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date: 20 February 2020

(p. xi) List of Figures

(p. xi) List of Figures

  1. 0.1 Panel, “Coming of Quetzalcoatl,” of the mural, “The Epic of American Civilization,” painted by José Clement Orozoco. Commissioned by the Trustees of Dartmouth College. Reproduced with permission of the Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College. 2

  2. 0.2 Map of the Triple Alliance Empire. Redrawn by Maëlle Sergheraert (this volume) and Kristin Sullivan after Berdan et al. (1996:Figure II.1). 4

  3. 0.3 The Basin of Mexico. Drawn by Kristin Sullivan. 5

  4. 1.1 The “Sun Stone” or “Aztec Calendar.” Courtesy of the Templo Mayor-Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico. 22

  5. 1.2 Coyolxauhqui. Courtesy of the Templo Mayor-Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico. 22

  6. 1.3 Tlaltecuhtli. Courtesy of the Templo Mayor-Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico. 26

  7. 3.1 Archaeological zone of the Templo Mayor. Photograph by author. 43

  8. 3.2 In situ conservation of the Mictlantecuhtli sculpture. Área de Conservación del MTM. Photograph by author. 44

  9. 3.3 Conservation of monumental ceramic merlon in front of the calmecac. Photograph by José Vázquez. 46

  10. 3.4 A headdress made of paper, rubber, wood, and agave fibers and a polychrome painted wooden mask from Offering 102 following conservation. Photograph by Estudio Michel Zabé. 47

  11. 4.1 Ceremonial precinct of Tula Grande. Arrows indicate Aztec structures built over Toltec ruins (Proyecto Tula digital collection). Redrawn by Luis Gamboa, edited by Kristin Sullivan. 54

  12. 4.2 The Burnt Palace showing the location of an Aztec tomb with Aztec III pottery (Proyecto Tula digital collection). Redrawn by Luis Gamboa, edited by Kristin Sullivan. 55

  13. 4.3 Late Postclassic anthropomorphic stone sculpture with serpent body (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Acervo digital Proyecto Tula). 57

  14. 4.4 Aztec flint knife found in a stone box near Tula’s tzompantli (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). 58 (p. xii)

  15. 4.5 (a) Aztec III Black-on-Orange bowl (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). (b) Aztec III Black-on-Orange molcajete (ceramic grater) (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). (c) Aztec III Black-on-Orange bowl (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). 61

  16. 4.6 (a) & (b) Aztec III Black-on-Red bowl (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). (c) Aztec III Black-on-Red copa (cup) (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). 62

  17. 4.7a (a) Aztec IV Black-on-Orange molcajete (grater). (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). (b) Aztec IV Black-on-Orange bowl. (Museo Jorge R. Acosta, Proyecto Tula digital collection). 62

  18. 5.1 The Basin of Mexico, showing major physical geographic features, archaeological survey regions, and key localities mentioned in text. Drawn by L. J. Gorenflo. 74

  19. 5.2 Illustrations of Aztec I–IV decorated Black-on-Orange pottery sherds and associated chronology (Aztec I illustrations provided by Destiny Crider; Aztec II–IV illustrations modified from Hodge and Minc 1991). Drawn by Kristen Sullivan and L. J. Gorenflo. 76

  20. 5.3 Settlement patterns in the Basin of Mexico, based on archaeological surveys, dating to the Late Aztec (a), Early Aztec (b), and Late Toltec (c) periods of occupation. Drawn by L. J. Gorenflo. 79

  21. 5.4 Summaries of Late Aztec and Late Toltec settlement based on survey data: number of sites by environmental zone (a); estimated population by environmental zone (b); number of sites by site type (c); and estimated population by site type (d). Drawn by L. J. Gorenflo. 81

  22. 6.1 The Mexicas emerge from Aztlan, represented by six houses next to a pyramid. To the right, an individual in a canoe symbolizes the exit from Aztlan, while the glyph 1 Tecpatl represents the year. To the far right is an altar to Huitzilopochtli inside of a bent mountain. From Tira de la peregrinación (Codex Boturini). Photograph from Kinsborough, II, Figure 1. Public domain. 95

  23. 6.2 The Basin of Mexico ca. A.D. 1400. After Gibson. 1964. Redrawn by author and Kristin Sullivan. 97

