on research, 223–224
as intercultural mediation (See Intercultural mediation)
personal motivation for, 200–203
Pettan and Harrison on, 210–211
scholar vs. advocate roles in, 199
service learning in, lessons from, 203–205
setting limits in, 222–223
in survivors’ music, 498
in Uganda, 200, 201f
Aesthetics, in survivors’ music, 487–488
A(pplied) Ethnomusicology, Dr., 381, 386–392
Afghanistan conflicts
cultural redevelopment in, 462–463
refugees from, 462–463
Africa, 36
Aga Khan Development Network, 462
Aga Khan Humanities Project, 607, 615–621
application of, 621–623, 622f
cinema group in, 620
humane humanism in, 628
music in curriculum in, 618–620, 619f
phases of evolution of, 620–621
pluralism in, 626–628, 627f, 633
(p. 804) publications of, 631
Rafique Keshavjee of, 608, 608f
research on, 621, 622, 623–626, 624f, 626f
sponsorship of, 618
status of, changes to, 631–632
truth in, 627–628
Aga Khan Music Initiative, 462–463
Aga Khan Trust for Culture, 462
Akanga, 527t, 531, 537, 543
Akiva, Rabbi, 200
Alabama, folklife program in, 721
al-Ārabī, Ibn, 614
al-Dīn, Safī, 613
al Dīn, Shams, 615
Alevism, 272
Alexander, Delia, 573–575
Alexeyeff, Kalissa, 76
al-Fārābi, 612, 613
al-Ghazzālī, 614
al-Kīndi, 612, 613
Allen, Catherine, 400
All for one, 797–799
All-Stars, PAA, 569–571
al-Sabty, Hikmat, 527t, 531, 543
Altments, Miervaldis, 86, 86f, 88
Ambedkar, Ramji, 370
American Folklife Center (Library of Congress), 24, 163, 164–165
ethnomusicologists at, 714–715
founding of, 712, 714
programs of, 712–715
Analytical categories, 321–322
Andersson, Nils, 687–688, 688f, 692–700, 694f, 699f. See also Folk Music Commission, Swedish
Andes to Amazon on River Q’eros. See River Q’eros, Andes to Amazon on
Ang, Ien, 259
The Anthropology of Media, 526
Antipodean approach, 72
Apasa, Santos Machacca, 416, 417
Appaduria, Arjun, 129, 131
Appalachian mountain, southern, cultural policy interventions in, 6
Appavoo, Rev. J. Theophilus, 361, 362–365, 371
Applied
meaning of, 387
in other disciplines, 34–35
Applied anthropologists, early work of, 20–21
Applied ethnomusicology. See also specific topics
advocacy in, 7, 28–29, 54–55, 199–226, 350 (See also Advocacy)
being, knowing, and doing in, 9–10
Berger on, 32
as conscious practice, 30–31
cultural policy interventions in, 6–7
definitions of, 4–5, 59, 278, 603, 737
contextualized, 572–576 (See also under Education sector, in United States)
early work in, 20–22
education in, 7
as emergent movement, 3
empathy in, 604
in environmental sound activism and ecojustice, 8
in epistemological orientation, 9
four strategies of, Sheehy’s, 143
hermeneutic method for, 604–610
humane application of, 621–629
humanist theory of, 610–615 (See also Humanism)
humanism in, 610–615, 611f, 613f (See also Humanism)
humanitarian project in, 615–621 (See also Aga Khan Humanities Project)
insularity in, 10
International Council for Traditional Music on, 45–47
in journalism, 8
in law and music industry, 8
in libraries, museums, and sound archives, 8
in medicine, 8
vs. non-academic work, 31
in North America, 5–9
peace and conflict resolution in, 7–8
philosophical reflection on, 603–604
power imbalance in, 31–32
professionalization of, 18–20
public (sector), 8
as reflexive, 95, 97
(p. 805) scope of, 4–5
Sheehy’s categorization of, 245
theory vs. practice in, 603
as unified voice, 602–603
in United States, 10–29 (See also History of ethnomusicology, U.S.)
Applied Ethnomusicology: Historical and Contemporary Approaches, 28, 30–31
Apprenticeships, 728–729
Araújo, Samuel, 110, 131, 586, 591
Archer, William Kay, 134
Archive of Folk Song, 711–712
Archives, folk music, 671–706
as applied ethnomusicology, 671
issues in, 676
nation in a cabinet in, 676–681, 677f–678f, 680f
Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv in, 679–681
cultural heritage process and, 683–685
Folk Music Commission’s impact on, 699–703
everyday meaning and practitioner’s perspective on, 691–692
folk music in
bearers of tradition of, 694–695, 694f
definitions of, 672, 689–691
essence and origin of, 693–694
history of, 673–676
Kriŝjāanis Baron’s collection in, 676–679, 677f–678f, 680f
objectives of, 671–672
rationales for, modern, 681–682
Arendt, Hannah, 604
Arman, Khaled, 540–542
at Bern’s Stadttheater, 541–542
at festival opening, 540
at Musik Festival Bern, 523–524, 524f
Armchair ethnomusicology, 725–726
Art Is Education, 560, 577, 583
Artism, 279, 281
applied ethnomusicology and, 297–299
critique of, from Autistic Self-Advocacy community, 299–302
participants in, 309
Artism Ensemble, 278, 294–295
Exploratory World Music Playground and, 294–295
origins of, 285–296
Artism Music Project, 278–279, 285–286
Artistic events, 321
Artistic genre, 321
Artistry, 321
Artists, teaching, 553
in Cleveland, 559–562, 567–570, 582, 590, 591
Arts integration, 561–563
Asch, Moses, 716
Askew, Kelly, 526
Ateliers d’Ethnomusicologie (ADEM), 534
Attali, Jacques, 791
Audio-visual media, 518
Australia, 36
Austria. See also specific minorities
advocacy in (See Intercultural mediation)
comparative musicology origins in, 229–230
immigrants and minorities in
discrimination against, 236
integration process for, 236
immigration to, 234–235
intangible cultural heritage in, 272
minorities in
autochthonous, 235
Bosnian refugees in, 238–239, 250–257, 270 (See also specific minorities)
ethnic groups in, 235–236, 235t
historical and political background of, 234–238, 235t, 272
Initiative Minderheitin for, 237
music and, 229–234
Roma in, 238, 239–250, 270 (See also Roma, in Austria)
Authenticity
in ecosystems of music, 139
of folk music, identification of, 697
indexical, 408
indigenous tourism and, 406–409, 407f
performative, 407–408, 423
Autism, 278–311
application of, 283–286
Artism Ensemble in, 278, 285–286, 294–295
(p. 806) Artism in, 279, 281, 297–299
critique of, from Autistic Self-Advocacy community, 299–302
participants in, 309
Artism Music Project in, 278–279, 285–286
autism awareness in, scourge of, 302–303
“Autism Fact Sheet” on, NIND, 290–292
autism spectrum disorder and, 290, 309
Bascom on, 287, 292
beginnings of, 281–283
concluding thoughts on, 307–308
criticisms of, 303–305
deficit-centrism in, 291–293
ethnography applications in, 296–297
Grandin on, 291
Loud Hands: Autistic People, Speaking on, 287, 292, 310
Music-Play Project for, 281, 284–285, 309
music therapy and medical ethnomusicology for, 279–281
Ne’eman and self-advocates on, 292–293
neurodiverse approach to, 293–294
polyvocal narrative approach to, 278
self-advocates for, 292–293
Siebers on, 296
Sinclair on, 296–297
spinny chairs and Mara in, 286–289, 305–308
Straus on, 296
Walker on, 294
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 290, 309
Autistic Self Advocacy Network, 292
Ayni, 399–400, 414, 440, 445. See also Reciprocity
Azariah, Bishop M., 361–362
Azra project, 33–34, 250, 466
Babiracki, Carol, 75
Badakhshsan, 609, 621, 624–627, 628, 630, 632
Bajrektarević, Sofija, 251
Bakan, Michael, 651
Balance of nature, theory of, 170
abandonment in, 173
ecosystem resilience and, 181–182
Balfa, Dewey, 174–175
Balinese music education, 652
Baron, Kriŝjāanis, 676–679, 677f–678f
Baron, Robert, 721
Barz, Gregory, 204, 217, 270, 385, 584
Bascom, Julia, 287, 292
Battiste, M., 389
Bauböck, Rainer, 236
Bausinger, Hermann, 267–268
Bearers of tradition, of folk music, 694–695, 694f
Beaudry, Nicole, 72
Behar, Ruth, 75
Beijing seniors, musical lives of, 751–753, 752f, 753f
Being-in-relation, 392–393
Being in the world, 606
Being, knowing, and doing, 9–10
Belonging, deepening sense of, 571–572
Berger, Harris M., 32, 340, 357–358, 363, 372
Berliner, Paul, 25–26, 76–77, 177
Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv, 679–681
Berlin School archives, 679–681
Bezić, Jerko, 39, 231
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), 356–357
Bildik, Mansur, 262–264, 262f, 263f
Bi-musicality, 17, 23, 74, 354, 730, 782
Biopower, 193
Blacking, John, 362–363, 371, 372, 604, 650, 651, 662
Blues Kids Foundation, 509
Blum, Stephen, 566
Boas, Franz, 11, 13
Bogdal, Klaus Michael, 239–240
Bohman, Stefan, 683–684
Boniface, Priscilla, 406, 422, 444
Bosnia-Herzegovina, 453–478. See also Post-conflict and post-catastrophe communities
commemorations in, 468–469
concert advocacy in, 463–464
cultural institution closure or changes in, 475–476
humanitarian aid in, 454
market shifts in, 470
Mostar bridge in, 477
(p. 807) Mozaik Community Development Foundation and Guča Gora in, 454–458 (See also Mozaik Community Development Foundation and Guča Gora)
musical venues in, 460–461
post-catastrophe aid environments in, 458–460
Pro Helvetia–Gramofon Records partnership in, 471–475
War Child and Pavarotti Music Center in, 464–468, 478
Bosnia-Herzegovina conflict
ethno-religious nature of, 456–457
Non-Governmental Organization Development Foundation after, 454–458
Bosnia Living Heritage Network, 455
Bosnian refugees, in Austria, 238–239, 250–257, 270
Bosnian refugees, in Norway, 33–34
“Bosnian evening” in, 254
“Dunjaluče” in, 252–254
as forced migrants, 250
indirect intervention in, results of, 257
“Kraj tanana šadrvana” in, 255–256
Petrović and Levin on, 250–251
Pettan’s work on, 250
Ševko Pekmezović’s music on, 251–257, 251f
“When I Sing My Thoughts Fly to Bosnia” in, 251–252, 251f
Botkin, Benjamin, 711
Brian Jones Presents the Pan Piles of Jajouka, 779
Buber, Martin, 200
Buena Vista Social Club, 773, 782–783
Bufo Variations, 96–97
Bustin, Dillon, 720
Butler, Richard, 406
Byrne, David, 780, 784
Cáceras, Renato, 433, 439
Cambodian Living Arts organization, 463
Cambodia, travel disruption and forced migration in, 463, 478
Campbell, Patricia Shehan, 21, 563–564
Capacity, assessment of, 205–208, 206f
CASES methodology, 208–221
advocacy and activism in, 211–217, 213f
community partnerships in, 208–210
education in, 218–220
other partnerships in, 210–211
service in, 217–218
sustainability in, 220–221
Ca tru Vietnam project, 152–153, 153f–154f
CD recordings, 518. See also specific recordings
Čengić, Aida, 471–475
Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage (CFCH), 715–716
Central Conservatory of Music (China), 747, 763, 766
Chinese Guqin musical culture database of, 747–748
English translation of music by, 758–759
“Key Project” of, 2006, 747
Musical Instrument Exhibition Centre of, 760–762, 761f
music course reforms of, 754
Uyghur Muqam database of, 747
World Music Days at, 754–758, 755f
Ceribašić, Naila, 245
Chahar khaneh, 626f
Chatterjee, Partha, 356–357
Chicago, 6
