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date: 13 November 2019

(p. xiii) Transliteration

(p. xiii) Transliteration

Arabic names, words, and phrases are written following the transliteration system used by the International Journal of Middle East Studies. The names of authors of Arabic-language works are spelled according to standard fuṣḥa pronunciation, not according to the most common spelling or dialectal pronunciation; in cases where ambiguity may arise, the common spelling is provided in parentheses upon first mention following the fuṣḥa transliteration. Names of Arab writers who write in other languages are spelled as they appear in print in those languages, not according to fuṣḥa pronunciation. Author names are followed by the year of their birth or lifespan, except in cases where such dates are unknown. The initial “Al-” common to many Arabic names, which constitutes part of the name, is not discounted when those names are listed alphabetically under Works Cited and in the Index. However, the definite article is discounted when listing book titles alphabetically in the Index. (p. xiv)