  24. 6.3 The tlatoque (rulers) of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. On the right: Acamapichtli, Huitzilihuitl, Chimalpopoca, Itzcoatl, Axayacatl, and Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina. On the left: Tizoc, Ahuitzotl, Moctezuma II, and Cuauhtemoc. From Sahagún, Primeros Memoriales, Fol. 51. Courtesy of the University of Oklahoma Press. 99

  25. 6.4 Extent of the Mexica empire ca. A.D. 1500, showing the areas conquered by each tlatoani. Redrawn by Kristin Sullivan from public domain. 101 (p. xiii)

  26. 6.5 Mexica political organization ca. A.D. 1500. Prepared by author and edited by Kristin Sullivan. 102

  27. 6.6 1524 Map of Tenochtitlan. Courtesy of the Newberry Library. 103

  28. 7.1 The Aztec Day Signs: (a) Cipactli (Alligator), (b) Ehecatl (Wind), (c) Calli (House), (d) Cuetzpalin (Lizard), (e) Coatl (Snake), (f) Miquiztli (Death), (g) Mazatl (Deer), (h) Tochtli (Rabbit), (i) Atl (Water), (j) Itzcuintli (Dog), (k) Ozomatli (Monkey), (l) Malinalli (Grass), (m) Acatl (Reed), (n) Ocelotl (Jaguar), (o) Cuauhtli (Eagle), (p) Cozcacuauhtli (Buzzard), (q) Ollin (Movement), (r) Tecpatl (Flint), (s) Quiahuitl (Rain), (t) Xochitl (Flower). (Caso 1971:Figure 1). 108

  29. 7.2 The center of the celebrated Aztec Sun Stone, which depicts the five creations. (Aveni 1989:Figure 1). 111

  30. 7.3 Human history, the testimony of people, and natural history; the testimony of things are conflated in the Aztec interpretation of history. (Quiñones Keber, Codex Telleriano Remensis, f.42r.). 112

  31. 7.4 The Aztec map of Tenochtítlan. (Berdan and Anawalt, Codex Mendoza p.1r.). Reproduced with permission. 113

  32. 7.5 A contrast of early and late post-Conquest calendar wheels reveals the gradual intrusion of Western into indigenous temporal concepts: (a) the Calendar Wheel of Motolinía (1549) includes, in addition to tonalpohualli dates, an accompanying text listing corresponding xihuitl dates. (Calendar Wheel of Motolinia 1903; Memoriales de Toribio de Motolinía. G. Pimentel (ed.) Mexico); (b) the calendar wheel of Gemelli (1697) falsely emphasizes lunar months. (Gemelli-Careri Wheel, 1697; Berthe 1968:144). 115

  33. 8.1 Pictographic expressions: (a) the water goddess Chalchihuitlicue (Codex Borbonicus 5); (b) death of Motecuzoma and the accession of Axayacatl in the year 2 Flint (Tira de Tepechpan 12); (c) place sign of Coatepec (Codex Boturini 5); (d) place sign of Colhuacan (Codex Boturini 20). Drawing of (a) by Heather Hurst, drawings of (b)–(d) by John Montgomery. 119

  34. 8.2 Mapa Sigüenza. Reproduced with permission, Conaculta, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico. 122

  35. 8.3 Founding of Tenochtitlan in the Codex Mendoza, folio 2r. Photograph courtesy of the Bodleian Library, Oxford University. 123

  36. 8.4 Annals history of the Codex Mexicanus, pp. 71–72. Reproduction courtesy of the Bibliotheque nationale France. 125

  37. 12.1 Postclassic settlement in the Basin of Mexico (Sanders 1981). 183

  38. 12.2 Estimated extension of post-Aztec period chinampa cultivation in the southern Basin of Mexico (Luna Golya 2014). With permission of Luna Golya. 183 (p. xiv)

  39. 12.3 Composite aerial view of Ejido San Gregorio Atlapulco showing remnant chinampa plots (prepared by Guillermo Acosta Ochoa and Victor García, April 2014). With permission of Acosta Ochoa and García. 184

  40. 12.4 Characteristic flora of canals surrounding Ejido San Gregorio Atlapulco (photo Emily McClung de Tapia). 184