The Chicago Guide to Collaborative Ethnography, 437
CHIMP (Children’s Happiness Integrative Music Project), 284
China, 735–766
cultural diversity in, 756
history of applied ethnomusicology in, 735–738
individual perspective on, 753–764
background on, 753–754
Chinese music records in, English translations of, 758–760
Musical Instrument Exhibition Centre in, 760–764 (See also Musical Instrument Exhibition Centre)
World Music Days in, 754–758, 755f, 757f
Key Research Base for Humanities and Social Sciences in, 747, 766
Musicology Research Institute in, 747, 766
(p. 808) research findings in, 737–738
scope of, 735–736
social perspectives on, 738–753
in academia, musical databases, 746–748
in mass entertainment, Chinese Central Television, 748–751 (See also Chinese Central Television (CCTV) programs)
in political construction, communities, 738–741, 740f
in social construction, intangible cultural heritages, 741–746, 745f, 765
in social life, musical lives of Beijing seniors in, 751–753, 752f, 753f
Chinese Central Television (CCTV) programs, 748–751
discussion of, 750–751
Fenghua Guoye in, 750
Opera Channel in, 750
Television Grand Prix for Young Singers in, 749
Traditional Instrumental Music Performance Competitions in, 749–750
Chinese Guqin musical culture database, 747–748
Christchurch Latvian diaspora, Uz Tēvu Mājām and, 84–88, 86f
Christensen, Dieter, 51
Church, in India, 360–361, 370
Civil society, 477
Classical ten percent, 352–353
Classification
in cultural heritage process, 684
of music, 590
Cleveland Arts Education Consortium, 560–561
Cleveland, music education in. See also Education sector, in United States
Art Is Education in, 560, 577, 583
cross-institutional applications in, 565–572
belonging in, deepening sense of, 571–572
formal schooling instructional access expansions in, 565–568
“musicking” a public voice in, 569–571
Toddler Rock in, 559–560, 568–569, 571, 580–581
frames for learning in, institutional, 555–557
partners’ network in, decisions of, 557–560, 587
Cleveland Arts Education Consortium in, 560–561
Cleveland Metropolitan School District in, 558–559
Cleveland Music Therapy Consortium in, 560
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum in, 557–560, 577–578
Young Audiences of Northeast Cleveland in, 560, 582–583
Progressive Arts Alliance in, 567–568
social barriers and access in, 576–583 (See also under Education sector, in United States)
Young Audiences of Northeast Cleveland, 560, 582–583
Clifford, James, 199
Climati, Antonio, 29
Coca leaves, 400, 401, 414, 425–426, 443
Cohen, Judah M., 204
Collaboration
with folklorists, 726
researcher vulnerability in, 72
in survivors’ music, 492–493
Colonial(ism), 381
cultural impoverishment of minorities from, 317
Colonized, 381
Colonizer, 381
Comfort women, 481, 507. See also Survivors’ music
Commemorations
peer-to-peer file sharing and, 773
in post-conflict and post-catastrophe communities, 468–469
Commerce, 772–801
all for one in, 797–799
as applied ethnomusicology?, 772–773
Buena Vista Social Club in, 773, 782–783
copyright ownership in, 776
cultural merchants and brokers in, 774–778 (See also Cultural merchants and brokers)
folklorist presence in end product in, 777
(p. 809) music business degree programs in, 773
mutually beneficial exploitation in, 779–784 (See also Exploitation, mutually beneficial)
pop(ulist) activism in, 792–797 (See also Pop(ulist) activism)
Real World Records in, 773, 780–781, 790
from resource exploitation to service enterprise in, 784–792 (See also under Exploitation)
academics’ role in, 786–787
assumptions of musicians recorded in, 786
field recordings in, commoditization of, 785–786
field recordings in, non-academic, 784–785
global music industry in, 790–792
Lomax, Alan’s work in, 785–786
music industry in, 786
One Laptop Per Child in, 788–789
Real World Records and Luaka Bop in, 780–781, 790, 800
representation in, 787
service in, 792
Toms Shoes in, 788, 789–790
traditional music circuit in, 787–788
self-promotion and cultural promotion in, 774–776
sustainability in, 799
technology, media, and marketing in, 772
Commitment, to project, 221–222
Committee on Applied Ethnomusicology, SEM, 27
Communication, ebb and flow of, 324–328
diglossia in, 325
fusions in, 327
interactions between genres in, 326–327
Kera language in, 325
languages in, 325
pidgins and creoles in, 325
Siberian Sakha dièrétii sung genre in, 325–326
West Cameroon’s DAKASTUM in, 326
Communities, 321. See also specific communities
Chinese, 738–741, 740f
Community arts survey, performing basic, 342–344
Community-based tourism, 410–411
Community music, 640
popularity of, 652–653
scope and applications of, 653–655
Community partnerships, in CASES methodology, 208–210
Community service learning, Usner on, 208–209
Comparative musicology, 13–14
vs. folk music research and ethnomusicology, 37, 37t
Conceptualization, of project, 205–208, 206f
Concert advocacy, 463–464
Concerts, public, 518
Conflict resolution, music for, 511–547
case studies on, 519–524
East Germany: Polyphonie der Kulturen Project ( Rostock, 2005-2008), 519–521, 520f
Switzerland: Münsingen Project in, 521–523, 522f
Switzerland: Musik Festival Bern in, 523–524, 524f
CD production in: representation, authority, and negotiations in, 535–538
Ensemble Kaboul as representation of exiles in
Arman at Bern’s Stadttheater in, 541–542
Arman at festival opening in, 540
Ensemble Kaboul in
as representation of exiles in festival, 540–542
role-perceptions of, 534
infrastructural basis, finances, and funding of, 528–530
institutional contexualization of, 512–513
long-term effects of, 542–545
in Münsingen Project, 544
in Musik Festival Bern, 544–545
in Polyphonie der Kulturen Project, 542–544
music’s role in, 515–517
between observer and actor, 524–525
outlook for, 545
(p. 810) performers and interlocutors for, selection of
in Münsingen Project, 532–533
in Polyphonie der Kulturen Project, 530–532
political context of
in Germany, 512–513
in Switzerland, 514
power and expectation in, in Münsingen Project, 538–540
power interplays in, 535
public display in, 517–519
representation in, 530
semi-calculable factors in, 526, 527t
Connections, from music, 556–557
Conscientization, 114
Conscious practice, 352
Conservation, 160–167
cultural, 175
resilience in, 182
definition of, 165
history of
cultural resources in, Europe, 161–162
cultural resources in, U.S., 162–167 (See also History of cultural conservation, U.S.)
natural resources in, 161
preservation and, 160, 162
archival, 162
digital, 162
UNESCO on, 167–168
in resilience, 182
restoration in, 162
UNESCO definition of, 168
Conservation biology, 172
Conservation ecology, 172–173
Constructivist framework, 509, 557
Consultant–researcher cooperation models, 270
Context
in applied ethnomusicology, 572–576
in ecosystems of music, 139
Contexts and constructs. See also specific types
in five domains, 141f, 144–146, 145t
in Sustainable Futures for Music Cultures, 151
Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, 2003, 168
Cooley, Timothy, 244, 245, 270, 385, 584
Cooperation models, consultant–researcher, 270
Copyright ownership, 776
Corntassel, J., 394
Creating Local Arts Together (CLAT), 337–339, 338f
“Creativity and Ambiance: An Ecstatic Feedback Model from Arab Music,” 328
Creoles, 325
Critical evaluation, 112
Critical race theory, 380
Croatia, 38–39, 41–42
Cultural anthropology, sustainability in, 172
Cultural-artistic associations (KUDs), 456, 477
Cultural conservation, 175. See also Conservation
resilience in, 182
Cultural Conservation, 164–165
safeguarding in, 168, 182
Cultural democracy, for empowerment, 653
Cultural diversity, in China, 756
Cultural engagement and ownership, through participatory approaches. See Participatory approaches
Cultural heritage
ecology and, 134–135
Cultural Heritage Day, in China, 742
Cultural heritage process, 683–685
Bohman on, 683–684
classification in, 684
identification in, 684
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett on, 683
standardization in, 685
Swedish Folk Music Commission’s impact on, 699–703
symbolization in, 685
Cultural impoverishment, of minorities, 317
Cultural institutions. See also specific institutions
in post-conflict and post-catastrophe communities, 475–476
(p. 811) Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research, and Practice, 589
Cultural merchants and brokers, 774–778
Alan Lomax as, 774–777
copyright ownership and, 776
David Byrne and Peter Gabriel in, 780–782, 784
Ry Cooder as, 782–783
self-promotion and cultural promotion by, 774–776
Steven Feld as, 777–778
Cultural migration, Musical Instrument Exhibition Centre of China and, 763
Cultural policy, 728
Cultural policy interventions, 6–7
Cultural resources, history of conservation of. See also specific types
in Europe, 161–162
Cultural trauma, 6
Curriculum
ethnomusicology in, 647–648
music in, in Aga Khan Humanities Project, 618–620, 619f
teaching, applied domain in, 50
Cusick, Susanne, 484
Cutting, Jennifer, 730
DAKASTUM, 326
Dalit, 371
Christian, 360–361
Christianizing of, 361–362
cultural value of, transformative musical meaning/action as, 351–352
as oppositional politics, 351, 369
rejection of Hinduism by, 371–372
terminology for, 351, 370
Dalit Action Theory, 351–352
in ethnomusicology, 357–360, 369
Dalit music and culture
case studies on
drumming Dalit documentary film in, 365–369
Subaltern Sing (and drum!) in, 358–361
Tamil folk music as Dalit theology in, 362–365
“polluting” aspects of, 352–353, 359, 365–366
scholars’ ignorance of, 352
Dalit theology movement, 361–362, 371
Daly, Herman E., 171–172
Dariquebe, Estela, 428f, 429
Databases, musical, in China, 746–748
Chinese Guqin musical culture database in, 747–748
Uyghur Muqam database in, 747
Davidova, Eva, 247
Davis, Martha Ellen, 27
Davis, Wade, 443
Dayton Accord, 457
Deasy, Richard, 556–557
Decolonization, 26, 379–394
Barz and Cooley on, 385
beginnings of, 379–382
colonizer–colonized shared culture in, 381
critical race theory in, 380
Dr. A(pplied) Ethnomusicology meets Professor Decolonization in, 381, 386–392
Gourlay on, 384–385
Meizel on, 385–386
Ms. White Settler Colonial in, 381, 382–384
as non-indigenous narrator, 379
person-is-political story in, 379
response-ability and being-in-relation in, 392–393
story-ing fundamentals in, 379–380
talks about, 393–394
uncomfortable reflexivity in, 379–380
whispering about, 384–386
wide-awakeness in, 384, 393
Decolonization, Professor, 381, 386–392
