Community irrigation canal or system of ditches with local governing regulations.
Long-fallow agriculture in the form of shifting cultivation, also known as forest colonizing.
Alcohol made with sugar cane.
Sales or excise taxes.
Political authority inferior to the governor, with jurisdiction over a province or district. In some cases, the alcalde mayor also had military authority.
A nuclear settlement in the colonial sphere, overseen by missionaries or civil authorities.
Creditors who financed mining production.
Ore refiner who manipulates mercury in a particular refining technique widely used in the Americas during colonial times.
Mining ore excavator.
Plant and animal community of a major climatic zone or habitat.
A method used to boil water quickly with hot stones or balls of fired clay in order to cook food, including liquids.
Head town or village within a mission province (cabecera de doctrina) or a locally governed indigenous jurisdiction (cabecera de gobierno), usually with religious or administrative faculties over a number of dependent settlements or sujetos. Some towns were both cabecera de doctrina and cabecera de gobierno.
Caribbean term for Indian chief that was disseminated throughout Spanish America.
Contracts between the Monarch and individuals to carry out expeditions.
A space that a collector would walk for a day to gather food supplies and break even in terms of energy expenditure.
Chain gang of unfree laborers.
Labor teams, often used in reference to mining.
(p. 864) Cull killing:
Practices among hunter and gatherer societies to reduce their longevity, including human sacrifice, lethal witchcraft, homicide, suicide, and senilicide.
A transitional area between two or more ecological communities.
A grant of native people for tribute or service to a colonial grantee with the requirement of providing for their needs including Christian doctrine.
Mine labor recruiters.
Frontera de Arriba:
Territory south of Araucanía, bordered by the Tolten River. Huilliches, Osornos, and Juncos inhabited this region, whose only Spanish presence was in Chiloe Island.
Gastos de indios:
“Indian expenses.” It refers to a budgetary category in Spanish America to pay for the expenses incurred by colonial authorities for hosting and entertaining visiting Indians in order to maintain peace.
Gente de razón:
“People of reason.” Non-indigenous peoples. In Sonora, Mexico, it referred to people who were not subject to the authority of the missionary.
Literally, “gentiles,” referring to non-Christian Indians.
Colonial Cuban term for indigenous or mestizo migrant from New Spain/Mexico.
Hacienda de minas:
Silver refining plant.
Lower nobility title that came from male linage and gave its holders certain privileges such as tax exemptions.
A sea route with marine resources.
Lived spaces created by human labor that hold both material and symbolic significance for their inhabitants.
Indigenous pictorial document drawn on cotton or agave cloth.
Língua geral (Portuguese):
The Tupi-based lingua franca devised by the Jesuits in the sixteenth century and widely used in the Brazilian Amazon through the eighteenth century.
A line of trees planted along a riverbed in order to protect agricultural fields from floodwater, to trap sediment, shelter insect-eating birds, and to provide firewood.
An extended family group or band. In the South American frontiers the term also referred to expeditions cinducted by the Spanish to kill, harm or enslave Indians.
Fast surprise attacks that Araucanos and other autonomous indigenous groups conducted against Spanish forts in the South American borderlands.
Forest or jungle.
Cultivated plot of land, in which maize is intercropped with other cultigens.
(p. 865) Minero:
The owner of a mine or a silver refining plant.
Mobile of Aysén:
Name given to the “endless islands to the Strait of Magellan,” or the insular southernmost part of South America, which was inhabited by maritime hunter-gatherer natives commonly known as austral canoeros.
An Indian nation, based on the classification of indigenous groups according to phenotypic, territorial, or linguistic criteria.
Native language interpreter in New Spain. The term derives from Náhuatl, the language that was adopted as lingua franca in this viceroyalty.
Alkalinizing process by which dried maize is turned into hominy by boiling it in a weak solution of potash, lime, or alkaline salts to remove the pericarp.
Civil or ecclesiastical census.
As part of their labor arrangement, a laborer’s share of ore.
A military commission, often bestowed upon indigenous leaders who allied with the Portuguese.
The price on goods set by authorities.
Frontier military garrisons.
A native headman or ruler.
Villages under the jurisdiction of a head village, or cabecera.
Orderly rows of elevated soil, with swales for drainage, that enabled the cultivation of swampy or seasonally flooded land and maintained it fertile.
Name given by Spaniards to small non- or semi-sedentary indigenous settlements.
Rancho de carbón:
Charcoal production site.
Royal charter or ruling.
Real de minas:
Mining camp, center for processing mining ore.
Real Sala de Crimen:
Royal criminal chamber of the high court.
Royal revenues that the viceroyalties of Peru, New Spain, New Granada, and Río de la Plata destined to finance frontier defenses against internal and external enemies.
The concentration or resettlement of indigenous peoples into villages or mission pueblos.
An officer of a Hispanic town council who assists the alcalde in the administration of the town.
Relación de méritos:
Service and merit record usually presented in proceedings related to support the request made by a petitioner to the Crown.
(p. 866) Repartimiento:
Forced recruitment of indigenous peoples to labor in haciendas and mines for stipulated periods of time and a statutory wage.
República de indios:
A jurisdictional and administrative entity by which indigenous peoples were ruled.
Rations of food supply packed by hunters and travelers, which allowed them to last weeks or months in their expeditions.
Organized physical fighting between native peoples.
Backlands, wilderness, or frontier.
A member of the town council (cabildo), who defended the interests of the vecinos.
Survival practices that use natural resources through foraging, hunting, land-based gathering, maritime gathering, swiddening, and nomadic pastoralism.
Small forest clearings with alternating periods of planting and fallow.
Carrier of ore.
Soil management system for planting crops on mountain slopes, by erecting stone and rubble dikes or building dams across ravines to trap fertile earth and silt.
Theorem of net energy:
Principle used by anthropologists to define the limits of a human catchment area. It states that the energy expended to obtain a food cannot exceed the energy generated metabolically.
The northern interior provinces, used primarily in New Spain.
A semi-sedentary indigenous village in the Spanish American southern frontier. The term comes from toldo, which is a tent built with a wooden structure covered with hides.
In relation to a census, a householder; non-indigenous landholder with civic status.
Administrative tour inspection done by representatives of the Crown or ecclesiastical authority.
Inspector of a high court or district, diocese or religious order.