  41. 12.5 Excavation of a relict chinampa in Ejido San Gregorio Atlapulco (photo Emily McClung de Tapia). 185

  42. 13.1 Hypothetical population pyramid for Tlatilco. Used with permission and calculations done by Patricia Hernandez E. and Lourdes Márquez. 190

  43. 13.2 Population pyramid modeled for skeletal sample from the chinamperos of San Gregorio Atlapulco-Xochimilco, Late Postclassic period. Used with permission and calculations done by Patricia Hernandez E. and Lourdes Márquez Morfín. 192

  44. 13.3 Estimates and pattern of depopulation during the Colonial period in Greater Tenochtitlan. Source: Aguirre Beltrán 1946; Márquez Morfín 1993. 192

  45. 14.1 Epicenters of the Toltec capital Tula and Coatetelco, an altepetl capital in Morelos. A: modified from Mastache et al. (2002:92); B: map by Michael E. Smith. 202

  46. 14.2 Map of the locations of the best-documented Aztec cities. Map by Juliana Novic. 203

  47. 14.3 The main pyramid of Tenayuca. Photograph by Michael E. Smith. 203

  48. 14.4 Circular temple at Huexotla. Photograph by Michael E. Smith. 204

  49. 14.5 Central plaza at Ixtapaluca, looking north from the main pyramid. Photograph by Michael E. Smith. 205

  50. 14.6 Structure 1, a neighborhood temple at Calixtlahuaca. Photograph by Maëlle Sergheraert, Calixtlahuaca Archaeological Project. 209

  51. 15.1 The Valley of Mexico (Toussaint et al. 1938:155). 220

  52. 15.2 Tenochtitlan: First published in the Relación of the Anonymous Conqueror (Toussaint et al. 1938: 48). 221

  53. 16.1 The Nahuatl glyph for tecpan (noble house) as a stylized house in profile, surmounted by the ruler’s copil headdress and featuring a lintel adorned with row of pierced disks (chalchihuitl), ancient symbols of preciousness. Drawing by S. T. Evans. 234

  54. 16.2. Quinatzin’s palace, a detail from the Oztoticpac lands map (1540s; see also Cline 1966). Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division. 236

  55. 16.3 Cihuatecpan’s tecpan (noble house) development can be traced through three stages: the 1370s, the 1430s, and the post-Conquest sixteenth century. Drawing by S. T. Evans. 237 (p. xv)

  56. 16.4 The plan of Nezahualcoyotl’s palace in Texcoco featured a main courtyard overseen by the ruler’s dais room, as depicted in the Mapa Quinatzin (1959 [ca. 1542]). Drawing by S. T. Evans. 240

  57. 17.1 Colonial-period house complex from Culhuacan, 1581 (after Lockhart 1992:Figure 3.4). Drawing by Santiago Juarez. 248

  58. 17.2 Examples of houses as depicted in the Florentine Codex (Sahagún 1950–1982). Courtesy University of Utah Press. 249

  59. 17.3 Example of house groups from El Canal, Tula (after Healan 1993:Figure 2). Drawing by Santiago Juarez. 252

  60. 17.4 Structure 1, an Aztec I period house at Xaltocan. Figure by Kristin DeLucia. 255

  61. 18.1 Low stone alignments of contour terrace system on Cerro Ahumada, in the northern Basin of Mexico. Photograph by author. 266

  62. 18.2 Canal embankment of Cuauhitlan River (Doolittle 1990, reproduced with permission). 268

  63. 18.3 Contemporary chinampa planted in maize at Xochimilco. Photograph by author. 268

  64. 18.4 Storage maize bin (troje) for tribute as depicted in the Codex Mendoza (Berdan and Anawalt 1992), reproduced with permission. 270

  65. 19.1 A Tarascan Marketplace. Illustration from the Relacion de Michoacan. Reproduced with permission. 283

  66. 19.2 Major Aztec cities and towns in the Basin of Mexico. Cities with pochteca merchants are shown in caps. Redrawn by Kristin Sullivan. 288

  67. 19.3 Map of Otumba and its workshops. Drawn by Kristin Sullivan. 289

  68. 20.1 Map of the Basin of Mexico showing locations described in the text. Map by author. 302

