- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- The Oxford Handbook of Offender Decision Making
- Editors’ Introduction
- Rational Choice Theory, Heuristics, and Biases
- Evolutionary Approaches to Rational Choice
- Multiple Interpretations of Rationality in Offender Decision Making
- Situational Crime Prevention and Offender Decision Making
- Biosocial Criminology and Models of Criminal Decision Making
- Perceptual Deterrence
- Game Theory
- Dual-Process Models of Criminal Decision Making
- Personality and Offender Decision Making: The Theoretical, Empirical, and Practical Implications for Criminology
- Temporal Discounting, Present Orientation, and Criminal Deterrence
- The Role of Moral Beliefs, Shame, and Guilt in Criminal Decision Making: An Overview of Theoretical Frameworks and Empirical Results
- Neural Mechanisms of Criminal Decision Making in Adolescence: The Roles of Executive Functioning and Empathy
- Social Learner Decision Making: Matching Theory as a Unifying Framework for Recasting a General Theory
- Victim Selection
- Co-offending and Co-offender Selection
- Informal Guardians and Offender Decision Making
- Police and Offender Choices: A Framework
- Crime Location Choice: State of the Art and Avenues for Future Research
- High Stakes: The Role of Weapons in Offender Decision Making
- The Effect of Alcohol and Arousal on Criminal Decision Making
- Emotions in Offender Decision Making
- Experimental Designs in the Study of Offender Decision Making
- Observational Methods of Offender Decision Making
- Understanding Offender Decision Making Using Surveys, Interviews, and Life Event Calendars
- Simulating Crime Event Decision Making: Agent-Based Social Simulations in Criminology
- Modeling Offender Decision Making with Secondary Data
- “Deciding” to Kill: Understanding Homicide Offenders’ Decision Making
- Cold-Blooded and Badass: A “Hot/Cool” Approach to Understanding Carjackers’ Decisions
- The Reasoning Sex Offender
- Burglary Decisions
- Offender Decision Making in Corporate and White-Collar Crime
- Organized Crime and Protection Rackets
Abstract and Keywords
Police influence on offender choices has largely been described in terms of general and specific deterrence. This chapter expands this description by examining the quantity and quality of police influences. With regard to quantity, theory and research from environmental criminology have described a rich set of influences that have direct and indirect effects on offenders. Indirect influences operate through various third parties and by manipulating crime situations. With regard to quality, theory and research from a wide variety of disciplines show that how the police behave with offenders has an influence on offender choices. Four principles are particularly important for quality: the degrees to which the police appear to be reasonable, disarming, focused, and consistent. Expanding our understanding of how police can influence offender choices provides useful areas for research and opens a wide range of possibilities for improving police effectiveness and fairness in addressing crime.
John E. Eck is Professor of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. His work encompasses investigations management, problem-oriented policing, and preventing crime at high crime places, focusing on practical solutions to crime problems based on sound research and rigorous theory.
Tamara D. Madensen is Associate Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Her research interests are problem-oriented policing, crime opportunity structures, place management, and crowd violence.
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