Deep Forest, 327
Deficit-centrism, in autism, 291–293
Delicious Peace coffee, 223
Democracy, cultural, for empowerment, 653
Dersim, 272
Dersim Rebellion (massacre), 272
Desk work, 725–726
(p. 812) Development
community, participatory approaches for, 129
conventional vs. participatory approaches to, 111–112 (See also Participatory approaches)
cultural, in post-conflict and post-catastrophe communities, 453
network, 518
programs for (See also specific types)
critical evaluation of, 112
sustainable (See Sustainable development)
Development, sustainable, 111, 158, 160. See also Sustainability
economists on, 169–172
environmentalists on, 169–170
origins and meaning of, 169
vs. sustainable growth, 171
DeWitt, Mark, 178
Dialogic research, 110
Didi-Huberman, Georges, 349
Dièrétii sung genre (Siberian Sakha), 325–326
Digital media, 518
Digital music, market shifts from, 470
Digital preservation, 162
Diglossia, 325
Direct mediation, 34
Dirksen, Rebecca, 28, 350, 354
Distantiation, 607, 608
Diversification, 181–182
Diversity
cultural, in China, 756
in global music
decline in, 142
sustaining of, 142
in sustainability, 177
Documentation. See also Archives; specific topics
oral history, in George Town, Penang, 121
printed, 518
for social intervention, 129
of survivors’ music, 501
Domination and the Arts of Resistance, 505
Dongjing music, Yunnan, 743
Dorson, Richard, 18
Dower, John, 354
Dr. A(pplied) Ethnomusicology, 381, 386–392
Drumming Dalit documentary film, 365–369
Drums, Indian frame (parai), 352, 370. See also Dalit; Parai
in drumming Dalit documentary film, 365–369
as “polluted,” 352–353, 359, 365–366
trance states from, 360
Dub music, 478
Dukuduku Forest residents (South Africa), 110
Dumont, Louis, 98
Duri, Pak, 508
Dyen, Doris, 27
East Germany, migrant music in, 519–521, 520f
Ecojustice, 8
Ecology, 179, 333
conservation, 172–173
Haeckel’s definition of, 135–136
music cultures and, 134–135
Ecomusicology, 8
Economists, on sustainable development, 169–172
Ecosystem, 58, 136, 179–182
definitions and applications of, 58, 136
in sustainability, 137
Tansley on, 136
Ecosystems of music, 135–141
applicability of, to ethnomusicology, 58, 136–137, 179–182
definition and scope of, 134–135, 137, 138
intruders in, 140
key clusters of forces in, mapping, 140, 141f
maintaining in, 137
music genres in, rise and fall of, 137–138
not interfering in, 140
preservation of, factors in, 137–138
sustainability in
concept of, 137–138, 179–182
what to sustain in, 138–139
Tansley on, 137
tradition, authenticity, and context in, 139
Education
CASES methodology in, 218–220
music (See Music education)
community music and (See Music education, community music, and ethnomusicology)
(p. 813) Education sector, 553–592
ethnomusicologists’ strategies in, 555
outcomes of, 555
partnerships among institutions in, 553–554, 587–588
teaching artists in, 553
Education sector, in United States, 553–592. See also Cleveland, music education in
background on, 553–555
contextualized strategies in, definition of, 572–576
Alexander on, 573–575
in education partnerships, 573
Maultsby on, 573–575
negotiations and partnerships in, 575–576
of Sheehy, 572–573
contextualized strategies in, for partnerships for learning music, 584–586
cross-institutional applications in, 565–572
belonging in, deepening sense of, 571–572
formal schooling instructional access expansions in, 565–568
“musicking” a public voice in, 569–571
Toddler Rock in, 559–560, 568–569, 571, 580–581
decisions among network of partners in, 557–560
frames for learning in, institutional, 555–557
connecting music and life experiences in, 555–556
connections from music in, 556–557
constructivist framework in, 557
economic challenges in, 555
learning through music in, 555
music in non–arts disciplines in, 556
pedagogy foundations for music in, 561–565
arts integration in, 561–563
multicultural music education in, 563–565
professional roles in, 561
power relations and ethnomusicologists’ decisions in, 584–586
social barriers and access in Cleveland in, navigating, 576–583
building momentum in, 582–583
Cleveland Opera in, 581–582
Cleveland School of the Arts in, 577–578
empowering students in, 582
geographic and demographic features in, 579–580
immigrant populations in, 580
logistics of, 576–577
out-of-school enrichment in, 577–579
poverty and economic barriers in, 577, 579
racial segregation in, 579
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in, 577–578
summary and suggestions for, 587–589
Edwards, Bob, 477
Elegant Chinese Music, 750
Ellis, Alexander, 13
Ellis Marsalis Center for Music, 461
Empathy, 604
Empowerment
of community as activists, 215
cultural democracy for, 653
ethnomusicologist role in, 128–129
from participatory approaches, 128, 130
of students, in Cleveland, 582
Enactment, 322
Enactment, genre, 322
fusions in liminal space in, 326–327
gbaguru, 331–332, 331t
integral and liminal, 322–323
rock enactments in, 324
Enemy Way Music, 97
Energy, in advocacy, 221–222
The Engaged Observer: Anthropology, Advocacy, and Activism, 483
Engagement
cultural, through participatory approaches (See Participatory approaches)
university in, 202
Engel, Adelia, 536, 538
Engle, Carl, 711–712
Eno, Brian, 464
Ensemble Kaboul
as exiles in festival, 540–542
Arman at Bern’s Stadttheater in, 541–542
(p. 814) Arman at festival opening in, 540
at Musik Festival Bern, 523–524, 524f
role-perceptions of, 534
Environmental sound activism, 8
Epistemological orientation, 9
Esüwa healing songs, 429–431, 431f, 445
safeguarding of, and song ownership, 431–434
Ethics, in survivors’ music, 486–487
Ethnicity
construction of, through music in diaspora, 258–260
definition of, 258
as different, 259
Ethnologue, 320
The Ethnomusicologist, 9, 175
Ethnomusicologists. See also specific individuals
early U.S., 175–176
personalities and attitudes of, 9–10
place of employment of, 4
Ethnomusicology. See also specific topics
definitions of, 4, 14, 58
education and, 646–649
vs. folk music research and comparative musicology, 37–38, 37t
in higher education, 645–646
humanized, 25–26
work in, 6–7
Ethno-Musicology, 14
Ethnomusicology (journal of the Society for Ethnomusicology), 9
articles on minorities’ music in, 336–337, 337f
subjects of articles in, historic perspectives on, 336
Ethnomusicology: A Very Short Introduction, 59
Ethnomusicology Review, 28
Euba, Akin, 754–755
Eurocentric hegemony, 354–355
Europe
ethnomusicologies in, 37–40, 37t
applied, 40–42
“guest-workers” in, 511
migration in, 511
nationalism in, 511
Europe Invents the Gypsies, 239–240
Europs erfindet die Zigeuner, 239–240
Evaluation. See also specific programs and types
critical, 112
folk, 97
of values (See Values, evaluating)
Events, artistic, 321
Expectations in advocacy, success and, 223
Exploitation
in music industry, 798
mutually beneficial, 779–784
Brian Jones and Moroccan musicians in, 779
David Byrne and Peter Gabriel in, 780–782, 784
George Harrison and Ravi Shankar in, 779–780
Paul Simon and Graceland in, 779–780, 784
Ry Cooder in, 782–783
Van Dyke Parks in, 782
resource, to service enterprise, 784–792
Exploratory World Music Playground (E-WoMP), 286, 294–295
Fanon, F., 389
Fan Pavilion Unique Chorus, 752
Fargion, Janet Topp, 178, 681
Farrar, Claire, 713
Father Sebastian Englert Anthropological Museum (MAPSE), 78–79
Faux, Tom, 178
Fein, Elizabeth, 298, 309
Feintuch, B., 143
Feld, Steven
on applied ethnomusicology, 107
Bufo Variations CD of, 96–97
Kalululi work of, 177, 204
commerce and, 777–778, 800
Sound and Sentiment of, 508
Fellow traveler syndrome, 715, 716, 727, 731
Fenghua Guoye, 750
Ferris, William, 174
Festival of American Folklife, 6, 175, 713, 719
Field recording, 785–786
Fieldwork, 725–726
(p. 815) grant work and, connecting, 728–729
partnership model of, 243
Film. See also specific films
participatory ethnographic, 350
Firth, Simon, 791
Flam, Gila, 484
Fletcher, Alice Cunningham, 11–12, 230
Flores, Agustín Machacca, 419–420
Flores, Beatríz Apasa, 416
Flores, Francisco Quispe, 416, 417
Fock, Eva, 233
Foley, Michael, 477
Folk and Traditional Arts Division, 713–714
Folk Arts Division of National Endowment for the Arts, 24–25, 163–166
Folk evaluation, 97
Folklife, 709
Folklife paradigm, 730
Folklife programs, U.S. federal, 712–717
American Folklife Center in, 24, 163, 164–165, 712–715
Archive of Folk Culture (Library of Congress), 713
Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage in, 715–716
conferences in, 716–717
Festival of American Folklife (Smithsonian Folklife Festival) in, 6, 175, 713, 719
Folk and Traditional Arts Division, 713–714
Important Intangible Cultural Properties in, 713
in National Endowment of the Arts, 713–714
National Heritage Fellowships in, 713–714
Folklife programs, U.S. state, 717–721
in Alabama, 721
in Maryland, 717–718
in Massachusetts, 719–720
in New Hampshire, 721
in New York City, 720
partnerships with, 721–722
in Pennsylvania, 717
in Tennessee, 718
Folklore
history of ethnomusicology and, 11, 13, 18, 24, 39–41, 43
as intangible cultural heritage, 709
Lomax, Alan, and, 23–24
panels on, creating, 727
public, 24–26, 53, 710
origins of, 711
as strategic governmental outreach, 723–725
in U.S., 24–25
Folklore Forum, on applied musicology, 28
Folklorist, public (U.S.), 709–732
disciplinary challenges in, 730–732
focus and work of, 709–710
folklife programs for
state, partnerships in, 721–722
folklore in, 709
governmental outreach in, strategic, 723–725
grantmaking as tool for, 710
history of, 711–712
job of, 725–730
apprenticeships in, 728–729
armchair ethnomusicology in, 725–726
collaborations in, 726
connecting fieldwork to grant work in, 728–729
cultural policy in, 728
desk work in, 725–726
fieldwork in, 725–726
grants management and consultation in, 727
panels in, 727
public programs in, 729
radio programs in, 729–730
Terry Liu’s work in, 727
origins of, 711
in public and state government, 711–712
Folk music, 188–192, 672–673. See also specific regions and types
archives of, 671–706 (See also Archives, folk music)
bearers of tradition of, 694–695, 694f
concept of, 682–683
as cultural heritage, 685–686
definitions of, 672, 689–691
essence and origin of, 693–694
(p. 816) everyday meaning and practitioner’s perspective on, 691–692
research on, vs. comparative musicology and ethnomusicology, 37–38, 37t
revival of, 23–24
Swedish (See Swedish folk music)
threats to, 695–696
Folk Music: A Very Short Introduction, 672
Folk Music Commission, Swedish