  69. 20.2 Assorted uses of products made from reeds: (top) merchants with a stool, carrying pack, and tall basket; (middle) baskets arrayed in preparation for a feast; (bottom) a noble woman on high-backed seat and petate (mat). Florentine Codex, Book 9:Figures 26 and 27, Book 10:Figure 76, © University of Utah Press. 305

  70. 20.3 Fishing and hunting in the lakes: (top) a fisherman using a net and canoe, (bottom) a hunter collecting birds from a net. Florentine Codex, Book 10:Figure 133, Book 11:Figure 187, © University of Utah Press. 307

  71. 20.4 Fragments of Texcoco Fabric Marked pottery from San Bartolomé Salinas, Estado de Mexico. Photograph by author. 308

  72. 20.5 Map of Middle and Late Postclassic salt-making sites in the Basin of Mexico during the Postclassic. Map by author. 309 (p. xvi)

  73. 22.1 Central Mexican obsidian sources and select population centers controlled by Triple Alliance cities. Note the corridor of sites leading to Sierra de Las Navajas that moved to Tenochca control. Drawn by authors. 331

  74. 22.2 Toponymns associated with obsidian (redrawn from the Codex Mendocino). Drawn by authors. 332

  75. 22.3 Depictions from the Florentine Codex of (a) obsidian scraper, blade, blade-core, crutch for removing prismatic blades, and a European razor for comparison with the blades; (b) classes of obsidian recognized by the Aztecs including green tolteca itzli. (Sahagún 1963:778–779). 333

  76. 22.4 Camp structures and workshop deposits in the Sierra de Las Navajas. Photo by Alejandro Pastrana. 336

  77. 22.5 Replica machuahuitl (obsidian-lined broad-sword). Photo by Alejandro Pastrana. 337

  78. 23.1 Reproduction of an obsidian ritual scepter and mirror. Objects and photo by Alejandro Pastrana. 347

  79. 23.2 Preforms for ritual scepters from a Sierra de las Navajas workshop. Drawing by Alejandro Pastrana. 348

  80. 23.3 Preforms for obsidian mirrors from a Sierra de las Navajas workshop. Drawing by Alejandro Pastrana. 349

  81. 23.4 Unfinished obsidian lapidary objects and tool from the Otumba lapidary workshop. Photo by Cynthia Otis Charlton. 350

  82. 23.5 Chert tools and artifacts from the Otumba lapidary workshop. Photo by Cynthia Otis Charlton. 351

  83. 24.1 Aztec Black/Orange types. Prepared by author. 357

  84. 24.2 Early Aztec and Late Aztec Red ware bowls. Prepared by author. 360

  85. 24.3 Comparison of Early Aztec (upper) and Late Aztec (lower) ceramic pastes from Orange ware (left) and Red ware (right). False color image of petrographic thin-sections showing size distribution and frequency of inclusions. Prepared by author. 361

  86. 24.4 Electron microprobe analysis indicating the composition of pigments used on Aztec Red wares. Prepared by author. 362

  87. 24.5 The clay worker (after Sahagún 1950–1982, Book 10:plate 136). 363

  88. 24.6 Comparison of normalized compositional profiles for Black/Orange and Red ware ceramics by production area (Chalco, Tenochtitlan-Ixtapalapa, and Texcoco). Note that Black/Orange ceramics are consistently higher in the rare earth elements. 367

  89. 25.1 Supported spinning with wooden spindle and disc whorl in a spinning bowl (Charney 1887). Redrawn by Kristin Sullivan. 377 (p. xvii)

  90. 25.2 Weaving tools as symbolic offerings for girl’s bathing ritual (Sahagún 1950–1982). Redrawn by Kristin Sullivan. 379

  91. 25.3 Goddess Cihuacoatl with weaving batten (Codex Magliabechino 1983:folio 45. Redrawn by Kristin Sullivan). 380

  92. 25.4 Decorated spindle whorls from Cholula. Photograph by author. 381

  93. 26.1 Bathing and naming of a child from the Codex Mendoza (Berdan and Anawalt 1992). Reproduced with permission of Frances F. Berdan. 390

  94. 26.2 First folio of the parallel upbringing of children from the Codex Mendoza (Berdan and Anawalt 1992). With permission of Frances F. Berdan. 391

