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date: 09 May 2021

Index

Index

(p. 867) Note: Tables and figures are indicated by an italic ‘t’ and ‘f’, respectively, following the page number.

A
Abbeville, Claude d’ 397, 405, 406
ABC islands 741–743, 745 See also Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao
Acapulco 6, 299, 766–777, 784n59, 785n62, 795, 803
Acaxee, Indians 89, 90, 97, 103n46, 113, 116, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 379
Acazitli, Francisco Sandoval 144–145
acequia 69, 474, 477
Acosta, José de 510, 792, 793, 794, 795, 809n29
action-network theory 808n18
Actopan 824–825
Acuruza, José Gregorio 699
Africans 6, 9, 15, 163, 209, 241, 373, 384, 387, 400, 492, 745, 749–750, 817
bondage and 19
Cuban culture and 20n18, 183
diaspora 8, 831
fugitives 599, 604, 615
miscenegation and 242–243, 344, 359n3, 614–615
musical tradition and culture 527, 616
settlers 252, 593, 619, 822
slaves and free laborers 62, 63, 67, 242, 252, 299, 375, 378, 383, 384, 387, 420, 424, 571, 579, 582, 591, 593, 597–599, 614–615, 619–620, 622, 746, 818, 820, 822–826, 828–831 See also labor
agaves 36, 38, 43, 59, 67, 864
Ágreda, María de Jesús de 511, 513, 515–519
Ágreda, Spain 513, 515, 516
agro-pastoral economy 598
Aguascalientes, Mexican state of 88, 142, 154n38
Ahumada, Pedro de 147
Aimoré, Indians 402
Akbar, Mughal Emperor 443
Akroá, Indians 592, 594–595, 597, 599, 602
Alaska 41, 803, 845, 846
Albuquerque, Alfonso de 445
Alcántara, Juana 828
alcohol 221, 386, 654, 704
aguardente 220, 420, 436n54, 598, 646, 652–653
drunkenness 186, 354
aldeias 214, 217, 597, 604 See also Brazil
Aleutian Islands 32, 841, 844–846
alliances
among Native American groups 11, 15, 97, 246, 248, 325–326, 329, 332, 338n65, 415, 423, 653, 705
between Native Americans and Europeans, see Indian allies
between Spain and France 252, 841, 847
between Spaniards and Russians 847
between Spaniards in Chile and Dutch 728–729, 730
interethnic 15, 133, 254
Alta Vista, archaeological site 89–90
Alvarado, Jorge 134
Alvarado, José Manuel de 280, 290n69
Alvarado, Pedro de 133, 136, 140, 143, 155n53, 157n74, 158n80, 164–165, 175, 179n34
Álvarez, Phelipe de Jesús 188, 190, 200
Álvarez, Nicolás María 188, 196, 200
(p. 868) Alzaybar, Francisco de 682
Alzola, Domingo de, Bishop 509
amaranthus 38, 59, 67
Amazonia 34–35, 37, 42, 269, 405, 592, 597, 613–628, 653, 691–692, 700–701, 793
Amazon basin 61, 67, 70, 72, 209, 296, 613, 621, 624
Amazon river 6, 33, 40, 41, 593, 600, 613–615, 620, 623, 624, 647
Amazonian ethnography 415, 658n11
Andean Amazonia 691
Bolivian Amazonia 692–696, 703
central Amazon 626, 644–648
Portuguese Amazonia 613–628, 648
tropical lowlands and rain forest of 2, 60–61, 62, 614
Analco, neighborhood in the city of Durango 494–495, 535
Anchieta, José de 400
Andes / Andean region 33, 63, 68, 73, 268, 269, 280, 283, 319, 321–322, 324, 545, 615
agriculture in 38, 40, 42, 59, 60, 68
cordillera 5, 11, 60, 71, 269, 271, 282–284
environmental history of 59, 60, 271
high inter-Andean valleys 321–322, 328
highlands 39, 42, 60, 72, 267269, 271–272, 284, 695
puna 32–33, 44
South Andean space 19, 267–284, 333
trade routes and marketplaces in 3, 269, 272 See also Camino Real (capacñam)
Andonaegui, Joseph 680, 685
Ángeles, Francisca de los 511, 513, 518–519
Anson, George 724, 726, 732
Apaches, Indians 123, 125, 165, 186, 199 map, 355, 464, 469–470, 474 map, 476, 529, 576
Apache frontier 170, 194, 358, 359
Apache threat 351, 478, 485n49
Apachería 477–478
captives 356, 576, 824
deported to Cuba 819, 824–827, 831
raids by 189, 198, 348, 485n46 and 49
Spanish compacts / alliances with 142, 195
war / defense against 174, 187, 190, 196
Apinaje, Indians 593–595, 596, 600, 602
Aquaviva, Claudio 792
Aquibuamea, Luis 188
Araguaia River, Brazil 593595, 599, 601
Aranã, Indians 415, 423
Arana, Catalina de 513
Araucanía 9, 11–12, 13, 725, 728, 733
Araucanos 12, 718, 719, 720, 733
Arawaks, Indians 51n89, 563n17, 619, 622, 742, 819, 821–822, 830
Arica 280, 290n72, 727, 732
Arizona 2, 15, 43, 91, 92, 94, 96–98, 463, 474 map, 803
Arlegui, Joseph de 513
armed forces and militias 18, 41, 119, 141–144, 164–65, 172–174, 185, 213–214, 273–274, 278, 351, 550, 560, 598–599, 674, 704, 719–720, 728, 749, 800, 825 See also warfare
Arricivita, Juan Domingo 517–518
Arrillaga, José Joaquín de 852, 853
Arteaga, Ignacio, lieutenant 842
Aruã (Aruans), Indians 619, 622
Aruba 741, 743
Ascencio, Alonso 536
