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date: 02 June 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This article discusses federal educational policy and provisions, briefly in the nineteenth century and more fully in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. It details federal educational activity in the interests of equity and equality, such as desegregation and Lyndon Johnson’s War on Poverty. It concentrates on the negative political reaction that has plagued federal educational activity, especially from conservatives suspicious of federal dominance. It also discusses ways around opposition to federal educational involvement, such as federal sponsorship and encouragement of educational endeavors in para-states and nonfederal institutions such as universities. The discussion also highlights federal educational efforts in various twentieth-century administrations, particularly the Truman, Johnson, Carter, and George W. Bush administrations, but also focuses on congressional legislation during those administrations.

Keywords: conservative opposition, desegregation, equity and equality, para-states, George W. Bush

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