  95. 26.3 Female manuscript painter, la pintora, Codex Telleriano-Remensis (Quiñones Keber 1995). With permission, Bibliothèque nationale de France. 392

  96. 26.4 Sculpture of a cihuateotl. With permission @ British Museum. 395

  97. 27.1 The cosmos is divided into two time-space realms. The divine is the realm of the gods and supernatural forces and is composed of subtle substance. The profane realm is inhabited by beings (composed of dense substance) as well as the gods and supernatural forces. Thresholds between the realms permit communication. Drawn by author and Kristin Sullivan. 400

  98. 27.2 The body is composed of dense and subtle substance. The different souls are composed of subtle substance. Formative souls are necessary for human existence. In contrast, humans can survive without the different contingent souls. Prepared by author and redrawn by Kristin Sullivan. 402

  99. 27.3 Each god can separate into two or more different gods, and two or more different gods can join together to form a single god. These two processes are known as fission and fusion. The gods can also separate into multiple gods, which can join together again. These two processes are known as division and reintegration. Prepared by author and redrawn by Kristin Sullivan. 403

  100. 27.4 The god Quetzalcoatl can fission to form two different gods: Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli and Ehecatl. Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli and Ehecatl can fuse together to form the god Quetzalcoatl. Prepared by author and redrawn by Kristin Sullivan. 404

  101. 27.5 Parton gods belong to distinct hierarchies, presiding over the different calpullis, cities, ethnicities, and of all humankind. Prepared by author and redrawn by Kristin Sullivan. 405

  102. 28.1 Nahuat woman. Photo by author. 416

  103. 28.2 Nahuat men. Photo by author. 417

  104. 29.1 Palaces of Aztec nobles. The Texcoco and Tizatlan examples are from codices, and their size is unknown; the others are archaeological plans. See Smith (2008:ch. 4) for discussion and citations. Graphic by Michael E. Smith. 425 (p. xviii)

  105. 29.2 Urban commoner residence at Yautepec, Morelos. The dimensions of this structure (unit 517) are approximately 7 m × 5 m. Photograph by Michael E. Smith. 427

  106. 29.3 Labor and goods (left), often incorrectly called “tribute,” paid by commoners to two nobles (right). Each box shows the number of laborers from a named community; to their right are bundles of cotton cloth (money). The nobles are identified by their name glyph. Redrawn from the Codex Kingsborough, lám. 5A (Valle 1995). 432

  107. 30.1 The Triple Alliance capitals and their domains in the Basin of Mexico. Map drawn by Jennifer B. Lozano. 441

  108. 30.2 Pochteca cities in the Basin of Mexico. Map drawn by Jennifer B. Lozano. 445

  109. 30.3 The Triple Alliance or Aztec Empire, 1519. Map drawn by Jennifer B. Lozano. 447

  110. 31.1 Experimental reconstruction of a macuahuitl by Marco Cervera and Marco Antonio de la Cruz. (Photo: Marco Antonio Cervera File). 453

  111. 31.2 Experimental reconstruction of a teputopilli by Marco Cervera and Marco Antonio de la Cruz. (Photo: Marco Antonio Cervera File). 454

  112. 31.3 Nezahualcoyotl as a soldier, with weapons that include a macuahuitl and chimalli. He carries a small drum on his back to transmit orders on the battle field. Codex Ixtlilxóchitl, Folio 106r. 458

  113. 31.4 Resin replica of a Mexica soldier, dressed as Tzitzimitl. First hyperrealistic reconstruction developed in Mexico for artistic and scientific purposes by Caronte Lab in consultation with Marco Cervera. (Photo: Marco Antonio Cervera File) 459

  114. 32.1 Map of the Aztec Empire. Based on Berdan et al. (1996:Fig. 11.1); redrawn by Marion Forest, Maëlle Sergheraert, and Kristin Sullivan. 464

  115. 32.2 Conquest of Xiquipilco by Tenochtitlan. Codex Teleriano-Remensis, folio 37v; redrawn by Maëlle Sergheraert. 465

  116. 32.3 Imperial taxes paid by the Huaxtepec Province. Codex Mendoza, folio 24v–25r; from Berdan and Anawalt (1992:4:54–55). Reproduced with permission. 466