Ascensión, mission among the Guarayos 701, 702
Asiento 682, 685, 744, 746
Asiento de negros 744, 746
Asunción, María Clara de la 518
Atacama 268, 271, 283, 291n90, 292n100, 727
Athabaskan, Indians 32, 41
(p. 869) Atlantic Ocean 7, 11, 218, 353, 615, 669
and transatlantic economy 374, 599, 776
and transatlantic empires 168, 445, 449, 671, 672
Atlantic port 280, 669, 670
Dutch Atlantic 743–744
islands 6, 674
transatlantic commerce 669, 747–748, 766
transatlantic eclesiastic networks 534, 746
transatlantic slave trade 44, 579–580, 744 See also transoceanic and riverine networks
Augustinian, friars and missions 247, 509, 693, 696, 746, 767
autonomy, of indigenous peoples 3, 12, 17, 31, 46, 61, 136, 166–167, 170, 173, 184, 186, 193, 249, 252, 319, 321–325, 331–333, 347–348, 387, 414–415, 548, 550, 552, 556–557, 560, 600, 616, 623, 641, 648, 650, 655, 671–672, 699, 742, 744
Avá-Canoeiro, see Canoeiro
Aztatlan, archaeological cultural complex 88–90, 92
Aztecs 35, 42–43, 819
Aztlan 90, 99
B
Bacerac, Sonora 187–189, 192–193, 194, 195, 198, 199 map
Baegert, Jacob 799, 811n58
Baheca, Hipólito 188, 200
Bahia, Brazil 209, 214, 230n21, 400, 414, 421, 423, 449, 593
Salvador da Bahia 598, 671, 672, 737n70
Bajío, region in Mexico 87, 119, 124, 138, 139, 141, 376
Ballivián, José 694
Bananal Island, Brazil 593, 594 map, 595, 602
bandeiras and bandeirantes 213, 215, 318, 424, 438n73, 592–593, 595–599, 601, 603–604
baptism 141, 380, 402, 512, 513, 515, 518, 521n21, 548, 551, 552, 556, 649, 746
Baranov, Aleksander 849–850, 852, 854–855
Barbosa, Duarte 448
Barcelos, town in Brazil 613, 620
Barrios, Juan Evangelista 196, 199t
Bautista de la Cruz, Juan Valerio 139–141, 148–149, 155, 156n53
beatas / beaterio 511, 517–519
Beauchêne, Jacques de 731
Belém, city and captaincy of Pará, Brazil 401, 474 map, 593, 595, 597, 613–615, 617–619, 621–622, 625, 627–628
Belize 244, 249, 250
bells 533–534, 537
archaeological copper bells 91–92
liturgical bell ringing 528–529, 533, 551
Benavente, Toribio de (Motolinia) 45, 512
Benavides, Alonso de 511, 513, 515–516, 525, 533
Bengal, Bay of 443–445, 447
Beni, Department of, Bolivia 16, 70, 696–698, 700–704
Benianos 697, 700, 705
Berger, Luis 554–555
Bering, Vitus 843–844
Beringia 32
Billoni, Santiago 535
Bío Bío River, Chile 11, 319, 718, 719, 720, 733
Black River, Honduras-Nicaragua 240, 243, 249, 251
Bodega Bay 842–843, 848, 852–854
Bodega y Quadra, Juan Francisco de la, lieutenant 842, 846–847
body paint 624
Bohorquez, Pedro 326, 332
boiling stones 36, 863
Bolivia 10, 16, 17, 70, 267, 279, 283–284, 350, 534, 695, 703
highlands of 281, 291n79
interethnic relations in 691–692, 696
lowlands of 60, 68
mining centers in 279–281, 576
nation-state and citizenship in 697, 701–703, 705, 713n79
port of 291n89
Bolton, Herbert E. 2, 15, 299, 344, 545
Bonaire 741, 743
Borderlands
as contact zones 3–4
as contested spaces 17–18
as interaction zones 308n7, 348, 383, 537, 641, 686, 752
(p. 870) cannibalism and barbarity related to 12–13, 417, 691, 700
concepts of 1–4, 100n1, 753, 761n101 and n104, 762–763, 791, 808n15, 817
confrontations in 333
contrasted with frontiers 4, 7, 670–671
historiography of 2, 8–18, 59, 105n64, 133, 334n3, 360n9, 364n44, 370, 373, 388n5, 751–752, 767–770, 778
indigenous borderlands 31, 97, 240–241, 245, 297, 318, 339n66, 362n15, 366n67, 375, 411n27, 616, 642, 650, 656, 706n1, 733
internal borderlands 4–5, 16–17, 60, 67, 671
narratives of 3–4, 12, 14–16, 64, 463, 659n18, 718
Boroa, Diego 555
Boruca, reducción and indigenous group in Panama 243, 245, 248, 517
Borum, Botocudo Indians-self designation 425, 432n14
Botelho de Lacerda, Manuel 684–685
Botocudos / Botocudo, Indians 214, 415–417, 419–421, 423, 425–430
Bourbon reforms 167–173, 772
bow and arrow 41, 86, 141, 145, 148, 216, 304, 404, 600, 626, 643
Brahmans 453–455
Brazil 16, 38, 67, 71, 209–225, 244, 397–408, 413–430, 591–605, 613–628, 641–656
and Portugal’s European rivals 402–403, 615–620, 622
Atlantic coast of 9, 12, 35, 402, 613, 614, 617, 619, 624
Brazilian Atlantic rain-forest 33, 39, 61, 62, 67
colonial borderlands of 209, 211, 234, 333n1, 341, 592, 647, 663n71
independence of 424, 428
intertribal relations in 214, 399, 599–604, 653
Luso-Brazilians 415, 591, 595, 596, 600–604, 617, 643, 655, 666, 674, 676, 678–680, 682
mestizaje as national pacification policy in 418–420, 422, 430
mining in 215, 217, 219, 220–225, 416, 615, 624, 645
Portuguese court in 417