on cultural heritage process, 699–703
end goal of, 697–698
folk music of
“authentic,” identification of, 697
definition and scope of, 692–693
founding and early history of, 686–689, 688f
value scale of, 698–699, 699f
Folkmusikkommissionen. See Folk Music Commission, Swedish
Folk-revival musicians, 174, 188–192
Folksingers, 163
Folk Songs of North America, in the English Language, 712
Folk Song U.S.A., 712
Folkways Collections, 716
Folkways Records, 176
Anthony Seeger at, 176, 715–716
Foucault, Michel, 193–194
Frame drums, India. See Parai (frame drum)
Frederick Douglass Academy, Harlem Samba at, 655–658, 663–664
Freire, Paolo, 110, 113–114, 586
Fuchs, Bernhard, 262–263
Fusions, 327
Gabriel, Anna, 793–794
Gabriel, Peter, 780–782, 793
Gardner, Howard, 604
Garfias, Robert, 26
Gay, Geneva, 589
Genre. See also specific types
artistic, 321
graded health analysis of, 332, 332t
music
interest in, 137
key clusters of forces in, mapping, 140, 141f
rise and fall of, 137–138
George Town, Penang
culture and population of, 116–117
Democratic Action Party in, 130
history and geography of, 116
George Town, Penang, theater for development
George Town Heritage Celebrations in, 117–123
participatory and interactive activities in
community celebrations in, 120–121
oral history documentation in, 121
Stories under the Stars in, 122, 122f
George Town Heritage Celebrations in, participatory
evaluations in, 123
planning, training, and bottom-up organization in, 118–119
presentations in, 119
research on needs, problems, and action, 119
social impact and outcomes of, 123
Malaysia in
national forms of culture in, creation of, 116, 130
pluralistic society in, 115
top-down cultural policies in, 116
George Town, Penang, theater for development in, 115–127
advocacy projects with young people in, participatory, 123–127, 124f
creation and performance in, 125–126
evaluations in, 126
planning in, 124–125
research, learning, and mapping in, 125
social impact and outcomes of, 126–127
training in, 125
Bangsa Malaysia and OneMalaysia in, 116
Germany
migrant music in, 519–521, 520f
migration to, 512–513
The Gift, 399
Gilbert, Shirl, 484, 496–497, 505
Giving back, 12
in Sustainable Futures for Music Cultures, 152–155
in Ca tru Vietnam project, 152–153, 153f–154f
(p. 817) five domains ecosystem in, 155
Glassie, Henry, 717
Global arena, 29–53
Africa in, 36
applied ethnomusicology definition and scope in, 30–32
applied part of, in other disciplines, 34–35
Australia in, 35–36
European views on
applied ethnomusicologies in, 40–42
ethnomusicologies in, 37–40, 37t
individual views on, 48–51
academic vs. applied work in, 49–50
applied domain in teaching curricula in, 50
definitions in, 48
projects in, 48–49
university courses in, 50
International Council for Traditional Music in, 42–44
on applied ethnomusicology, 45–47
Society for Ethnomusicology and, 51–53
intervention in, 29–30, 31
North America in, 36–37
overview of, 35–37
personal stance on, 32–34
power imbalance in, 31–32
South America in, 36
Southeast Asia in, 36
vignette on, 29–30
Global music
diversity of
decline in, 142
sustaining of, 142
homogenization of, 317
in systemic music education, 643–644
Global music industry, 790–792
Global Voices in Song, 649
Goetze, Mary, 649
Goldstein, Kenneth, 174
Górale, 244
Gordon, Robert Winslow, 711
Gourlay, Kenneth, 26, 384–385
Government. See also specific government-sponsored programs
public folklorists in, 711–712
Graceland, 779–780, 784
Graded genre health analysis, 332, 332t
Gramofon Records, Pro Helvetia funding of, 471–475
Gramsci, Antonio, 358
Grandin, Temple, 291
Grants management and consultation, 727
Grant work, connecting fieldwork and, 728–729
Grauberger, Steve, 721
Gray, Judith, 176
Greeley, William, 161
Green, Archie, 714
Greene, M., 393
Grimm brothers, 675
Guča Gora, 454–458
Guča Gora Sloga, 455–458
“Guest-workers,” 511
Gunderson, Lance, 180, 181
Guqin musical culture database, 747–748
Gypsy. See Roma, in Austria
Haeckel, Ernst, 135
Hahn, Tomie, 362, 366
Haitian Arts Alliance, 463
Hall, Stuart, 270–271
Hamera, Judith, 478
Hammarlund, Anders, 676
Han Chinese Taoist music, 743
Hanson, Thomas, 356
harajin, 351, 370
Harker, D., 800–801
Harlem Samba, 655–658
Harrison, George, promotion of Ravi Shankar by, 779–780
Harrison, Klisala, 28, 210–211, 512–513, 584–585, 602–603
Harris, Robin, 335
Hawes, Bess Lomax, 165, 175, 712, 713, 718–719
Haydon, Glen, 13–14
Head Start Program, 568–569, 581, 591
Health of humanity’s artistic traditions
in 2010s, 330–332
ethnolinguistic community’s artistic genres in, 330–331
graded genre health analysis in, 332, 332t
quick and dirty genre health sketch of, 331–332, 331t
global assessment of, 333–335
(p. 818) loss of artistic traditions in, examples of, 334
testimonials on, 334–336
Healy, Ann Marie, 183
Heaney, Hunter, 793–794
Help, 465, 478
Hemetek, Ursula, 37–38, 41
on minorities, 232
on Roma, 239–240
Henderson, Youngblood, 388
Hermeneutic method, 604–610
sounds human in, 604–607, 605f
understanding in, 607–610, 608f
Herzog, George, 13, 15–16, 23–24
Heschel, Abraham Joshua, 225
Heth, Charlotte, 26, 176
Higher education, ethnomusicology in, 645–646
Hinch, Thomas, 406
Hindman Settlement School, 173
Hinduism, 371
contemporary fundamentalist movement in, 356
Dalit rejection of, 371–372
Hindustani music, 348–349, 352–353
early treatises on, 355–356
History of cultural conservation, U.S., 162–167
American Folklife Center of Library of Congress in, 24, 163, 164–165, 712–715
critics of, 167
Cultural Conservation in, 164–165
digital preservation in, 162
Folk Arts Division of NEA in, 24–25, 163–166
folksingers in, 163
Hawes, Bess Lomax, in, 165
Loomis in, 164–165
Office of Folklife Studies in, 24, 163
restoration in, 162
revivalists in, 163
source musicians in, 163
tradition-bearers in, 163
History of ethnomusicology, U.S., 10–29, 26
in 1950, 11, 14
advocacy in, 7, 28–29, 54–55
applied, origins and early work in, 18–22
Boas in, 11, 13
comparative musicology in, 13–14
critiques in, undesirable ends in, 28
doctoral training in, 23
Dorson in, 18
Dorson-List-Merriam era in, 18
Dyen and Davis in, 27
Ethnomusicology in, 14–15, 16
European roots of, 13–14
Fletcher in, 11–12
Folk Arts Division of NEA in, 24–25, 163–166
folklore in, 24
folk music revival in, 23–24
founding generation’s research in, 22
giving back in, 12
Herzog in, 13, 15–16, 23–24
Hood in, 22
humanistic turn in, 25–26
institutional demand for professors of, 23
institutional growth in, 22–23
International Folk Music Council and, 17–18
Keil in, 25–27
Kunst in, 11, 14
Lomax in, 6, 12, 23–24
Matthews in, 11
McAllester, Merriam, Rhodes, and Seeger’s new direction in, 16–17
Merriam and McAllester in, 15
Merriam in, 15, 17–20
music as culture in, move to, 25
Nettl in, 13–16
Newsletter in, 16
popular interest in, 22–23
postcolonial applied ethnomusicology in, 26
pre-1950, 11
professionalization of ethnomusicology in, 19
Seeger in, Anthony, 12
Seeger in, Charles, 12
Sheehy in, 12, 26
skepticism in, 20
Smithsonian in, 24–25
Society for Ethnomusicology in, 14–15, 16
Committee on Applied Ethnomusicology in, 27
current activity of, 28
(p. 819) Section on Applied Ethnomusicology in, 27
theorization in, 28
Hobwbawm, Eric, 800–801
Hofman, Ana, 203, 204, 216–217
The Hold Life Has, 400
Holmes, Chris, 793–794
Holtzberg, Maggie, 720–721
Homogenization, global music, 317
Hood, Mantle, 9, 22, 71, 74, 175, 354
Hooks, Bell, 393
“Hope,” 468
Horvath, Gisela, 247
House of Sharing, 489–491
Howard, Keith, 652
Humane application, 621–629
Humaneism, 612–613, 614
Humane, music as, 606
Humanism, 610–615, 611f, 613f
Christians on, 611
in Christian world, 613–614
critics of, 611–612
history of, 610–611
Islamic, golden age of, 612, 613f, 630–631
man in, 614–618, 615f
music in, 611f, 612–615, 613f
Muslims on, 612
in Muslim world, 612–614, 613f
standard account of, 610
Humanistic, music as, 606
Humanist theory, 610–615, 611f, 613f. See also Humanism
Humanitarian project, 615–621. See also Aga Khan Humanities Project
Humanities, 602–633
empathy in, 604
hermeneutic method and, 604–610
music role in, 604–607, 605f
understanding in, 607–610, 608f
humane application in, 621–629
application in, 621–623, 622f
humane humanism in, 628
music as humane in, 626–629
research in, 621, 622, 623–626, 624f, 626f
truth in, 627–628
humanist theory in, 610–615, 611f, 613f (See also Humanism)
humanist turn in ethnomusicology in, 25–26, 385
humanitarian project in, 615–621 (See also Aga Khan Humanities Project)
philosophical reflection in, 603–604
Hurricane Katrina, 461
ICH (Intangible Cultural Heritage) masterpieces, 168–169
Identification
of authenticity of folk music, 697
in cultural heritage process, 684
Identity. See also specific cultures
construction of, through music in diaspora, 258–260
for minorities, 233
national, 243
Illich, Ivan, 204
Immersion, ethnomusicological method of, 369
Impey, Angela, 110
Important Intangible Cultural Properties, 713
Independent acting, migrant group, 518
India. See also South Asia
church in, 360–361
frame drames in (See Parai (frame drum))
Indigenous tourism
authenticity and, 406–409, 407f
community-based, 410–411
indigenous music in, 404–405
Indigenous tourism, with Quechua Q’eros, 404–415
active voice in, 440–441
case study on Q’eros–tourist exchange in, music in, 411–415, 413f–416f
Ministry of Culture and, 409, 441
mutually beneficial exchange in, 415–422
Q’eros identity and, 409–411
reciprocity in indigenous tourism with, 414, 423–425, 440
Indigenous tourism, with Wachiperi, 425–440
CD self-production by, 434–440, 437f, 438f, 441–442
Esüwa healing songs of, 429–431, 431f, 445
(p. 820) Ministry of Culture and, 441
safeguarding Esüwa and song ownership in, 431–434
song revival and UNESCO in, 425–429, 428f
Indirect mediation, 34
Indomania, 355–356
Indophobia, 355
Initiative Minderheitin, 237
Institute of Folk Music Research and Ethnomusicology at University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, 269, 271
Instructional materials, 648–649
Instruction, music, 647–648. See also Music education
Insularity, 10
Intangible cultural heritage, 134–155
in Austria, 272
in China, 741–746, 745f, 765
ecology and, 134–135
ecosystems of music in, 135–141, 141f (See also Ecosystems of music)
five domains of, 141f, 143–146, 145t
folklore as, 709
international perspectives and initiatives in, 142–143
origins of, UNESCO, 168
tradition, authenticity, and context in, 139
Integral enactments, 322–323
definition of, 323
genre, 322–323