  117. 33.1 Map of the southern highlands of Mexico showing areas that were Aztec provinces and other independent political entities. Map by author. 474

  118. 33.2 Language group distributions at the time of the Aztec Empire (after Barlow 1949). The area shown includes the modern states of Guerrero and Oaxaca, Map by author. 481

  119. 33.3 The union of Lord Couixcal and Matlatli Oçomaxoch from the Lienzo de Tlapa. By permission of Biblioteca Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico. 482 (p. xix)

  120. 33.4 Regions reported as under the control of the Aztecs but that do not appear in the Codex Mendoza. These regions were organized into 12 “strategic” provinces by Berdan et al. (1996). Map by author. 484

  121. 33.5 Map showing the deviations in shape and area of the interpretations of the Tlapan province (Barlow [1949] versus Berdan et al. [1996]). Note that the two graphic interpretations do not match the actual extent of the Tlapan province according to the Cartas de Religiosos (1904). Map by author. 485

  122. 33.6 Map showing the military campaigns of Aztec emperors in the southern highlands. Map by author. 486

  123. 34.1 Mesoamerican Gulf Lowlands showing conventional divisions and imperial provinces (Divisions within the Gulf Lowlands following Daneels 2012:25.1 and Stark and Arnold 1997:Figure 1; provincial boundaries adapted from Berdan et al. 1996:Figure II-1; Carrasco 1999; Gerhard 1993; Killion and Urcid 2001:Figure 9). Prepared by Marcie Venter. 496

  124. 35.1 Map of Oaxaca highlighting estimated boundaries of Tututepec Empire. (Based on Smith 1973:Map 4; Spores 1993:Figure 1). Drawn by author. 510

  125. 35.2 Tututepec Monument 6. Photograph by author. 511

  126. 35.3 Codex Nuttall, pages 45 (right) and 46 (left); (A) indicates the toponym for Tututepec or Yucu Dzaa (“Hill of the Bird”); while (B) shows Lord 8 Deer conducting a ballcourt ritual with a “Toltec” official; and (C) indicates a series of seven conquered place names pierced by spears. Copyright Dover Publications, used with permission. 512

  127. 35.4 Ceramic spindle whorls used for spinning cotton from household excavations at Tututepec. Photograph by author. 515

  128. 35.5 Mixteca-Puebla polychrome pottery bowl with tripod supports from household excavations at Tututepec. Photograph by author. 517

  129. 36.1 Map of the Puebla-Tlaxcala. Drawing by Patricia Plunket. 524

  130. 36.2 Map of Tollan Cholollan. Redrawn by Gabriela Uruñuela from the Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca ca. 1550:26v–27r. 526

  131. 36.3 Codex-style polychrome vessel from Cholula. Drawing by Gabriela Uruñuela. 528

  132. 37.1 Map Showing the geopolitical position of Tlaxcallan in the Postclassic Mesoamerican world. Prepared by Lane F. Fargher, Kristin Sullivan, and David Romero. 536

  133. 38.1 Map of the Tarascan Empire showing major archaeological sites within the Lake Pátzcuaro Basin, Michoacán, Mexico. Drawing by author. 544

  134. 38.2 Rattle for a Purépecha thunderstick composed of multiple bells around a central ring. From the cemetery at the site of Angamuco, Michoacán, (p. xx) Mexico, Late Postclassic. Drawing by Daniel Salazar Lama for the LORE-LPB project. 545

  135. 38.3 Purépecha stirrup spouted vessel possibly for cacao. From the cemetery at the site of Angamuco, Michoacán, Mexico, Photo copyright of the LORE-LPB project, used with permission. 546

  136. 38.4 Traditional yacata-style pyramid composed of a rectilinear and circular element, from the site of Angamuco, Michoacán, Mexico. (A) Shows a plan view of this feature as a 5cm contour map; (B) shows a perspective view of this same feature using the same contour map overlain on a hillshade. All features derived from a .25 cm digital elevation model created from high resolution LiDAR data. Prepared by author 547

  137. 39.1 Imperial territory sizes and populations. Prepared by R. Alan Covey. 558