Spanish-Portuguese borders 60, 613, 617, 619, 620, 627, 642 See also bandeiras and bandeirantes
Bribri, Indians 243
Brouwer, Hendrick 722, 728–729
Bueno da Silva, Bartolomeu (father and son) 596
Buenos Aires, Argentina 271–274, 277, 280–281, 286n31, 670, 672–677, 679–686
Buitimea, Juan 196, 200
Burgos, Juan de 494–496
burial practices 36, 41, 95, 96, 110, 117, 553, 556
Burriel, Andrés Marcos, S. J. 481n20, 803–806, 814n90
Bustamante, N.L., Mexico 163–164, 176n8
C
Cabécar, Indians 243, 246–247, 251
Cabeza de Vaca, Álvar Núñez 9–11, 13, 16, 22n39, 34, 46, 142–143
cabildo (town council)
in Guaraní reductions 550
in Mojos and Chiquitos 698–700
in La Frontera de San Sebastián, Zacatecas 303–304
of Buenos Aires 679
of Cuencamé, Durango 305
of Guatemala 573
of Havana 820, 821, 825
of Matanzas, Cuba 824
of Montevideo 674, 675
of Tlaxcala 135, 165
(p. 871) of Valladolid Comayagua, Honduras 172
of Zacatecas 380, 385
Cachoeiras de Macacu, R.J., Brazil 215, 216, 219, 221
cacicazgo / caciques 550, 830
in Brazil 646, 652
in Chile 722, 729–730
in Mojos and Chiquitos 699
in Northern New Spain 193, 346, 349, 491
Calchaquí 323, 330
Guaraní 550
Otomí 138–141, 148, 185
Tule 252
Cáhita, language family 97, 103n46
Cahokia 41, 44
Caicedo, Augustín Beltrán 750
Calchaquí, Juan 322, 327
Calchaquí Valleys and river 319, 321–323, 325–329, 331–333
Calchaquí, Indians 322–329, 331–333, 338n65
Caldera de Quiñones, Nicolás 746
California 2, 17, 32, 36, 37, 41, 119, 196, 253, 486n54, 528, 531, 572, 800, 802–806, 841–842, 850
Baja California 108–109, 113, 190, 357, 475, 529, 804, 851
passage by land to 471–472, 476–477, 481n20, 486n56
Peninsula of 119, 122, 467, 469, 799, 813n79
Callao, Peru 6, 672, 725, 727, 732
Camarão family 402–403, 407
Cametá, Brazil 614, 618
Caminos
camino de China 299
Caminho Novo 219
Camino Real (capacñam), in Andean region 268–269, 271, 273, 281–282, 285n15, 286n31
Camino Real de Tierra Adentro 19, 62, 71, 132 map, 295–296, 298–302, 304–307, 307n4, 310n28, 311n37, 354, 381, 518
Camino Real of Soconusco 299
caminos reales 298, 307n2 See also roads
Campeche, neighborhood in Havana 821, 830, 834n23
canoes, see watercraft
Canoeiro / Avá-Canoeiro 592–593, 594 map, 596, 602–604
canonization 517, 798, 810n47
Cantagalo, Brazil 220–224, 230n22
capacñam, see Camino Real
Cape Gracias a Dios 242–243, 249, 251
Cape Horn 725, 731–732, 851
captivity / captives, see enslavement and captivity
Capuchin order, friars, and missionaries 247, 397–399, 405–406, 419, 427–431, 520n4, 597, 618, 746
Caquetios, Indians 742–743, 745–746, 748
Caracas, archdiocese of 742, 745–747
Caracas Company (Real Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas) 748, 751
Cardiel, José 554, 563n21
Cardim, Fernão 404–405
Cardoso de Oliveira, Roberto 3, 433n21
carey 246, 250–252
Caribbean 6, 8, 33, 38, 50n64, 59, 61, 365n51, 528, 572, 575–576, 580, 615, 672–673, 722, 728, 731, 742, 744, 748, 750–753, 817–820, 823, 827, 831
basin 6, 8
Central America’s Caribbean lands 239, 241, 244–245, 247, 249
islands 249, 741, 820
southern Caribbean 672, 741–746, 755
Carmelite, friars, convents, and missions 217, 231, 513, 622
Cartagena (current Colombia) 252, 670, 672, 743
Carvalho e Melo, Sebastião José de, Marquês de Pombal 613
Casa da Índia 446
Casas Grandes (Paquimé), archaeological site 41, 43, 93, 473–474 maps
(p. 872) Casas, Bartolomé de las 510, 579, 737n64
Caste War (Guerra de Castas) 827, 830
castellano and alcalde mayor, position of 771–775, 785n62, 786n84
Castelo (gold bearing area), Brazil 215, 230n22
Castro, Chile 718, 722, 724, 728–729
Castro, Martinho Melo e 211, 218, 227n5
Catechism 452, 455, 470, 514–515, 521n21, 528, 533, 548, 551
Catechesis 421–428, 430, 435n39
and civilization 421–422
Law of, Brazil (1845) 414, 435n40
Provincial Catechesis Service, Brazil 418, 435n40
catsina dance 532
Caupolicán, region of 694–696
Cayenne 618, 622
Central America 6, 18, 19, 59, 88, 133, 163, 166, 168, 170–171, 239–247, 249–254, 573, 579–581, 719, 731, 777, 820
conquest of 164–166
highlands of 242, 246, 247, 251
New Spain’s borderlands in 784n53 See also Caribbean
cerrado 60, 68, 593
Cerrito, El, archaeological site 87–88
Chaco Canyon, archaeological site 92–93
Chaco, Bolivia 10, 16, 33, 36–37, 60, 644–646, 691, 694
Chalchihuites
archaeological culture 88–93, 95–97, 101n19, 104n46
as Mesoamerican frontier 59, 111
mines of 147, 372 map, 377
Chalco, Mexico 42, 144–145
Chamacoco, Indians 646, 663n62
Chánguina, Indians 243, 246–247
