(p. xi) List of Figures
(p. xi) List of Figures
0.1 Panel, “Coming of Quetzalcoatl,” of the mural, “The Epic of American Civilization,” painted by José Clement Orozoco. Commissioned by the Trustees of Dartmouth College. Reproduced with permission of the Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College. 2
4.5 (a) Aztec III Black-on-Orange bowl (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). (b) Aztec III Black-on-Orange molcajete (ceramic grater) (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). (c) Aztec III Black-on-Orange bowl (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). 61
4.6 (a) & (b) Aztec III Black-on-Red bowl (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). (c) Aztec III Black-on-Red copa (cup) (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). 62
4.7a (a) Aztec IV Black-on-Orange molcajete (grater). (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). (b) Aztec IV Black-on-Orange bowl. (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). 62
5.2 Illustrations of Aztec I–IV decorated Black-on-Orange pottery sherds and associated chronology (Aztec I illustrations provided by Destiny Crider; Aztec II–IV illustrations modified from Hodge and Minc 1991). Drawn by Kristen Sullivan and L. J. Gorenflo. 76
5.4 Summaries of Late Aztec and Late Toltec settlement based on survey data: number of sites by environmental zone (a); estimated population by environmental zone (b); number of sites by site type (c); and estimated population by site type (d). Drawn by L. J. Gorenflo. 81
6.1 The Mexicas emerge from Aztlan, represented by six houses next to a pyramid. To the right, an individual in a canoe symbolizes the exit from Aztlan, while the glyph 1 Tecpatl represents the year. To the far right is an altar to Huitzilopochtli inside of a bent mountain. From Tira de la peregrinación (Codex Boturini). Photograph from Kinsborough, II, Figure 1. Public domain. 95
6.3 The tlatoque (rulers) of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. On the right: Acamapichtli, Huitzilihuitl, Chimalpopoca, Itzcoatl, Axayacatl, and Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina. On the left: Tizoc, Ahuitzotl, Moctezuma II, and Cuauhtemoc. From Sahagún, Primeros Memoriales, Fol. 51. Courtesy of the University of Oklahoma Press. 99
7.1 The Aztec Day Signs: (a) Cipactli (Alligator), (b) Ehecatl (Wind), (c) Calli (House), (d) Cuetzpalin (Lizard), (e) Coatl (Snake), (f) Miquiztli (Death), (g) Mazatl (Deer), (h) Tochtli (Rabbit), (i) Atl (Water), (j) Itzcuintli (Dog), (k) Ozomatli (Monkey), (l) Malinalli (Grass), (m) Acatl (Reed), (n) Ocelotl (Jaguar), (o) Cuauhtli (Eagle), (p) Cozcacuauhtli (Buzzard), (q) Ollin (Movement), (r) Tecpatl (Flint), (s) Quiahuitl (Rain), (t) Xochitl (Flower). (Caso 1971:Figure 1). 108
7.5 A contrast of early and late post-Conquest calendar wheels reveals the gradual intrusion of Western into indigenous temporal concepts: (a) the Calendar Wheel of Motolinía (1549) includes, in addition to tonalpohualli dates, an accompanying text listing corresponding xihuitl dates. (Calendar Wheel of Motolinia 1903; Memoriales de Toribio de Motolinía. G. Pimentel (ed.) Mexico); (b) the calendar wheel of Gemelli (1697) falsely emphasizes lunar months. (Gemelli-Careri Wheel, 1697; Berthe 1968:144). 115
8.1 Pictographic expressions: (a) the water goddess Chalchihuitlicue (Codex Borbonicus 5); (b) death of Motecuzoma and the accession of Axayacatl in the year 2 Flint (Tira de Tepechpan 12); (c) place sign of Coatepec (Codex Boturini 5); (d) place sign of Colhuacan (Codex Boturini 20). Drawing of (a) by Heather Hurst, drawings of (b)–(d) by John Montgomery. 119
12.3 Composite aerial view of Ejido San Gregorio Atlapulco showing remnant chinampa plots (prepared by Guillermo Acosta Ochoa and Victor García, April 2014). With permission of Acosta Ochoa and García. 184
13.2 Population pyramid modeled for skeletal sample from the chinamperos of San Gregorio Atlapulco-Xochimilco, Late Postclassic period. Used with permission and calculations done by Patricia Hernandez E. and Lourdes Márquez Morfín. 192
16.1 The Nahuatl glyph for tecpan (noble house) as a stylized house in profile, surmounted by the ruler’s copil headdress and featuring a lintel adorned with row of pierced disks (chalchihuitl), ancient symbols of preciousness. Drawing by S. T. Evans. 234
20.2 Assorted uses of products made from reeds: (top) merchants with a stool, carrying pack, and tall basket; (middle) baskets arrayed in preparation for a feast; (bottom) a noble woman on high-backed seat and petate (mat). Florentine Codex, Book 9:Figures 26 and 27, Book 10:Figure 76, © University of Utah Press. 305