  138. 40.1 The 13 layers of heaven and the nine layers of the underworld based on beliefs from the Postclassic-period Central Highlands (Códice Vaticano-Latino 3738 1996:fol. 1v-2r). Reproduced with permission. 572

  139. 40.2 A tonalpouhque (“He who possesses the count of days”) uses a codex to show a woman on the day (“10 Rabbit”) on which her child will be baptized (Sahagún 1959–1982:I, Book 4: fol. 34 v°). Reproduced with permission. 574

  140. 40.3 Quetzalcoatl, with a mouth mask identifying him in his manifestation as Ehecatl, god of wind (Codex Telleriano-Remensis 1995:fol. 8 v°). Reproduced with permission. 576

  141. 40.4 Sacrifice of the young man representing the god Tezcatlipoca during the 20-day Toxcatl festival (Sahagún 1959–198:I, Book 2:fol. 30 v°). Reproduced with permission. 578

  142. 40.5 Tezcatlipoca, god of destiny, surrounded by the signs of the divinatory calendar (Códice Fejérváry-Mayer 1994:44). Reproduced with permission. 580

  143. 41.1 Images of goldsmiths at work. From the Florentine Codex 9, f52. Reproduced with permission. 587

  144. 41.2 The Aztec Calendar Stone, or Stone of the Sun. Drawing courtesy of Emily Umberger. 588

  145. 41.3 The Coyolxauhqui Stone. Drawing courtesy of Emily Umberger. 590

  146. 42.1 Aerial Projection of Lake Texcoco from the West. Image used with permission of Thomas Filsinger. 602

  147. 43.1 The Sacred Precinct of Mexico-Tenochtitlan according to Sahagún (1993: fol. 269r). Drawing by Fernando Carrizosa, courtesy of the Templo Mayor Project. 606

  148. 43.2 The Sacred Precinct of Mexico-Tenochtitlan according to Cortés (1994: second letter). Drawing by Fernando Carrizosa, courtesy of the Templo Mayor Project. 607 (p. xxi)

  149. 43.3 The archaeological zone of the Templo Mayor, Mexico City. Drawing by Leonardo López Luján, Saburo Sugiyama, and Michelle De Anda, courtesy of the Templo Mayor Project. 609

  150. 43.4 The archaeological zone of the Templo Mayor, Mexico City. Photograph by Leonardo López Luján, courtesy of the Templo Mayor Project. 609

  151. 43.5 Hypothetical reconstruction of the Templo Mayor. (A) sculptures of the goddess Coatlicue, (B) standard bearers, (C) geometric sacrificial stone, (D) Chacmool sacrificial stone, (E) Coyolxauhqui monolith, (F) Tlaltecuhtli monolith and Offering 126. Drawing by Tenoch Medina, courtesy of the Templo Mayor Project. 610

  152. 43.6 Templo Mayor Offering 126 was discovered under the monolith of the earth goddess Tlaltecuhtli. Photograph by Jesús López, courtesy of the Templo Mayor Project. 613

  153. 44.1 Long-handled censer recovered from Xaltocan house. Drawing by Viveros Sánchez. 624

  154. 44.2 Aztec rattle figurines and figurine mold. Drawings by Juan Joel Viveros Sánchez (left, center) and Tom Quinn (right). 627

  155. 44.3 Calendrical design motifs on household feasting pottery from Xaltocan: (a) Quadripartite design; (b) Cipactli motif; (c) spiral or oscillating motion motif. Drawings by Juan Joel Viveros Sánchez. 630

  156. 44.4 Disposal of household goods for the New Fire ceremony, Sahagún 1950–1982, Book 7:Figure 19 Florence, The Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, ms. Med. Palat. 220, f. 21r. Reproduced with permission of MiBACT. Further reproduction by any means is prohibited. 631

  157. 44.5 Household musical instruments recovered from Xaltocan house: (a) flute and flower from end of flute, (b) whistle, (c) rattle, (d) bone rasp or omechicahuaztli. Photograph by the author. 633

  158. 45.1 Map of central Mexico with locations mentioned in the text (base map adapted from Detenal 1:250,000 series 1970/1977: Cynthia Otis Charlton). 644

  159. 45.2 Aztec IV Black-on-Orange molcajetes from the Alameda district in Mexico City (upper row) and the Sierra de las Navajas obsidian source (lower rows). Adapted from Charlton et al. 2007:443–444. 648