vs. liminal enactments in, 328–330
Intercultural mediation, 229–272
Barz and Cooley on, 270
in Bosnian refugees, 238–239, 250–257, 270
consultant–researcher cooperation models in, 270
ethnicity in, 270
at Institute of Folk Music Research and Ethnomusicology at University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, 269, 271
Loughran on, 229
Pettan on, 269, 272
Rice on, 270
in Roma, 238, 239–250, 270
Slobin on, 269–270
theoretical background on, 229–238
Austrian minority in, 234–238, 235t, 272
music and minorities in, 229–234
in Turkish immigrants, 239, 257–269, 270–271
International Council for Traditional Music (ICTM), 42–44
on applied ethnomusicology, 45–47
intention of, current, 44
name of, 60
objectives of, 43
origins of, 42–43
post-WW II intention of, 43–44
Society for Ethnomusicology in, 51–53
Study Group on Music and Minorities of, 231–234
International Folk Music Council (IFMC), 17–18, 42
Interpretation, in survivors’ music, 492–493
Intersquad, 527t, 531, 535, 543
Intervention, 29–30, 31
Introduction to Musicology, 13–14
Invested in Community: Ethnomusicology and Musical Advocacy, 60
Isma’ilis, 615–620, 624, 625, 630, 631
Jabbour, Alan, 713, 714–715, 718
Jacob, Prema, 349, 369
Japanese military sexual slavery, 481, 507. See also Survivors’ music
Jazz Cosmopolitanism in Accra, 96–97, 107
Jeongsun, Han, 494–495
Jerewa, Carmen, 428f, 429–431, 431f
Johnson, Robert, 800
Jones, Brian, 779
Jones, Fernando, 509
Jones, Sir William, 355
Jones, Stacey Holman, 75
Journalism, 8
Jun, Cao, 735
Kalululi, Feld’s work with, 777–778
(p. 821) Karadžić, Vuk, 694–695
Karnatak music, 348–349, 352–353
Brahmin control of, 369–370
early treatises on, 355–356
Karpeles, Maud, 42–43, 51–52
Kedia, Satish, 74
Keil, Charles, 25–27, 653, 660–661
Keki, J. J., 213–215, 213f
Keogh, Brent, 178–179
Kera language, 325
Kertzer, Jon, 716
Keshavjee, Rafique, 608, 608f, 620–621, 627, 627f, 631–632, 633. See also Aga Khan Humanities Project
Key Research Base for Humanities and Social Sciences, 747, 766
King, B. B., 174
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara, 350, 683, 801
Kisliuk, Michelle, 77, 177
Knowledge for its own sake, 4, 5, 20
Knudsen, B. T., 407–408, 411, 412, 422
Koreans, as Japanese sex slaves. See Survivors’ music
Krauss, Michael, 334
Krauze, Rūdis, 86
Kravanh, Daran, 493–494, 498, 505
KUDs, 456, 477
Kugelmass, Jack, 225
Kuhač, Franjo, 38–39
Kuhn, Thomas, 73
Kunst, Jaap, 11, 14, 42, 58
Kvitka, Kliment, 60
LaCapra, Dominic, 483
Lach, Robert, 39
Ladysmith Black Mambazo, 779–780, 784
Lake, Philip S., 180
Laks, Szymon, 497–498, 505
Lane, Deforia, 558, 559–560, 568–569, 571, 580–591
Languages, 325
Lanzmann, Claude, 496
Lassiter, Luke, 437
Latvian diaspora (Christchurch), Uz Tēvu Mājām and, 84–88, 86f
Law, 8
Leadbelly, 174, 772, 775–776, 800
Learning music, systems of
in five domains, 141f, 144–146, 145t
in Sustainable Futures for Music Cultures, 150
Learning through music, 555, 589. See also Education sector
Lectureships, 518
Lectures, public, 518
Ledbetter, Huddie (Leadbelly), 174, 772, 775–776, 800
Lederach, Jean Paul, 215
Levin, Theodore, 77, 251–252
Libraries, 8
destroying of, post-conflict and post-catastrophe, 459
Library of Congress
American Folklife Center of, 24, 163, 164–165, 712–715
Archive of Folk Song of, 711–712
Liminal enactments, 322–323
definition of, 323
genre, 322–323
vs. integral enactments in, 328–330
Liminal space, fusions in, 326–327
Ling, Jan, 685, 689–690
Linzee, Jill, 719, 721, 731
Lipsitz, George, 788, 799
Liu, Terry, 727
Live display, 518
Lodish, Debora, 27–28
Lomax, Alan
“Appeal for Cultural Equity” of, 12
as cultural merchant and broker, 774–777
early ethnomusicology work of, 173, 175, 177
as early folklorist, 711–712
in folk music revival, 23–24
Herzog’s encounter with, 23–24
Leadbelly collaboration with, 174, 800
on Leadbelly’s representation, 800
radio broadcasts of, 6
World Library of Folk and Primitive Music recordings of, 785
Lomax, John A., 711, 712, 800
Lönnrot, Elias, 675
Loomis, Ormond, 164–165
Lorde, Audre, 392
Losses, in longer artistic traditions, 334
(p. 822) Loud Hands: Autistic People, Speaking, 287, 292, 310
Loughram, Maureen, 229, 586
Lovari Roma, 247–249
Luaka Bop, 780–781, 790, 800
Lucas, Lazy Bill, 174
Lulu, Lü, 737
Lunsford, Bascom Lamar, 174
Lyon, Patricia, 404, 405f, 427, 436
Mackinlay, Elisabeth, 28
MacPherson, James, 675
Madah and Madahkhan, 611f, 614–615, 618, 619
research on, 621, 622, 623–626, 624f, 626f
Maintaining, 137
Makhampom, 113
Malar, Kurinji, 366, 368, 373
Malaysia
Bangsa Malaysia and OneMalaysia in, 116
national forms of culture in, creation of, 116, 130
participatory approaches in, via theater for development, 109–131 (See also Theater for development (Malaysia))
as pluralistic society, 115
secret societies in, 131
top-down cultural policies in, 116
Malm, Krister, 41
Manqueriapa, Alberto, 433
Maqamboland, 624f, 625
Marginalized music, 348
of South Asia, activism and (See South Asia, activism and marginalized music of)
Market shifts, in post-conflict/-catastrophe communities, 470
Martinelli, Dario, 630
Marx, Karl, 193–194
Maryland Folklife Program, 717–718
Maryland State Arts Council, 718–719, 721–722
partnerships in, 721–722
Maryland Traditions, 724
Maslow, Abraham, 329
Massachusetts, folklife program in, 719–720
Mass entertainment, in China, 748–751. See also Chinese Central Television (CCTV) programs
Masterpieces, ICH, 168–169
Matthews, Washington, 11
Maultsby, Portia, 573–575
Mauss, Marcel, 399, 401, 443
Mautner, Konrad, 245
Maya, 113
McAllester, David, 15, 17, 21, 97, 175
McCann, Anthony, 76
Media and music industry. See also Music industry
in five domains, 141f, 144–146, 145t
in Sustainable Futures for Music Cultures, 151–152
Mediation
direct vs. indirect, 34
intercultural, 229–272 (See also Intercultural mediation)
Mediatized display, 517–518
Medical ethnomusicology, 8, 56
for autism (See Autism)
definition of, 281
music therapy and, 279–281
Medjugorje, 464, 478
Meizel, K., 385–386
Merchants and brokers, cultural, 774–778. See also Cultural merchants and brokers
Merriam, Alan P., 15, 17–20, 51–52, 97, 650
Mevlevî sema, Turkey, 613f, 614
Micro-grants, from Pro Helvetia, 473, 475, 478
Micro-patronage, 478
Migration and migrant communities
in Austria
discrimination against, 236
integration process for, 236
Turkish
in Germany, 272
In U.S., Cleveland, 580
Migration and migrant communities, music in. See also Conflict resolution, music for; specific communities and projects
case studies on, 519–524
forced, in post-conflict and post-catastrophe communities, 461–463
modern
(p. 823) in Europe, 511
in Germany, 512–513
in Switzerland, 514
music’s role in, 515–517
public display for music in, 517–519
reason for, 250
Migration, cultural, Musical Instrument Exhibition Centre of China and, 763
Minorities. See also specific groups
in Austria (See Austria)
cultural impoverishment of, 317
definition of, 231
Fock on, 233
Hemetek on, 232
identity for, 233
ITCTM Study Group on Music and Minorities on, 231–234
music and, 229–234 (See also specific minorities)
Nettl on, 232–233
Reyes on, 232–233
Stokes on, 233–234
Minorities research
in Austria (See Austria; specific minorities)
Fletcher on, 230
ICTM Study Group on Music and Minorities in, 231–234
Pettan on, 230–231
and urban ethnomusicology, 230
Mondo films, 59
Monism, 98, 100t
with stable levels, 100t, 101, 104f
strong, 99–101, 100t, 104f
Moore, James F., 171–172
The Moral Imagination, 215
Moreton-Robinson, A., 391
Morra, Mario, 29
Mortuary dances, Islamic, 611f, 615
Mostar bridge, 477
Motivations and methods for encouraging artists, 317–344
basic community arts survey in, 342–344
foundational concepts of, 319–322
analytical categories in, 321–322
return to coherence in, 319–321
global community artistic health assessment in, 333–335
loss of artistic traditions in, examples of, 334
testimonials on, 334–336
health of artistic traditions in, 2010s, 330–332
ethnolinguistic artistic genres in, 330–331
graded genre health analysis in, 332, 332t
quick and dirty genre health sketch of, 331–332, 331t
liminality and integrality in
definitions of, 323
genre enactments in, 322–323
liminality and integrality in, sussing out
ebb and flow of communication in, 324–328 (See also Communication, ebb and flow of)
integral vs. liminal enactments in, 328–330
rock enactments in, 324
minorities’ cultural impoverishment in, 317–318
priorities in, rethinking, 341–342
SIL International’s work on, 341
thriving global artistic life in, 335–340
action points in, 339–340
global interest in longer artistic traditions in, 336–337, 337f
therapeutic approach to communities and arts-making in, 337–339, 338f
Mozaik Community Development Foundation and Guča Gora, 454–458
Bosnia Living Heritage Network in, 455
civil society building in, 457
cultural-artistic associations in, 456, 477
Franciscan monks in, 455, 456
Guča Gora Sloga in, 455–457
village focus of, 455
Ms. White Settler Colonial, 381, 382–384
Muir, John, 161
Multicultural music education, 563–565
Münsingen Project, 521–523, 522f
ethnomusicologist role in, 525
infrastructural basis, finances, and funding of, 529
(p. 824) interlocutors’ selection for, 532–533
long-term effects of, 544
power and expectation in, 538–540
power interplays in, 535
Muqam, 747
Murra, John, 443
Museums, 8
Music. See also specific topics and cultures
as art, 606, 607
cultural domain of, 4
distantiation in, 607, 608
as humane, 606
as humanistic–humaneistic bridge, 606–607, 629
studying humanity via, 605–606
Musical databases, in China, 746–748
Guqin musical culture database in, 747–748
Uyghur Muqam database in, 747
Musical Instrument Exhibition Centre (China), 760–764
beneficiaries of construction of, 763–764
collections in, 760–762, 761f
cultural migration and, 763
purpose of construction of, 762–763
theoretical bases of, 764
Music Alive! in the Yakima Valley (MAYV), 659–662
Musical Performance in the Diaspora, 259
“Musical,” survivors’ music as, 493–496
Musical venues, in post-conflict/-catastrophe communities, 460–461
Music and Conflict, 94
Music and Poverty, 94
“Music and Sustainability,” 177–178
Music business degree programs, 773
Music education, 7, 55–56. See also Pedagogy
comparative, 650–652
as core subject, 562, 590
Music education, community music, and ethnomusicology, 638–664
case examples of, 655–662 (See also specific programs)
Harlem Samba in, 655–658
Music Alive! in the Yakima Valley in, 659–662
community music in, 640
popularity of, 652–653