20.3 Fishing and hunting in the lakes: (top) a fisherman using a net and canoe, (bottom) a hunter collecting birds from a net. Florentine Codex, Book 10:Figure 133, Book 11:Figure 187, © University of Utah Press. 307
22.1 Central Mexican obsidian sources and select population centers controlled by Triple Alliance cities. Note the corridor of sites leading to Sierra de Las Navajas that moved to Tenochca control. Drawn by authors. 331
22.3 Depictions from the Florentine Codex of (a) obsidian scraper, blade, blade-core, crutch for removing prismatic blades, and a European razor for comparison with the blades; (b) classes of obsidian recognized by the Aztecs including green tolteca itzli. (Sahagún 1963:778–779). 333
24.3 Comparison of Early Aztec (upper) and Late Aztec (lower) ceramic pastes from Orange ware (left) and Red ware (right). False color image of petrographic thin-sections showing size distribution and frequency of inclusions. Prepared by author. 361
24.6 Comparison of normalized compositional profiles for Black/Orange and Red ware ceramics by production area (Chalco, Tenochtitlan-Ixtapalapa, and Texcoco). Note that Black/Orange ceramics are consistently higher in the rare earth elements. 367
27.1 The cosmos is divided into two time-space realms. The divine is the realm of the gods and supernatural forces and is composed of subtle substance. The profane realm is inhabited by beings (composed of dense substance) as well as the gods and supernatural forces. Thresholds between the realms permit communication. Drawn by author and Kristin Sullivan. 400
27.2 The body is composed of dense and subtle substance. The different souls are composed of subtle substance. Formative souls are necessary for human existence. In contrast, humans can survive without the different contingent souls. Prepared by author and redrawn by Kristin Sullivan. 402
27.3 Each god can separate into two or more different gods, and two or more different gods can join together to form a single god. These two processes are known as fission and fusion. The gods can also separate into multiple gods, which can join together again. These two processes are known as division and reintegration. Prepared by author and redrawn by Kristin Sullivan. 403
27.4 The god Quetzalcoatl can fission to form two different gods: Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli and Ehecatl. Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli and Ehecatl can fuse together to form the god Quetzalcoatl. Prepared by author and redrawn by Kristin Sullivan. 404
28.1 Nahuat woman. Photo by author. 416
28.2 Nahuat men. Photo by author. 417
29.1 Palaces of Aztec nobles. The Texcoco and Tizatlan examples are from codices, and their size is unknown; the others are archaeological plans. See Smith (2008:ch. 4) for discussion and citations. Graphic by Michael E. Smith. 425 (p. xviii)
29.3 Labor and goods (left), often incorrectly called “tribute,” paid by commoners to two nobles (right). Each box shows the number of laborers from a named community; to their right are bundles of cotton cloth (money). The nobles are identified by their name glyph. Redrawn from the Codex Kingsborough, lám. 5A (Valle 1995). 432
31.4 Resin replica of a Mexica soldier, dressed as Tzitzimitl. First hyperrealistic reconstruction developed in Mexico for artistic and scientific purposes by Caronte Lab in consultation with Marco Cervera. (Photo: Marco Antonio Cervera File) 459
33.4 Regions reported as under the control of the Aztecs but that do not appear in the Codex Mendoza. These regions were organized into 12 “strategic” provinces by Berdan et al. (1996). Map by author. 484
33.5 Map showing the deviations in shape and area of the interpretations of the Tlapan province (Barlow  versus Berdan et al. ). Note that the two graphic interpretations do not match the actual extent of the Tlapan province according to the Cartas de Religiosos (1904). Map by author. 485
34.1 Mesoamerican Gulf Lowlands showing conventional divisions and imperial provinces (Divisions within the Gulf Lowlands following Daneels 2012:25.1 and Stark and Arnold 1997:Figure 1; provincial boundaries adapted from Berdan et al. 1996:Figure II-1; Carrasco 1999; Gerhard 1993; Killion and Urcid 2001:Figure 9). Prepared by Marcie Venter. 496
35.3 Codex Nuttall, pages 45 (right) and 46 (left); (A) indicates the toponym for Tututepec or Yucu Dzaa (“Hill of the Bird”); while (B) shows Lord 8 Deer conducting a ballcourt ritual with a “Toltec” official; and (C) indicates a series of seven conquered place names pierced by spears. Copyright Dover Publications, used with permission. 512