Charcas, Audiencia of 320, 322, 330, 527–528, 692–694, 701
Charcas, San Luis Potosí 372 map, 385
founding of 376
population of 380, 383, 386
Charles III, King of Spain 173, 523n43, 708n14
Charodos (caste in India) 455
Chaupai, Diego 555
Chichas, province of 271, 273, 277, 279–280
Chichimeca
concept / term 85–87, 95
Indians 5, 85, 88, 131, 135, 138–141, 145, 147, 157n70, 185, 304, 512, 520n1, 823
Chichimeca Wars 139, 141, 146 See also Gran Chichimeca
Chicomoztoc legendary place 85–87, 90, 99
Chihuahua, Mexico 43, 65, 69, 90, 98, 109, 112, 117, 119, 120–121, 123–125, 196, 346–347, 349–356, 580, 776
Chihuahuan Desert 65, 72
China 7, 445, 448, 731, 751, 766–69, 779n6, 789–806, 844, 846
evangelizing plans for (Manila proposal) 791–794, 813n69
China road, see camino de China
chinampa / chinampas 42, 59, 76
Chinapa, Sonora 198–199
Chiquitanía, province 60, 68, 75n19
Chiquitos, region 16, 25n62, 68
Chiquitanos, people 17, 26n68
Chirikov, Aleksei 845
Choctaws, Indians 4445
Christ 163, 404, 448, 457, 493, 496, 500–501, 503, 510, 514, 516–517, 519, 556, 702, 791–792, 800
Corpus Christi 533, 554–555, 558
Chuquisaca (La Plata / Sucre), Bolivia 273–274, 280–281
Cíbola / Seven Cities 131, 133, 135, 143, 145–146, 157n66, 299, 310n31
Cinti, Peru 273, 280
citizenship / citizens 169, 171, 196, 418, 695–700, 702, 705, 714n94, 826
City of Caesars 725
Clastres, Pierre 37, 46, 692
Clovis, New Mexico 32
Clovis-type projectile 32
Coahuila, Mexican state of 65, 109, 113, 115, 165, 187, 346, 358, 361n14
Cobija, Peru 281, 283, 291n89
(p. 873) Cochabamba, Bolivia (Alto Peru) 272–274, 281, 694
Coçumba, Indians 169
Códice de Jilotepec 139–141, 148–149, 155n45
Códice de Tlatelolco 145–146, 148
cofradías (confraternities) 354, 382, 550, 552, 556, 557, 560, 750
Coimbra, Manoel Soares 211–225
Colegio de Propaganda Fide de la Santa Cruz 518 See also Franciscans
colleras 826, 863
Colón, Diego 743
Colônia do Sacramento 669–686
colonos (settlers), in Cuba 67, 704, 828–829
Comanche, Indians 142, 165, 174, 650
Comayagua, Honduras 164–165, 169, 171–172
Compagnie Royale de la Mer du Sud 732
Compostela (current Tepic), Nayarit 142–144, 307n4
Concepción, Chile 12, 556, 672, 718–720, 722–723, 732
Conceptionist Convent 513
Conchos, Indians 187, 348–350, 353
confraternities, see cofradías
Consag, Fernando (also Ferdinand) 482n20, 805
contact culture 3, 15
Contraband 2, 169, 211, 213–214, 216, 227n6
and cattle 675
Cook, James 732, 842, 846
Cora, Indians 89–90, 97, 473
Cordes, Simon de 722, 728–729, 737n68
Córdoba, Argentina 269–270, 280, 321, 322, 323, 327
Core-periphery model 3–4, 753–754, 794
Coro, town of in Paraguaná, Venezuela 688, 742, 745–747, 749–750
Coroado, Indians 210, 214–215, 219, 225, 228n14, 419
Coronel y Arana, María 513
Coropó, Indians 210, 214–215, 219, 225
corregidor 550–551, 563n24, 699, 705, 722
Cors, José 701, 712n77
Cortés, Hernán 9, 134, 135–137, 139–140, 155n53, 164, 175
cosmopolitics 415–416, 425–426, 432n12
Couto, Diogo do 445
Coxi 187
Coymans House 746
creoles, Russian 845, 849–850
Cruz, Juan de la 139, 141, 155n45
Cuauhnochtli, Alonso 145
Cuervo, Francisco Javier 187, 199t
Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, city and captaincy 596, 599, 604
Culhuacan, legendary place 86, 99, 145
Culiacán, Sinaloa 9, 88, 142, 143, 144, 145, 185, 345–346
Cunha Matos, Raimundo José da 603
(p. 874) Cunha, Dona Damiana da (Kayapó Indian) 603–604
cunhamenas (mixed-race traders in Portuguese Amazonia) 619–620
Curaçao 240, 244, 672–673, 722
and contraband 747, 748, 750–754
and Roman Catholic Church 745–750
and slave trade 746, 749
Dutch colony 249, 741, 743–745
free port 744, 750
Spanish possession 742–743
curanderismo / curanderas 356, 358 See also shamanism
Curiepe, Venezuela 749
Cusihuiriachi (also Cusihuiriachic), Chihuahua 124, 353, 358
Cuzco, Peru 269, 272, 273, 274, 277, 280
D
dance 92, 163, 356, 491, 526–528, 531–532, 537, 553, 564n36, 707n10
guancasco 163, 176n6
matachines 532, 537
moros y cristianos 532
Danesi, Pedro 553
Darién 239–254
Dávalos, Diego 397, 399, 409n2
debt peonage, see labor
Delarov 842, 847
Delegación Nacional de Guarayos 703–704 See also Guarayos
deforestation 44, 62, 71, 72, 73, 377, 387
demography 57, 108–109, 445, 648
historical demography 63, 72, 107, 109, 112
population control 36
Diaguitas, Indians 319–322, 324–326, 332–333
diplomacy 164, 355, 388n1, 601–602, 605, 792, 818 See also peacemaking
Directorate (Diretório) 417–418, 422, 424–425, 428, 597, 620–627, 648