scope and applications of, 652–655
ethnomusicology and education in, 646–649
in 1960s, 646–647
advisory work in, 648–649
curriculum and instruction in, 647–648
Global Voices in Song in, 649
instructional materials in, 648–649
in higher education, 645–646
pedagogy in, from transmission to learning in, 650–652
revolutionary potentials of, 662–663
scope of practice of, 638–639
in systemic school education, 640–644
in Europe, 641
Music for Change, 655, 663
Music genres, 137
interest in, 137
key clusters of forces in, mapping, 140, 141f
rise and fall of, 137–138
Musician and Teachers, 563–564
Musicians and communities. See also specific musicians and communities
in five domains, 141f, 144–146, 145t
in Sustainable Futures for Music Cultures, 150–151
Musician’s Village (New Orleans), 461, 477
Music industry, 8, 786
exploitation in, 798
in five domains, 141f, 144–146, 145t
global, 790–792
in pop(ulist) activism, 797
in Sustainable Futures for Music Cultures, 151–152
Music in Social Life, 661
Music in the Holocaust, 484, 496–497, 505
Musicking, 139, 661
“Musicking” a public voice, 569–571
Music, Media, and Multiculture, 671
Music of Another World, 497–498, 505
Musicologica: A Study of the Nature of Ethno-musicology, Its Problems, Methods, and Representative Personalities, 42
Musicology, comparative, and history of ethnomusicology, 11, 13–14, 16–17
(p. 825) Musicology Research Institute, 747, 766
Music-Play Project (MPP), 281
2005-2009 history of, 284–285
origins of, 284
participants in, 309
Music therapy
definition and scope of, 280
medical ethnomusicology and, 279–281
at Pavarotti Music Center as, 466–467
Musik Festival Bern, 523–524
ethnomusicologist role in, 525
infrastructural basis, finances, and funding of, 529
long-term effects of, 544–545
power interplays in, 535
Mutually beneficial exchange, with Q’eros, 415–422
Mutually beneficial exploitation, 779–784. See also under Exploitation
Mycoskie, Blake, 788, 789–790
Nabutta, Saban, 224–225
Nadejda, 516, 517, 527t, 531, 535–537, 543
National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). See also Conflict resolution
Folk Arts Division of, 24–25, 163–166
folklorists at, 713–714
National Folk Festival, 719
National Heritage Fellowships, 713–714
National Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage, Austria, 272
Nationalism, 57
in Europe, 511
Nation in a cabinet (Sweden), 676–681, 677f–678f, 680f
Natural resource conservation, history of, 161
Naxi traditional music, Yunnan, 743
Ne’eman, Ari, 292–293
Negroponte, Nicholas, 788–789
Negus, Keith, 791
Neocolonialism, cultural impoverishment of minorities from, 317
Neo-orientalism, 353–357
Nettl, Bruno, 52
on consultants as teachers, 650
early work of, 13–16, 20–21
on health of artistic traditions, 317, 330
ICTM work of, 52
on losses in artistic traditions, 334
on minorities, 232
Network development, 518
Neuman, Daniel, 650–651
Neurodiversity, 294
Neurodiversity paradigm, 294
Neurominority, 294
Neurotypicals, 293–294
Newell, Wayne, 178
New Hampshire, folklife program in, 721
New Orleans
Habitat Musician’s Village in, 461, 477
post-Hurricane Katrina, 461
Newport Folk Festival, 174–175
Newsletter, ethnomusicology, 16
New York City, folklife program in, 719–720
New York, cultural policy interventions in, 6
Nikolić-Lakatos, Ruža, 241f, 248–249
Non–arts disciplines, music in, 556
Norient, 545
North America, 5–9, 36–37
Numerology, in Islamic thought and music, 624, 626, 632–633
Oasamu, Yamaguti, 737, 738
Office of Folklife Studies, 24, 163
OKC Abrašević Youth Center (Mostar), 468
Okseon, Yi, 489–491, 493
Old Regular Baptists
adaptive management and resilience in, 183–187, 184f, 191
ethnomusicologists’ preservation work in, 191–192
Old-time string band music revival
adaptive management and resilience in, 183, 188–191
ethnomusicologists’ preservation work in, 191–192
revivalists on, 192
Olsen, Paul Rovsing, 60
100 Songs Project, 796–797
One Laptop Per Child (OLPC), 788–789
Orientalism, 353–357
Orientation, epistemological, 9
Ortner, Sherry, 358, 360–361, 368
Orwell, Charles, 193–194
(p. 826) Our Singing Country, 712
Outcast. See Dalit
PAA All-Stars, 569–571
Panels, creating folklore, 727
Paradigm, 73
Paradigm shift, 73
Parai (frame drum), 352, 370. See also Dalit
in drumming Dalit documentary film, 365–369
oral system of drumming in, 372
as “polluted,” 352–353, 359, 365–366
trance states from, 360
Parks, Van Dyke, 782
Participant observation, 199
Participatory approaches, 109–131
in action research, 109–110, 129–130
for community development, 129
empowerment from, 128, 130
ethnomusicology in
for social intervention, 127–129
theater for development in George Town, Penang in, 115–127 (See also George Town, Penang, theater for development in)
George Town Festival in, 130
in Global South
initiatives for, 110
NGO work in, 109–110
principles of, 128
theater for development in, 110–127 (See also Theater for development)
Partners for Urban Action and Research (PUKAR), 129
Partnerships
among institutions, 553–554
in CASES methodology
community, 208–210
other, 210–211
in fieldwork, 243
Passamaquoddy recordings, 178
“Passing it on,” 178
Pate, Kiko, 78
Pathology paradigm, 294
Pavarotti Music Center, 464–468
Peace and conflict resolution, 7–8
cooperation and, 56
Peace Kawomera Fair Trade Coffee cooperative, 213–221, 213f
Pedagogy. See also Music education
in theater for development, participatory, 113–115
Pedagogy, music, 647–648
Peer-to-peer file sharing, 773
Pekmezović, Ševko, 251–257, 251f
Pennsylvania, folklife program in, 717
Performance. See also specific artists, programs, and performances
participatory creation and, in George Town, Penang, 125–126
vs. process, in Malaysia, 114–115
public, as promotion for Roma in Austria, 245–250, 246f, 248f
of survivors’ music, 493
Perlman, Marc, 354
Personal-political-possible, “storying.” See Decolonization
Person-is-political story, 379
Petrović, Ankica, 250–251
Pettan, Svanibor, 250, 466
on action and advocacy, 210–211, 499, 536
on applied ethnomusicology, 28, 603
fourfold model of, 518–519
on intercultural mediation, 269, 272
on minorities, 230–231
Philadelphia Folklore Project, 723
Philippines Educational Theatre Association (PEA), 112
Philosophical reflection, 603–604
Pidgins, 325
Pinchot, Gifford, 161
Pinker, Steven, 604
Place, construction of, through music in diaspora, 258–260
Planning and testing praxis, 94
Playing For Change, 794–796
Pluralism, 98, 100t
stable, 100t, 101–102, 104f
unsettled, 100t, 102–103, 104f
Polska, 698, 699f, 700, 701, 702, 704, 705
(p. 827) Polyphonie der Kulturen Project, 519–521, 520f
CD production in: representation, authority, and negotiations in, 535–538
CD tracks in, 526, 527t
ethnomusicologist role in, 524–525
infrastructural basis, finances, and funding of, 528–530
long-term effects of, 542–544
migrants in, 516
performers for, selection of, 530–532
power interplays in, 535
representation in, 530
Pommer, Josef, 245
Pop(ulist) activism, 792–797
100 Songs Project in, 796–797
individuals’ work in, 792–793
music industry in, 797
Playing For Change in, 794–796
Voice Project in, 793–794, 795, 796
Position (social), 591
“Position Statement against the Use of Music as Torture,” 29
Postcolonial ethnomusicology, 10, 26–27. See also Decolonization
Post-conflict and post-catastrophe communities, 453–478
commemorations in, 468–469
communities in
post-catastrophe, 458–478
post-conflict, 453–458
concert advocacy in, 463–464
conflict resolution and cultural development in, 453
cultural institution closure or changes in, 475–476
Dayton Accord in, 457
humanitarian aid function in, 454
market shifts in, 470
Mozaik Community Development Foundation and Guča Gora in, 454–458 (See also Mozaik Community Development Foundation and Guča Gora)
musical venues in, 460–461
post-catastrophe aid environments in, 458–460
Pro Helvetia–Gramofon Records partnership in, 471–475
travel disruption and forced migration in, 461–463
in Afghanistan, 462–463
in Cambodia, 463, 478
War Child and Pavarotti Music Center in, 464–468, 478
Power interplays, 535
Power relations in education, ethnomusicologists’ decisions and, 584–586
Practical analytics, for survivors’ music, 488–492
Practice theory, 481
Praise singing (madahkhan), 611f, 614–615, 618, 619
research on, 621, 622, 623–626, 624f, 626f
Preservation. See also specific cultures, types, and topics
conservation and, 160, 162
UNESCO on, 167–168
digital, 162
UNESCO definition of, 168
Price, David, 354
Printed documentation, 518
Professor Decolonization, 381, 386–392
Progressive Arts Alliance (PAA), 567–568
Pro Helvetia
Gramofon Records funding by, 471–475
micro-grants from, 473, 475, 478
Project conceptualization, 205–208, 206f
Protopapa, Santina, 558, 559–560, 567–571
Prototype theory, 320–321
Public concerts, 518
Public (sector) ethnomusicology, 8
Public folklore, 24–26, 710. See also Folklorist, public
origins of, 711
as strategic governmental outreach, 723–725
Public folklorist. See Folklorist, public
Public lectures, 518
Public programs. See also specific types
producing, 729
Puriņš, Paulis, 86, 86f
Pythagorean principles, 613
(p. 828) Q’eros, Quechua, 404–425. See also River Q’eros, Andes to Amazon on
active resistance in, 399
background on, 404–425
efficacy and success in music projects in, 440
indigenous tourism with, 404–415 (See also Indigenous tourism; Indigenous tourism, with Quechua Q’eros)
active voice in, 440
Q’eros identity and, 409–411
reciprocity in, 414, 423–425
mutually beneficial exchange with, 415–422
reciprocity in, 399–401, 414
Wachiperi and, 443–444
Q’eros River, Andes to Amazon on. See River Q’eros, Andes to Amazon on
Q’eros–tourist exchange, 411–415, 413f–416f
Qianzhong, Su, 738
Quechua Q’eros. See Q’eros, Quechua
Racy, Jihad, 328–329
Radio programs, 729–730
Rajasekaran, Jesudasan, 353
Ramnarine, Tina, 259
Ramsten, Märta, 690
Rapanui digital music archive, creation of, 78–84, 81f, 89
Rasmussen, Ljerka, Vidić, 59
Ravi Shankar, George Harrison promotion of, 779–780
Real World Records, 773, 780–781, 790
Reciprocity, 398–401, 440, 445
in Q’eros and Wachiperi, 399–401, 414, 426
with Quechua Q’eros, indigenous tourism in, 414, 423–425
Recordings, CD, 518. See also specific recordings
Redemptive narratives, survivors’ music as, 496–498
Reflexivity, 95, 97
self-, 349, 365
uncomfortable, 379–380
Refugees
from Afghanistan conflicts, 462–463
from Cambodian conflicts, 463, 478
Regulations and infrastructure
in five domains, 141f, 144–146, 145t