38.2 Rattle for a Purépecha thunderstick composed of multiple bells around a central ring. From the cemetery at the site of Angamuco, Michoacán, (p. xx) Mexico, Late Postclassic. Drawing by Daniel Salazar Lama for the LORE-LPB project. 545
38.4 Traditional yacata-style pyramid composed of a rectilinear and circular element, from the site of Angamuco, Michoacán, Mexico. (A) Shows a plan view of this feature as a 5cm contour map; (B) shows a perspective view of this same feature using the same contour map overlain on a hillshade. All features derived from a .25 cm digital elevation model created from high resolution LiDAR data. Prepared by author 547
40.1 The 13 layers of heaven and the nine layers of the underworld based on beliefs from the Postclassic-period Central Highlands (Códice Vaticano-Latino 3738 1996:fol. 1v-2r). Reproduced with permission. 572
40.2 A tonalpouhque (“He who possesses the count of days”) uses a codex to show a woman on the day (“10 Rabbit”) on which her child will be baptized (Sahagún 1959–1982:I, Book 4: fol. 34 v°). Reproduced with permission. 574
43.5 Hypothetical reconstruction of the Templo Mayor. (A) sculptures of the goddess Coatlicue, (B) standard bearers, (C) geometric sacrificial stone, (D) Chacmool sacrificial stone, (E) Coyolxauhqui monolith, (F) Tlaltecuhtli monolith and Offering 126. Drawing by Tenoch Medina, courtesy of the Templo Mayor Project. 610
44.3 Calendrical design motifs on household feasting pottery from Xaltocan: (a) Quadripartite design; (b) Cipactli motif; (c) spiral or oscillating motion motif. Drawings by Juan Joel Viveros Sánchez. 630
44.4 Disposal of household goods for the New Fire ceremony, Sahagún 1950–1982, Book 7:Figure 19 Florence, The Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, ms. Med. Palat. 220, f. 21r. Reproduced with permission of MiBACT. Further reproduction by any means is prohibited. 631
45.2 Aztec IV Black-on-Orange molcajetes from the Alameda district in Mexico City (upper row) and the Sierra de las Navajas obsidian source (lower rows). Adapted from Charlton et al. 2007:443–444. 648
45.3 Colonial Red wares. Top row: plate from Tlatelolco (adapted from Charlton et al. 2007:449). Bottom row: molded zoomorphic support from a tripod plate and a decorated spinning bowl from the Santa Inés site. Photos by Patricia Fournier G. 650
46.1 Some of the house lots excavated by the Programa de Arqueología Urbana in the historic center of Mexico City. Drawn by the author, based on maps published in Matos Moctezuma 1999:12, 2003:9). 663
1. Metropolitan Cathedral and Tabernacle.
2. Centro Cultural de España.
3. Donceles #97.
4. Plaza Manuel Gamio.
5. Guatemala #38.
6. Palacio del Marqués del Apartado.
7. Luis González Obregón #25.
8. Palacio Nacional.
9. Moneda #11.
10. Argentina #15, Librería Porrúa.
11. Licenciado Verdad #2-8.
12. Justo Sierra #33.
13. Correo Mayor #11.
47.1 Franciscan friars burn temples in the city of Tlaxcala, driving out gods whom the indigenous artist, working later in the sixteenth century, depicts as devils. Drawing in Diego Muñoz Camargo’s Descripçíon de la çiudad y prouincia de Tlaxcala, f. 240v. Courtesy of the University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. 676
47.2 A Franciscan friar joins a Nahua couple in marriage. The groom wears a traditional indigenous man’s cloak; his adoption of European style hat, shoes, and pants suggests he is of high social rank. Woodcut in Fray Alonso de Molina, Confessionario mayor, en lengua mexicana y castellana (Antonio de Espinosa, Mexico, 1565:f. 57r). Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University. 677
47.4 The Ten Commandments and the Seven Deadly Sins, adapted into the Nahuatl language in one of the earliest surviving Nahuatl books. Fray Pedro de Gante, Doctrina christiana en lengua mexicana (Mexico, 1547:f. 12v-13r). Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University. 681
47.5 The Hail Mary prayer in a pictographic catechism from 1714. A Nahua notary named don Lucas Mateo painted the images and wrote out the accompanying text of the prayer in Nahuatl. The kneeling figures in red cloaks represent indigenous men praising Mary and Jesus. (Doctrina cristiana, Egerton Ms. 2898, British Museum, f. 2v-3r). Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum. 685 (p. xxiii)
48.2 Unidentified artist, “The Founding of Tenochtitlan,” Frontispiece: Codex Mendoza, ca. 1541, ink and watercolor on paper. Bodleian Library, Oxford University, Oxford. (Berdan and Anawalt, Codex Mendoza p.1r.). Reproduced with permission. 692
48.4 Unidentified Artist, “Calendar Stone,” ca. 1502–1520, stone. Photograph by William T. Gassaway. Courtesy of Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Museo Nacional de Antropología, Mexico City. 695