disease 18, 45, 63, 71, 164, 346–347, 349, 352, 356, 387, 615–616, 821
cholera 107, 112, 128n30, 129n45
climate-related 592
cocolitzli 112, 116
dysentery 112, 732
kwashiorkor 34
matlazáhuatl 112–113, 116, 119, 121–122, 124, 348
pellagra 40
quarantine (cordon sanitaire) 111
syphilis 112, 128n29
typhus 110, 113, 116, 732
Dom Manuel, King of Portugal 449
Dominicans 357, 528, 812n68
as authorized missionary order 520n4
in Mosquitia 247
in South Asia 451
on Curaçāo 746
missionary methods 521n21
Dórame, Juan Ignacio, indigenous leader 196 See also Ópatas
Dorasque, Indians 243, 246, 248
Drake, Francis 723–724, 726–727, 735n34
dry farming 42, 43
E
East India Company (VOC) 728
Enríquez, Nicolás 503–504
(p. 875) enslavement and captivity 244–245, 253, 365n50, 417, 427, 571, 580, 589, 690, 739, 817–824, 826–829, 831, 833n6, 838–839
emancipados 831
piezas 826 See also slave trade
environment 2, 57, 60, 64, 68, 71–73, 240, 362n14, 376, 390n31
Calusas and non-agricultural subsistence 68
fallow, short and long 38–39, 41
fencerows 43, 52n97, 80n57, 864
flooding 42, 69–70
Little Ice Age 44
raised fields 42, 44, 59, 70, 614, 865
shell middens 34–35, 514, 621
epidemics, see disease
Ercilla, Alonso de 9, 11–13, 23n44 and 45, 728
Escandell Bonet, Bartolomé 510
Eskimo-Aleuts 32, 41
Espinareda, Pedro de 510
Espinosa, Isidro Felis (Felix) de 517
Espírito Santo, province and mission, Brazil 230n22, 404, 414, 427–428
Ethnicity 136, 185, 201n4, 255n5, 349, 354–359, 384, 623, 625, 744, 799
and gender 354–355, 357, 391n52, 394
ethnocide 399–401, 430
as concept 546–547
Exaltación, Bolivia 699
expediciones de altura 842
F
famine 43, 46, 122, 278, 400
famine foods 45
Ferreira, Miguel Antunes 216–217
Ferrería, La, archaeological site 90
Florencia, Francisco de 495–496
Flores de Cierra, Antonio 494
flute-player, glyph 91–93
Fonseca, Manuel Freitas da 674
Font, Juan 491–492
Food security 18, 31, 856n3
enamel hypoplasia 41
Liebig’s Law 36
marine resources 32, 34–35, 37, 845, 864
road food 40
secondary subsistence system 31
subsistence calendar 35
theorem of net energy 34
Francis Xavier, Saint 454, 457, 496, 795–797, 802, 806
Franciscans 45, 108, 135, 143, 247, 318, 351, 369, 452, 457, 463–464, 476–477, 515, 577, 597, 617–618, 691, 693–696, 722, 746, 795, 799
and cartography 471
and Colegio de Propaganda Fide de Querétaro 518, 523n39
and Friar Felipe de Jesús, Mexican martyr and beato 795–798, 811n51 and n53
and mysticism 509–513, 517–519, 522n23, 525, 528, 534, 702, 716, 811 See also Fray Antonio Margil de Jesús, and Sor María de Jesús de Ágreda
Francisco Coronel 513
Franks 443
Fresnillo, Zacatecas 372 map, 375–376, 385, 386
(p. 876) Frontiers 1, 8, 9, 15–18, 58, 60, 66, 165, 169–171, 173, 183, 209–211, 225, 283, 296, 298–299, 344, 351, 414, 446, 450, 472, 620, 623, 672, 690, 694, 717, 751–752, 843, 846, 855
contrasted with borderlands 4, 7, 670–671
inter-ethnic frontiers 7, 864
mining frontiers 62, 67
mission frontiers 451–453, 456, 467
of Arauco 719–721, 722
of Aysén and frontera de arriba 721–725
successive frontiers 4–5, 11, 14, 463, 717
Frutes, Francisco de 518
Fuente, Gaspar de la 378, 380, 385–386
Fuerte, river 88, 92
Fuerteños 196
G
galleon 6, 299, 766–769, 771–778, 795 See also Manila Galleon
Gallo de Pardiñas, Claudia 771–774, 776, 787n91
Gallo de Pardiñas, Juan Eusebio 771–776
Gallo de Pardiñas, Miguel Ventura 773, 776
Gallo, Miguel 770–775
gender 8, 18, 282, 343–344, 354–359, 361n13, 373, 382, 384, 387, 531, 553, 579 See also ethnicity
General Indian Court of New Spain 300–301, 303–305, 312n38
Ghent 495
gifting / gift exchange 9, 190, 191, 213, 220, 222, 245, 248, 251, 328, 338n65, 346, 424, 502, 619, 641–642, 652–654, 729–730, 774–776, 802
Goiás, captaincy and state 67, 209, 591–594, 596, 598–601, 603–604
Goitacá, Indians 214
gold 12, 214–220, 248, 252, 438n73, 445, 460n34, 496, 502, 591–594, 596–597, 599, 718, 727, 730, 742, 791
and contraband 210, 223–224, 229n20 and n21, 232n40, 414
and mining 71, 73, 166, 374–375, 598
green gold 448–449
Gomes, José 217–219, 230n29
Gomez Manzo, Juan 746
Gómez, Pedro 825
Gorízia, Friar Serafim de 429, 439n91
Gracias a Dios, town of, Honduras 163, 243
Gran Chaco 16, 37
Gran Chichimeca 5, 131, 132 map, 139, 141, 143, 148, 167, 371, 388n1
Gran Paititi 332
Gran Quivira, see Quivira
Grão-Pará, State of, see Maranhão
Guachichiles, Indians 131, 132, 135, 147, 169, 372, 381
Guachinangos (Mesoamerican laborers in Havana) 823–825, 835n35.