in Sustainable Futures for Music Cultures, 151
Relationships, negotiated, 202
Religion, in university, 201–202
Relocation. See also Migration and migrant communities
sevdalinke as means of, 251–257 (See also Bosnian refugees, in Austria)
Research. See also specific researchers and projects
applied ethnomusicology, 94–95
for its own sake, 19
pure vs. applied, 5
Research agenda, of ethnomusicologists, 319–320
prototype theory and, 320–321
SIL’s Ethnologue in, 320
Researcher vulnerability. See Vulnerability, researcher
Resilience, 159, 180–192. See also Sustainability, Resilience, and adaptive management
adaptive management in, 180–182, 193
in Old Regular Baptists, 183–187, 184f, 191
in old-time string band music revival, 183, 188–191
characteristics favoring, 183
conservation in, 182
definition and scope of, 180, 193
diversification in, 181–182
in ecology, 180
ethnomusicologists’ work in, 191–192
in popular usage, 180
resource recovery vs. collapse in, 181
strategies for, 180–182
vs. sustainability, 181
sustainability and tipping point in, 182–183
The Resonant Community, 33, 40
Resource exploitation, from, to service enterprise, 784–792. See also under Exploitation
Response-ability, 381, 392–393
Restoration, in conservation, 162
Revivalists, 163
(p. 829) Reyes, Adelaida, 230, 232–233, 250, 258, 260, 478, 531
Rhodes, Willard, 52
Rice, Timothy, 59, 142–143, 270, 651
Rich, Adrienne, 226
Richardson, Dianna, 558, 559, 566, 578
Richardson, L., 380
Ricoeur, Paul, 327–328
Rinzler, Ralph, 174–175
Ritchie, Jean, 173
River Q’eros, Andes to Amazon on, 398–445
efficacy and success in music projects in, 440
Quechua Q’eros in, 404–425
active resistance in, 399
background on, 401–404, 402f–404f
indigenous tourism with, 404–415 (See also Indigenous tourism, with Quechua Q’eros)
indigenous tourism with, reciprocity in, 414, 423–425
mutually beneficial exchange with, 415–422
reciprocity in, 414
reciprocity in, 398–401
Wachiperi in, 425–440
active resistance in, 399
background on, 401–404, 402f–404f, 425–427, 444
CD self-production in, 434–440, 437f, 438f, 441–442
Esüwa healing songs of, 429–431, 431f, 445
Manuel Yonaje of, 427–428, 428f, 442–443, 442f
reciprocity in, 399–401, 426
safeguarding Esüwa and song ownership in, 431–434
song revival and UNESCO in, 425–429, 428f
R-Kan, 264–266, 264f
Robbins, Joel, 98–99, 98–104, 100t, 104f
Robert Johnson: The Complete Recordings, 800
Robinson, Michael, 406, 422, 444
Rock and roll
African-American cultural contributions in, 567, 591
definition and scope of, 591
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, 557–560, 577–578
Rock enactments, 324
Rock Under Siege concerts, 477
Roma, in Austria, 238, 239–250, 270
as antisocial elements and criminals, 243
Bogdal on, 239–240
Ceija Stojka in, 241, 242f, 247
diversity of, 241–242, 241t
ethnicity of, invention of, 244–245
as Gypsy, 239
Harri Stojka in, 247–248
Hemetek on, 239–240
identity markers for, inaccurate, 242–243
identity of, national, 243
Lovari Roma in, 247–249
music and cultural identification of, 242
public performance as promotion for, 245–250, 246f, 248f
Romano Centro in, 247, 249
Ruža Nikolić-Lakatos in, 241f, 248–249
Serbian, 247–248, 248f
Silverman on, 240
Romani Routes. Cultural Politics and Balkan Music, 240
Romano Centro, 247, 249
Ronström, Owe, 689–690
Rosch, Eleanor, 320
Rostock, 2005–2008. See Polyphonie der Kulturen Project
Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 675
Roy, Don, 178
Russell, Ian, 229, 243
Ryan, Chris, 422
Ryder, Judith, 558, 560, 572, 581–582
Safeguarding, 167–169, 182
Sağlam, Hande, 260, 261
SamulNori, 652
Sanford, Victoria, 483
Sarajevo Jazz Festival, 471
Sarkissian, Margaret, 801
Savage Man Savage Beast, 29
SAZ-Verein Wien, 262–263, 262f
Scheduled caste. See Dalit
(p. 830) School education, systemic music education in
exemplary models of, 644
funding crisis on, recent, 644
history of, in Europe, 641
history of, in U.S., 640–644, 663
in 1800s, 640–641
in 1900-1950, 641–642
in 1950-2000+, 642–644
multicultural music education in, 643
world and global music in, 643–644
Schooling, formal, instructional access expansion in, 565–568
Schwarzenbach, James, 546
Science, 59
Scott, James, 505
Secret societies, in Malaysia, 131
Seeger, Anthony
on copyright laws, 439
as early ethnomusicologist, 12
fieldwork of, 177
at Folkways Records, 176, 715–716
on intangible cultural heritage, global risks to, 138
on loss of small traditions, 318
on music cultures being “disappeared,” 425
Suyá collaboration of, 204
in Why Suyá Sing, 76
Seeger, Charles, 12, 97, 711, 712
Seeger, Peggy, 712
Seeger, Ruth Crawford, 711, 712
Self-actualization, 329
Self-reflexivity, 349
Serbia, 39–40
Roma from, 247, 248f
Service, in CASES methodology, 217–218
Service learning, lessons from, 203–205
Sevdalinke, as means of relocation, 251–257. See also Bosnian refugees, in Austria
Sexual slavery, Japanese military, 481, 507. See also Survivors’ music
Shadows in the Field, 72, 270, 385, 584
Shams-eTabrīzī, 615
Shanting Teshu Hechangdui, 752
Sharpe, Robert, 606
Sheehy, Daniel
on applied ethnomusicology, 26, 31, 351, 572–573
on approaches to problems, 202
on benefitting informants and communities, 74
on conscious practice, 33, 74, 352, 370, 387
on empowering community as activists, 215
Festival of American Folklife work of, 175, 713
as Folk and Traditional Arts Division Director, 713–714
Folk Arts Division (NEA) work of, 176, 713, 718
on folklorist role, 774
four stages of applied ethnomusicology of, 143–144
on giving back, 152
on history of applied ethnomusicology, 12
on making music happen in communities, 661
as Smithsonian Folkways Director, 715–716
on traditional music circuit, 787–788
two aspects of applied ethnomusicology of, 245
Shelemay, Kay Kaufmann, 202, 204, 784
Shirky, Clay, 340
Shoah, 496
Shoemaker, Henry W., 717
Sias, Tony F., 558, 559, 576–579
Siberian Sakha dièrétii sung genre, 325–326
Siebers, Tobin, 296
Sierra Club, 161
SIL International
Ethnologue of, 320
ethnomusicology work of, 341
Silverman, Carol, 240
Simon, Paul, 779–780, 784
Sinclair, Jim, 296–297
Singer, Roberta, 719–720
Singing for Survival, 484
Sino-African Music Dialogue, 755–756, 755f
Skylight, 626f
Skyllstad, Kjell, 40, 466
Slobin, Mark, 269–270, 365, 672
Sloga, 455–458
Slovenia, 38–39, 41–42
Small, Christopher, 660–661
Smith, L. T., 389–390
(p. 831) Smithsonian Festival of American Folklife, 6, 175, 713, 719
Smithsonian Folk Festival, 163
Smithsonian Folklife Festival, 6, 175, 713, 719
Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 716
World Music Pedagogy certification course of, 644
Smithsonian Global Sound, 716
Smithsonian Institution
Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage of, 715–716
employment of ethnomusicologists by, 24–25
Office of Folklife Studies at, 24, 163
Social barriers, on music education, 576–583
Social intervention
ethnomusicology for (See Participatory approaches)
research and documentation for, 129
Society for Applied Microbiology, 59
Society for Applied Spectroscopy, 59
Society for Ethnomusicology (SEM), 6
applied ethnomusicology activity in, current, 28
founding and early history of, 14–15, 16, 175
interests of members of, historic, 336
International Council for Traditional Music and, 51–53
Section on Applied Ethnomusicology in, 27
Solomon, Olga, 291
Solomon, Tom, 259, 266–267
Songs of the Caged, Songs of the Free, 531
Sonneborn, D.A., 716
Soulé, Michael, 172–173
Sound and Sentiment, 177, 508
Sound archives, 8
Source musicians, 163
South America, 36
South Asia
musical value hierarchy in, 353
music of, 348
South Asia, activism and marginalized music of, 348–373
activist and advocate ethnomusicology in, 350
case studies on, Dalit movement
Christianizing Dalit in, 361–362
drumming Dalit documentary film in, 365–369
Subaltern Sing (and drum!) in, 358–361
Tamil folk music as Dalit theology in, 362–365
classical ten percent in, 352–353
conscious tools and theories in, 369
cultural politics in, 348–349
Dalit Action Theory in, on the ground, 357–360, 369
film use in, participatory ethnographic, 350
vs. Hindustani and Karnatak music, 348–349, 352–353
orientalism and neo-orientalism in, 353–357
Asian classical music study in, 355
Asian elite court and temple culture focus of study in, 355–356
early treatises on Indian music in, 355–356
Hindu fundamentalist movement in, contemporary, 356–357
local sociopolitical identify of musical style in, 357
value-free scholarship and, 354
Wong’s research through performance practice in, 354
participant–activist methodology for, 350
shift in methods via shift in subject in, 348–351
transformative musical meaning/action and Dalits’ cultural value in, 351–352
South Asian music
classical, 348
composer and score as focus in, 348–349
folk culture in, 350
marginalized, alternative engagement with, 349
participant–activist methodology for, 350
people, context, and processes in, 349
sympathetic listening to, 349
Southeast Asia, 36
South Koreans, as Japanese sex slaves. See Survivors’ music
Spinny chairs, 286–289, 305–308
Spiritual beliefs, in university, 200–202
Spitzer, Nicholas, 167, 785
Spivak, Gayatri, 358–359
(p. 832) Standardization, in cultural heritage process, 685
Stevenson, Lauren, 556–557
Stoecker, Randy, 203
Stojka, Ceija, 241, 242f, 247
Stojka, Harri, 247–248
Stojka, Karl, 245
Stokes, Martin, 233–234, 258
Stoppard, Tom, 464
“Storying,” the personal-political-possible. See Decolonization
Straus, Joseph, 296, 310
Štrekelj, Karel, 39
String band music revival, old-time, 183, 188–191
Strong monism, 99–101, 100t, 104f
Study Group on Music and Minorities, ICTM, 231–234
The Study of Ethnomusicology, 20
Stumpf, Carl, 13, 679–680
Subaltern action theory, 358–359
Subaltern Sing (and drum!), 358–361
Sundar, Pavitra, 371, 372
Survey, basic community arts, 342–344
Survivors’ music, 481–508
archiving, accessing, and exhibition of, 502–504
definition of, 482
in Holocaust, 484
importance of centrality of, 483
key issues in, 486–501
advocacy and activism in, 498–501
aesthetics in, 487–488
ethics in, 486–487
interpretation and collaboration in, 492–493
the “musical” in, 493–496
performance in, 493
practical analytics in, 488–492
redemptive narratives in, 496–498
listening perspective on, 482–483
performers of
Daran Kravanh in, 493–494, 498, 505
Han Jeongsun in, 494–495
Szymon Laks in, 497–498, 505
Yi Okseon in, 489–491, 493
Yi Yongnyeo in, 504
Yi Yongsu in, 499–501
political positions on, 482–483
practice theory and, 481
precedents for study of, 484