  160. 45.3 Colonial Red wares. Top row: plate from Tlatelolco (adapted from Charlton et al. 2007:449). Bottom row: molded zoomorphic support from a tripod plate and a decorated spinning bowl from the Santa Inés site. Photos by Patricia Fournier G. 650

  161. 45.4 Colonial figurines from the Otumba site. Illustrations by Cynthia Otis Charlton. 651

  162. 45.5 Colonial high-backed scraper from the Sierra de las Navajas obsidian source. Adapted from Pastrana and Fournier 1998:491. 653 (p. xxii)

  163. 46.1 Some of the house lots excavated by the Programa de Arqueología Urbana in the historic center of Mexico City. Drawn by the author, based on maps published in Matos Moctezuma 1999:12, 2003:9). 663

    1. 1. Metropolitan Cathedral and Tabernacle.

    2. 2. Centro Cultural de España.

    3. 3. Donceles #97.

    4. 4. Plaza Manuel Gamio.

    5. 5. Guatemala #38.

    6. 6. Palacio del Marqués del Apartado.

    7. 7. Luis González Obregón #25.

    8. 8. Palacio Nacional.

    9. 9. Moneda #11.

    10. 10. Argentina #15, Librería Porrúa.

    11. 11. Licenciado Verdad #2-8.

    12. 12. Justo Sierra #33.

    13. 13. Correo Mayor #11.

  164. 46.2 Colonial Column Base with Tlaltecuhtli, ca. 1525–1537, stone. Courtesy Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Museo Nacional de Antropología, Mexico City. 666

  165. 47.1 Franciscan friars burn temples in the city of Tlaxcala, driving out gods whom the indigenous artist, working later in the sixteenth century, depicts as devils. Drawing in Diego Muñoz Camargo’s Descripçíon de la çiudad y prouincia de Tlaxcala, f. 240v. Courtesy of the University of Glasgow Library, Special Collections. 676

  166. 47.2 A Franciscan friar joins a Nahua couple in marriage. The groom wears a traditional indigenous man’s cloak; his adoption of European style hat, shoes, and pants suggests he is of high social rank. Woodcut in Fray Alonso de Molina, Confessionario mayor, en lengua mexicana y castellana (Antonio de Espinosa, Mexico, 1565:f. 57r). Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University. 677

  167. 47.3 The sixteenth-century church at Tepoztlán, Morelos. Photograph by the author. 679

  168. 47.4 The Ten Commandments and the Seven Deadly Sins, adapted into the Nahuatl language in one of the earliest surviving Nahuatl books. Fray Pedro de Gante, Doctrina christiana en lengua mexicana (Mexico, 1547:f. 12v-13r). Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University. 681

  169. 47.5 The Hail Mary prayer in a pictographic catechism from 1714. A Nahua notary named don Lucas Mateo painted the images and wrote out the accompanying text of the prayer in Nahuatl. The kneeling figures in red cloaks represent indigenous men praising Mary and Jesus. (Doctrina cristiana, Egerton Ms. 2898, British Museum, f. 2v-3r). Courtesy Trustees of the British Museum. 685 (p. xxiii)

  170. 48.1 Unidentified artist, Colonial column base with Tlaltecuhtli, ca. 1525–37, stone. Courtesy of Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Museo Nacional de Antropología, Mexico City. 691

  171. 48.2 Unidentified artist, “The Founding of Tenochtitlan,” Frontispiece: Codex Mendoza, ca. 1541, ink and watercolor on paper. Bodleian Library, Oxford University, Oxford. (Berdan and Anawalt, Codex Mendoza p.1r.). Reproduced with permission. 692

  172. 48.3 School of San José de los Naturales, “The Mass of St. Gregory,” 1539, feathers on wood with paint. Musée des Jacobins, Auch, France. Reproduced with permission. 693

  173. 48.4 Unidentified Artist, “Calendar Stone,” ca. 1502–1520, stone. Photograph by William T. Gassaway. Courtesy of Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Museo Nacional de Antropología, Mexico City. 695

  174. 48.5 Agostino Aglio, “Mexican Exhibition at the Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly,” 1824–1825, drawing and lithograph. With permission of Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles. 697

(p. xxiv)