Guadalajara, Mexico 119, 132 map, 142–143, 304, 372 map, 378, 384, 509, 769, 851
Guadiana (current Durango), Mexico 141
Guadiana Valley, Durango 510
Guaikurú, Indians 641, 644–648, 650–656
alliances of 645
as Kadiwéu 647
Guamares, Indians 131, 132, 372, 381
Guaná, Indians 645–646, 653–654
Guanaceví, Nueva Vizcaya 372 map, 375, 493
Guanajuato, Mexico 71, 88, 235, 300–303, 372 map, 373, 377–378, 774
population of 380–381
guancasco, see dance
guano 39, 284n6
Guaraní, Indians 10–11, 16, 25n65, 60, 76n23, 397, 409n2, 525–526, 528, 534, 541n40 and 42, 545, 548, 550–553, 555–557, 559; 561 notes 2, 3, and 8; 563 notes 17, 19, and 23; 565n45 and n48, 566n58, 567, 674, 706n1, 708n19 and n24, 714n96, 715
Guarayos, Indians 693–695, 700–705, 715
guardacostas 753
and Caracas Company 748, 751
as agents of empire 752–753
Guatemala 134–135, 173, 177n15, 181n51, 182, 299, 517
Audiencia of 172
Cabildo of 573
Guaymí, Indians 243 See also Ngöbe Indians
Guayrá, Indians 554, 559
Guendulaín, Juan de 495
(p. 877) Guianas, coasts of 42
Guiana, French 209, 614
Guiana, Dutch 615
Guyana (Guiana), British 622
Güirizo, Juan 198–199
Gurrola, Cristóbal 188, 190, 200
Guzmán, Nuño de 9, 85–88, 99, 134–135, 142–144, 819–821
H
hacienda (agricultural estate) 11, 65, 117–118, 122–124, 242, 244–245, 301–302, 304, 306, 309n16, 323, 343–344, 346–347, 349–351, 353–356, 371, 377, 380, 382–385, 575–576, 693, 695–696, 700, 703, 708n18, 714n87, 776
de minas (mining estate) 371, 372, 385
de beneficio (metal refining plant) 71, 72, 376
Hagemeister, Leontii, captain 853, 854, 855
hallucinogens 36
Hamme, Peter Thomas van (Pedro van Hamme) 495, 802
Hanabana Quemada 830
Havana, Cuba 670, 672, 743, 819–827
healing / healers 9, 36, 355–356, 358, 616, 803 See also shamanism
Heceta, Bruno de, lieutenant 842
hechicería 357 see also witchcraft
Henriques, Manoel (Mão de Luva) 211, 214–215, 217–220, 230n22, 231n33
Henríquez, Luís 326, 332, 341n96
Hispaniola 742, 819–820, 834n19
Hohokam, archeological culture 43, 91–93, 97
Hopi, Indians 15, 92, 94, 97
Hormuz 445
Huamanga 272
Huasteca, region 99
Huastecos, Indians 118 map, 819–823, 834n19
Hugli 443, 445, 447 map
Huichol, Indians (Wixarika) 89–90, 94, 97–98, 379
Huilliches, Indians 11, 718–719, 728, 733
Hideyoshi 791, 794–95, 808n16, 809n36
I
Iberian Peninsula 6, 329, 397, 513, 527, 572, 771
Iberian World, definition of 6
identity 19, 133, 136, 181, 192–195, 197–198, 318–319, 415, 527, 822, 824
and culture / language 184, 401, 432n12, 546–547, 549, 616, 693
and migration 770
Christian / Catholic 528, 531, 538
corporate / communal 303, 532, 537
national 414, 431n3, 705, 715 See also ethnicity
idolatry 453, 494, 512, 516, 813n68
Immaculate Conception, Virgin of
in Zape, Durango 489–495, 500, 508 n44
order of Franciscan nuns 513, 523 See also Franciscans See also Jesuits
India 7, 408, 766–767, 795, 797, 799
Estado da Índia 443–458 See also East India Company (VOC)
Indian allies / friends
as conquerors 131–133, 148
as colonists / settlers 132–133, 147–148, 165–169, 171–175
historiography and sources 131, 133–135, 150n4, 151n12 and n14–17
in borderlands 5, 18, 131, 133, 135, 151n7, 173–175, 201n14, 334n5, 365n58, 402, 532, 636n115, 639, 645, 655
number of in conquest expeditions 133, 142–144, 154n29, 157n74, 618, 653, 733
of the Dutch 252, 722, 728–730, 733
of the English 240, 241, 243–244, 249, 250, 252
of the Portugese 614, 615, 617–620, 625, 627, 641–643, 645, 651, 653, 655, 683, 685;
Bororo 604;
Krahô 601;
Potiguar 402;
Tobajara 402, 617;
Tremembé 617;
Tupi / Tupinambá 398, 617
of the Spaniards 83–87, 90, 99, 163–165, 183–185, 192–193, 307n3, 331–332, 334n5, 346, 349, 352;
Mexica 147, 164, 173, 185;
Mixtec 164, 166, 173;
Tarascan / Purépecha 131, 135, 143, 147, 158n80, 185;
Tlatelolca 135, 145–146;
Pima, Mayo, Pueblo, Apache 142;
Zapotec 144, 164, 166, 173