recording and documentation of, 501
scholars on, 483–484
scope of study of, 484
study of, 482
teaching of, 505–506
terminology for, 485–486
Sustainability, 6, 58
Sustainability, in applied ethnomusicology, 173–179
in 1980s and 1990s, 176–177
as analogy, 179
blues and bluegrass in, 174
in CASES methodology, 220–221
in commerce, 799
critique of, 178–179
cultural conservation and, 175
diversity in, 177
ecosystems in, 137
in ecosystems of music
concept of, 137–138
what to sustain in, 138–139
five domains on, 141f, 143–146, 145t
folk festivals in, early, 174
folk-revival musicians in, 174
Hawes and Lomax in, 175
Hindman Settlement School and origins of, 173
Lomax in, 173, 177
McAllester and Hood in, 175
musical, work on, 96
“Music and Sustainability” panel on, 177–178
origins of, 111
outcomes vs. intentions in, 179
“passing it on” in, 178
repatriation of archival recordings in, 178
vs. resilience, 181
Rinzler and Balfa in, 174–175
Ritchie in, 173
Sheehy in, 175, 176
at Smithsonian, 175–176
tipping point and, 182–183
Titon on, 428
Vennum in, 175, 176
(p. 833) Sustainability, in ethnomusicology, 137–139. See also Ecosystems of music
Sustainability, in theory, 169–173
in conservation ecology, 172–173
critics of, 170–171
in cultural anthropology, 172–173
Daly in, 171–172
economists on, 169–172
environmentalists on, 169–170
finite resources in, 170
Moore in, 171–172
Worster on, 172
Sustainability, resilience, and adaptive management, 158–194
adaptive management in, 159, 180–192 (See also Adaptive management)
biopower in, 193
conservation in, 160–167 (See also Conservation)
Foucault, Marx, and Orwell on, 193–194
resilience in, 159, 180–192 (See also Resilience)
safeguarding in, 167–169
sustainability in, 137–139, 158–159, 169–179 (See also Sustainability)
in applied ethnomusicology, 173–179
sustainable development in, 169–170
in theory, 169–173
Sustainable development, 111, 158, 160, 169. See also Sustainability
origins and meaning of, 169
vs. sustainable growth, 171
Sustainable Futures for Music Cultures: Toward an Ecology of Musical Diversity, 146–155
aims of, 147
in Ca tru Vietnam project, 152–153, 153f–154f
contexts and constructs in, 151
giving back in, 152–155
in Ca tru Vietnam project, 152–153, 153f–154f
five domains ecosystem in, 155
media and music industry in, 151–152
musicians and communities in, 150–151
origin and funding of, 146–147
questions to be answered in, 147–150
regulations and infrastructure in, 151
systems of learning music in, 150
Sustainable growth, 171
Svensk folkmusik. Bondens musik i helg och söcken, 685
Swedish folk music
“authentic,” identification of, 697
threats to, 695–696
Swedish folk music archives, 672–703
bearers of tradition in, 694–695, 694f
concept of, 682–683
as cultural heritage, 685–686
cultural heritage process and, 683–685
Folk Music Commission’s impact on, 699–703
discussions on, 689–691
Folk Music Commission in (See Folk Music Commission, Swedish)
new perspectives on, 698–699, 699f
Swedish Folk Music Commission. See Folk Music Commission, Swedish
Switzerland
migration to, 514
Münsingen Project in, 521–523, 522f
Musik Festival Bern in, 523–524, 524f
Switzerland’s Art Council, 472
Symbolization, in cultural heritage process, 685
Sympathetic listening, 349
Systems of learning music
in five domains, 141f, 144–146, 145t
in Sustainable Futures for Music Cultures, 150
Širola, Božidar, 38–39
Tajik music, 609
Taj Mahal, 800
Talking circles, 95
Talmud, 200
Tamil folk music
as Dalit theology, 362–365
Rajasekaran’s studies of, 353
Tamil Nadu Theological Seminary (TTS), 362–365
Tansley, A. G., 136–137
Taoist music, Han Chinese, 743
Tapati Rapa Nui cultural festival, 78
Tarfon, Rabbi, 200
Teaching artists, 553
in Cleveland, 559–562, 567–570, 582, 590, 591
(p. 834) Teaching options, 518
“Tear-Soaked Duman River,” 489–491, 493
Teater Arena (Yogyakarta, Indonesia), 112–113
Tennessee, folklife program in, 718
Tepano, Tote, 79–83, 79f, 89
Thanksgiving Coffee Company, 214–216, 223
Theater for development (Malaysia), 110–127
in applied musicology for development, 115–127 (See also Participatory approaches)
in Asian education, non-formal, 112
in civil society development projects in the South, 112
Freire’s influence on, 110, 113–114
Maya and Makhampom in, 113
overview of, 110–111
pedagogy and participatory approaches in, 113–115
Philippines Educational Theatre Association in, 112
process vs. performance in, 114–115
Teater Arena and Teater Arena in, 112–113
Theater for liberation, 130
This Is a Music: Reclaiming an Untouchable Drum, 365–367
Tikkun olam, 200, 226
Tipping point, 182–183
Titon, Jeff Todd
on applied ethnomusicology, 95, 653
on authenticity, 408
on cultural and musical rights and ownership, 134–135
on expectations of field work informants, 786
on field research, 202, 633
on intangible cultural heritages, 756
on Lomax’s marketing, 800
on national troupes and orchestras, 143
on practice, 603, 629
on self-reflexivity and transformation, 365
on sustainability and activism, 177, 204, 308, 428
on Taj Mahal, 800
world music class of, 95
Toddler Rock, 559–560, 568–569, 571, 580–581
Toms Shoes, 788, 789–790
Torture, use of music as, 29
Tourism, 57–58
Chinese, 742–743
indigenous (See Indigenous tourism)
Tourism and Indigenous Peoples, 406
Tradition
in ecosystems of music, 139
as living process, 327–328, 330
Ricoeur on, 327–328
Traditional Instrumental Music Performance Competitions, 749–750
Traditional paradigm, 730
Tradition-bearers, 163
Training. See also Education; Music education
of ethnomusicologists, 342
Trauma, cultural, 6
Trautmann, Thomas, 355
Travel disruption, in post-conflict/-catastrophe communities, 461–463
Tryon, Elizabeth, 203
Tschernokoscheva, Elka, 268
Tsukasa, Yajima, 502
Tuck, E., 390–391, 394
Tufts University, 204
Turino, Thomas, 660–661
Turkish immigrants, in Germany, 272
Turkish immigrants, in Vienna, 239, 257–269, 270–271
Bausinger on, 267–268
challenging discourses on, 267–269
“Embedded Industries–Immigrant Cultural Entrepreneurs in Vienna” on, 260
heterogeneity of population in, 260
hip-hop youth culture in, 264–267, 264f
Mansur Bildik work for, 262–264, 262f, 263f
“Music Making of Immigrants in Vienna” on, 260
place, ethnicity, and identity through music in, 258–260
prejudices, stereotypes, and xenophobia on, 261
SAZ-Verein of, 262–263, 262f
social and religious backgrounds of, 260–261, 261f
Tschernokoscheva on, 268
urban area as field of research in, 260–264
Wien 10 in, 264–267, 264f
(p. 835) years or research on, 257–258
Turner, Victor, 323
2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, 168
Uganda
Abayudaya in, 205–208, 206f
advocacy in, 199–226 (See also Advocacy)
CASES methodology in, 208–221 (See also CASES methodology)
J. J. Keki and Peace Kawomera Fair Trade Coffee cooperative in, 213–221, 213f
map of, 201f
Thanksgiving Coffee Company in, 214–216, 223
Ultime grida dalla savana, 29
UNESCO, 6
on intangible cultural heritage, 168
on preservation and conservation, 167–168
The Unheard Voices: Community Organizations and Service Learning, 203
United States, applied ethnomusicology history in, 10–29. See also History of ethnomusicology, U.S.
University
engaged, 202
religion in, 201–202
University-based ethnomusicological activism. See Conflict resolution
Untouchable. See Dalit
Urban ethnomusicology, 230
Adelaida Reyes’ research on, 260–264
in Turkish immigrants in Vienna, 260–264
Usner, Eric Martin, 202, 208
Uyghur Muqam database, Xinjiang autonomous region, 747
Uzbek music, 609
Uz Tēvu Mājām, Christchurch Latvian diaspora and, 84–88, 86f
Value-free scholarship, 354
Values, 93
Values, evaluating
definitions in, 93
in ethnomusicology and applied ethnomusicology, 95–97
new model for, 98–104, 100t, 104f
monism in, 98, 100t
monism with stable levels in, 100t, 101, 104f
pluralism in, 98, 100t
pluralism in, stable, 100t, 101–102, 104f
pluralism in, unsettled, 100t, 102–103, 104f
strong monism in, 99–101, 100t, 104f
planning and testing praxis and, 94
research and, 94–95
talking circles on, 95
theorization in, 93
value system to support in, 104–105
Value systems, to support, 104–105
van Gennep, Arnold, 323
van Willigen, John, 18, 74
Vass, G., 385
Vennum, Thomas, 175, 176, 713
Venues, musical. See also specific venues
in post-conflict/-catastrophe communities, 460–461
Veršnik, Vojko, 220
Vienna 10, 264–267, 264f
Village harmony, 455–458
Voice Project, 793–794, 795, 796
Voices of the Rainforest, 777
von Hornbostel, Erich Moritz, 679–680
von Humboldt, Wilhelm, 512–513
VoxLox, 778
Vulnerability, researcher, 71–89
Antipodean approach in, 72
applied ethnomusicology in, 73–74
Beaudry on, 72
case studies on
digital music archive for Rapanui in, 78–84, 81f, 89
Uz Tēvu Mājām and Christchurch Latvian diaspora in, 84–88, 86f
collaborator engagement in, 72
definition of, 72
focus on, 72
Hood on, 71
intimate, emotional fieldwork in, 71
professional and personal, 75–78
Wong on, 72
(p. 836) Waade, A. M., 407–408, 411, 412, 422
Wachiperi, 425–440
active resistance in, 399
background on, 401–404, 402f–404f, 425–427, 444
CD self-production in, 434–440, 437f, 438f, 441–442
efficacy and success in music projects in, 440
Esüwa healing songs of, 429–431, 431f, 445
safeguarding of, and song ownership, 431–434
Kapiro song of, 428
Manuel Yonaje of, 442–443, 442f
Q’eros and, 443–444
reciprocity in, 399–401, 426
song revival and UNESCO in, 425–429, 428f
Walker, Nick, 294
Wang, N., 408
War Child, 464–468, 478
Weil, Zoe, 606
West Cameroon’s DAKASTUM, 326
Western music, composer and score as focus in, 348–349
White Settler Colonial, Ms., 381, 382–384
Wide-awakeness, 384, 393
Wien 10, 264–267, 264f
Wilk, Richard R., 526
Willard, Augustus, 355
Winter, Penni, 291
WOMAD festival, 781–782
Wong, Deborah, 31, 72, 354–355
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), 8
World Library of Folk and Primitive Music recordings, 785
World music. See also specific artists, promoters, and types
rise in popularity of, 1960s, 22–23
World Music Days (China), 754–758, 755f, 757f
World Music Pedagogy certification course, 644
Worster, Donald, 172
Xianbao, Zhou, 738
Xiaoyan, Zhang, 738
Xifan, Yang, 737
Yakima Valley, Music Alive! in, 659–662
Yang, K. W., 390–391, 394
Yonaje, Manuel, 436, 442–443, 442f
Yongnyeo, Yi, 504
Yongsu, Yi, 499–501
Young Audiences of Northeast Cleveland (YANEO), 560, 582–583
Yugoslavia, 39
Zaretti, Joan L., 557
Zavala, M., 393–394
Zebec, Tvrtko, 42
Zolli, Andrew, 183
Zubčević, Edin, 471–475
Žganec, Vinko, 39