organization of 144–145, 147, 158n84
recruitment of 133–134, 145, 147–148, 151n14
rights and privileges of 133, 134, 166, 168, 171, 172, 175. See also Mesoamerican allies of the Spaniards
Indian Ocean 7, 447, 765, 777
indigenous artisans 295, 306, 557, 698
indigenous informants 18, 87, 136, 211, 213, 215–216, 219, 223, 453, 456, 468, 497, 615, 626, 651
indigenous languages 228n14, 241, 336n28, 382, 549, 557, 616 See also Macro-Gê, Tepiman, and Uto-Aztecan language families See also Kakán See also Nahua speaking peoples
Inquisition, Holy Office of 217, 219, 358, 386, 450–451, 513–516, 518–519, 527, 532
intendants (intendancy sytem) 173, 196, 708n18
Intendencia Delegacional de Guarayos, see Delegación Nacional de Guarayos
Inuit 32, 41, 849–850
irrigation 42–44, 59–60, 66, 68–69, 75n12, 96, 863
Isthmus of Panama 517, 726, 731
Itambacuri, city and mission in Minas Gerais 419, 422–423, 425–430
Itapúa, mission 559
J
Jalisco, Mexican state of 88–89, 92, 97, 142–143
Jamaica 240, 244, 249–250
Japan / Japanese 445, 452, 766, 769, 774–775, 789, 791–799, 801–803, 806, 851
Japiaçu, Tupinambá leader 406, 408
Japurá, river 620, 626, 648
Jequitinhonha, river 421–423, 430
Jesuits 117, 318, 346–347, 353, 452, 457, 463–464, 466, 534–535, 773, 799
and cartography 471
and martyrdom 797–799, 811n51
and science 803, 806, 815
as Society of Jesus 187, 332, 465, 467, 470–471, 474, 490, 545, 597, 720, 789, 790, 796, 800, 805
trans-Pacific networks of 789–795
Jesús, Gertrudis de 518
Jilotepec, New Spain 139–141, 144, 148–149
Joaquim, indigenous leader 215, 220, 224, 232n40
Juan Andrés 187, 200
Juan Fernández Islands 731–732
Jujuy 270–284, 323
Juruna, Indians 614, 623–627
Jusacamea, Juan Ignacio (Banderas) 196, 200, 203n41, 204n42, 207n87
Jusacamea, Juan María 200, 203n41
Just War 216, 417, 419, 421, 572, 618–619
K
Kadiwéu, Indians 60, 647f, 655, 658n11, 663n62
Kakán, language 321, 326, 332
Kamchatka Peninsula 31, 844–845, 850–851
First Kamchatka Expedition 844
Second Kamchatka Expedition 845
Kangxi 448
Karajá, Indians 592, 594 map, 595–596, 599–602, 641
Kashaya Pomo, Indians 33, 36, 843, 852, 854
Kayapó, Indians 596–597, 602–604
Kayapó do Sul, Indians 592, 594 map, 596, 641, 645
kelp highway 32, 864
Kerala, India 449, 450, 451, 454, 460n39
Kino, Francisco Eusebio 464–473, 481n12 and n18, 801–803, 805, 814n84
(p. 879) Kodiak Island 841, 848, 850
Konkani, language in India 455, 457
Kotzebue, Otto von 854–855
Krahô, Indians 594–596, 600–602
kruk (Botocudo Indians) 419, 430, 434n32
Kukra, Indians 243, 245–246, 248
Kuna, Indians, see Tule, Indians
Kuskov, Ivan A. 852–855
L
L’Hermite, Jacques 726
La Paz, Bolivia 272–274, 280–281, 409n2, 704–705
La Rioja, Argentina 273, 283, 322–325
labor
debt peonage 576, 586n24, 828–830
laboríos 576, 578. See also naborias
repartimiento (forced labor) 11, 124, 185–186, 297, 346–347, 378, 575, 577–578, 582, 588, 865
and wages 147, 196, 378–379, 382, 420, 618, 620, 704, 830, 851, 865 See also miningSee also mita
Ladrillero, Juan de 723
Laguna de Mayrán, region 95
Lake Titicaca 33, 42, 44
landscape
cultural landscapes 13, 18, 27, 53, 57–62, 68, 82, 95, 370, 464, 472f, 480, 543, 629, 639, 716
changes in 63, 65, 70–72
colonial landscapes 672
definition of 57
desert landscapes 98
flooded landscapes 592
and hydraulic systems 69
of Araucanía and southern Chile 12 See also environment
Larios, Juan 512
law 4–5, 68–69, 307n2, 312n42, 320, 358, 378, 419–420, 422, 513–514, 573, 577–578, 653, 793
law enforcement 2, 225, 751, 774
Law of Catechesis (Brazil, 1845) 414
Law of Landholding (Brazil, 1850) 414, 422
Law of Liberty (Brazil) 213. See also Directorate
Law of Missions (Brazil, 1872) 422
Minas Law (Brazil, 1872) 425
and citizenship (Bolivia) 697, 699–700
and enslavement 618, 825–826
and indigneous rights 153n21, 178n24, 197, 205n74, 702–703, 713n79, 715n97
Le Maire, Strait 728, 731–732
Lempira Revolt 165, 169, 174
Lerma-Santiago, river 171
Léry, Jean de 9, 12–13
Lienzo de Tlaxcala 136–138, 153n20, 167
Linares, Nuevo León 109, 119–122, 124
Língua Geral (Nheengatu) 616, 624
liturgy 451–452, 527, 529, 533, 535, 537, 552–553, 560
Lobo, Manuel 673
Logroño, Spain 516
Loma Alta, archaeological culture 89, 91
Loma San Gabriel, archaeological culture 95
Londres, Argentina 322–325, 327, 338n63
López de Haro, Gonzalo, pilot 842, 847–848
López de Legazpi, Miguel 767
López, Diego 515
Lord of Tlaxcala, see Tlaxcala, Lord of
Loreto, place name 473, 559, 563n17
Virgin of 490, 494, 505n3, 557, 565, 566n53
Luso-Brazilians, see Brazil
M
Macacu, river 215
Macau, China 445, 452
Macoyagüi, Pueblo of, (Macoyahuis) 66–67
Macro-Gê, language family 214, 595
Madeira, river 613, 615, 623, 626, 648, 694
Madrid, Spain 37, 494, 515, 526, 574, 613, 723–724, 768, 790, 792–794, 803, 846, 853
Madrid, José María 200, 207n88
Madruga, Cuba 831
Madurai, India 447 map, 452–454, 456, 797
(p. 880) Magellan, Strait of 6, 319, 717–719, 723, 725–728, 730–733
Magellan, Ferdinand de 718, 723, 726–727, 737n66 and n67
Mahu, Jacques 728
Maire, Jacob Le 728
Malabar 447 map, 449, 451, 456, 460n32
Manao, Brazil 615, 619
Mandan, Indians 40
Manila Galleon 6, 299, 766–772, 774–778, 780n8, 780n16, 784n46, 789, 803, 806
Manila Proposal, see China
Manileño(s) 773–775, 779
Mapuche, Indians 11–12, 398, 573–574, 580, 651, 718–719, 722, 728, 733
rebellion of 1598 728, 733
Marajó Island 42, 614–615, 617, 619–620, 622
Maranhão, captaincy of 398, 402, 405–408, 592–595, 594f, 602, 617, 619–620
river 596–597, 602
State of Maranhão, founded in 1621 617
State of Grão Pará and Maranhão, founded in 1751 620
Marathi, language in India 457
Margil de Jesús, Antonio 513, 517–519 See also Franciscans
Marlière, Guido Thomaz 419–421, 436n46, 437n57
Martínez de la Marcha, Hernando 378–379
Martínez, José Esteban, lieutenant 842, 847–848
Martinho, indigenous leader 221
martyrdom, red and white 800, 811n60 See also Franciscans See also Jesuits
mass (catholic religious service) 140, 456, 519, 526, 527, 550–551, 554, 556, 746
matachines, see dance
Matina, Costa Rica 242, 245–246, 251
Mato Grosso, Brazil 16, 68, 592, 594–595, 599, 603–604, 613, 620–621, 646, 651, 654–655
Maurelle, Antonio, second pilot 842
Mawé (Maué), Indians 614, 623–627
Mawe, John 224
Maxakali, ethnic group and language 415, 423, 439n81
Maya, Indians
Kaqchikel 165, 171
Yucatec 819–831
Mazapil, Zacatecas 372 map, 378–379, 381, 383, 385–386
Mbayá-Guaikurú, Indians, see Guaikurú
Mecos, Indians 825, 827
Mediterranean 6, 752, 765, 777
Medrano, Blas 188–189, 198, 199t, 205n74, 206n79
Medrano, Francisco 188, 198, 199t
Mendoza, Antonio de, Viceroy 9, 22n39, 133, 141–146, 157n69 and n70, 792
Meira da Rocha, José 683
Melaka, Strait of 7, 445, 447
Melo, Francisco 515
Mendieta, Jerónimo de 511
Mendonça Furtado, Francisco Xavier de, governor and captain general 613–614, 620
Mendoza, Francisco de 493–494, 496–497, 502
Mercedarians 247, 618
as authorized missionary order 520n4
merchants, see commerce
Mérida, Yucatán 824
Mesoamerica
culture area 5, 13, 17, 39–40, 43, 59–60, 62, 68, 83–84, 91–92, 95, 96–97, 99, 135, 147, 185, 298
Mesoamerican allies of the Spaniards 84–87, 90, 99, 132, 137, 145, 169, 353
Mesoamerican borderlands / periphery 41, 92, 131
Mesoamerican cultures, groups, and peoples 41, 59, 83–88, 94–96, 98, 101n12, 103–104n46, 141, 308n10, 345, 349, 824
Mesoamerican frontier and frontier fluctuations 59, 83, 88–92
Mesoamerican influence on the US Southwest 10, 308n10
(p. 881) Mesoamerican painted histories 64
northern Mesoamerica 85–89, 92–93, 95–96, 99, 100n7, 101n16, 201n14
nuclear / core Mesoamerica 10, 87
Messner, Johan 557
mestizaje, cultural and biological 113, 114 map, 115, 125, 319, 331, 344, 354–355, 359, 429, 696, 720, 823, 830
as State policy in Brazil