Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 15 October 2019

(p. 486) Index

(p. 486) Index

academic blogging, 466–68, 475
academic research, 11–18
communicating beyond academia, 466–76
academic writing adaptation, to social media, 469–73
adaptability, personal, 383, 384, 385, 386
adaptation theory, 28, 47, 218, 478
crisis and, 418–20, 421f
events-based research, 29
gender differences and, 29
adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, 73
adhocracy culture, 222
adolescent
disruptive behaviors, parent work instability and, 154
parental negative spillover and, 155
problem behaviors, mother's work overload and, 158
adult development theory, 393
affective events theory (AET), 29–30, 31
agentic characteristics, of men, 54, 55
aging population
eldercare responsibilities, 4, 183–84, 192, 193, 379
increase in, 184, 459
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 14, 204, 212
American Community Survey, of Census Bureau, 166
American Psychological Association (APA), 11, 86
Americans with Disabilities Act, of 1990, 175
American Time Use survey, 128–29, 393
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), of brain, 402–3, 413n1, 414n3
Ask the Children studies, of FWI, 209–10
attention role, in human behavior, 403, 404–5
authenticity, 383
transparency and, 115–16
availability
of ODCS, 273, 277–78
of workplace flexibility, 255–56
avoidance response, 84, 402
behavior-based conflict, 87
Behson, Scott, 475
Belsky, Jay, 11
Beyond the Parental Leave Debate: The Impact of Laws in Four States, by FWI, 201
Bezos Family Foundation Vroom initiative, 211
bidirectional crossover, 145
Big Five personality traits, 17, 71–72
blogging, 466–68, 475
blurred boundaries, 109–11, 115, 160–61, 320
Bookman, Anne, 297–98
border theory, 17, 266–67
boundaries
behaviors, 114
blurred, 109–11, 115, 160–61, 320
conceptualization of, 111–15
control of, 114–15, 118
flexibility and permeability of, 109, 114–15, 116, 338, 343
globalization and, 109, 115
multiple life roles and, 109
preferences for, 114, 118
research agenda, 118–19
social media rise, 109, 115
technology and, 109, 115
temporal, 112–14
types of, 112–13
work-family, recovery and, 99–100
boundaryless career model, 382–83, 443
boundary management, 5, 109–20, 316
bidirectionality of, 113
emotion regulation and, 81
in family business, 433–34, 437
gaps and research agenda, 118–19
homogeneous domains, 118–19
Industrial Revolution influence on, 110–11
introduction to, 109–10
national context of, 324–25, 325t
online, 115–16, 118
person-organization value congruence, 75
psychological detachment from work and, 99
role transitions and, 111–12
supervisor-subordinate similarity, 75
technology and, 337–39, 345
(p. 487)
time horizon of, 114
boundary strength at home (BSH), 113
boundary strength at work (BSW), 113
boundary theory, 17, 266–67, 337–39, 342
brain, 413n2, 414n5
dopamine in, 407
expectations role, 402–3
organization of, 403f
PFC, 405
RAS, 403
branding, 457
breadwinner, 443, 444
broad, life-cycle approach, of FWI, 199
broaden-and-build theory, 142
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S., 184
burnout, 87, 88, 89, 97, 98, 256, 259, 267, 478
engagement and, 143
FWA and lower levels of, 172
ICT and, 343, 344
of managers, 147
Caligiuri, Paula, 475–76
career construction theory, 382
career constructs, 6
DOL studies and, 135
prioritization and career consequences, 132
career-life preparedness, 382
career-life workshops, 450
career management, 385
careers, work-family interface and, 6, 209f, 244, 249, 376–86, 444f
boundaryless career model, 382–83, 443
changing dynamics of, 443
compromise in, 135
contemporary, 379, 384–85
development of, 384
dual-career couples, 68, 103, 125, 132–33, 143, 293, 302, 309, 442–43, 459
implications of changing dynamics, 383–85
interventions to enhance skills, 385–86
kaleidoscope career model, 383
life-course perspective on, 379–82
life-span, life-space theory, 378–79
(p. 488)
personal agency, 385
protean career model, 382, 443
psychological theories of vocational choice and career stages, 377–78
SCCT, 381–82
structural theories, 378
terminology, 377
career stage theories, 378, 379
caregiver strain, 166–67
caregiving. See also children with special needs; eldercare
coordination of dependents' lives type, 271, 272, 276
division of, 448f
financial provision type, 272, 276
men's contributions to, 445–46, 448–49
nurturance type, 271–72, 276
women responsibilities for, 83, 276–77
Catalyst not-for-profit research organization, 11
Census Bureau, U.S.
American Community Survey, on disability, 166
on dual-earner couples, 125
The Center for Work and Family (CWF), 14, 442
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 355
central traits, in work-family experience, 71–73, 75
change context, 11, 119, 223–24
individual employee level and, 219
processual change and, 219
research and practice concerns, 218–19
social system nature and, 218–19
temporal context and, 225
time dimension and, 218
in work-family study, 217–18
change processes, 216–17, 217f, 223, 226
change resistance, 223–25
childcare, 15, 126
for children with special needs, 173
community-based, 173–74, 290, 294
onsite, 112, 115, 185, 272
role conflicts with, 379
child development
environmental systems for, 153
family meal and, 157, 158
nonstandard work schedule and, 154, 156–57
work attitudes, from parents concern for, 151
children, 3, 365
academic behaviors, mother's work experiences and, 154
gender and, 158, 159
parent's interaction with, 155–56
SWDC, 5, 182–93, 188f, 189f, 190t
children outcomes, work-family experiences for, 5, 15, 151–61
current literature limitations and future research, 159–61
ecological theory and, 153
maternal employment status and, 151
organizational outcomes impacted by, 151
parent characteristics and, 158
parent work-family experiences and, 153–55, 158–59
parent work lives influenced by, 151
positive impact from parent work-family experiences, 159
SCM on parent work-family experiences and, 152f, 153
SES and, 158–59
theoretical framework, 153
children with special needs, 5, 165–77
challenges for employed caregivers, 165–68
community resources and, 168
cross-national comparison, of policy issues, 165, 174–77, 175t
deinstitutionalization of, 165
by developmental stage, 168–70
economic support, for, 172, 176
employed caregivers of, 165–68
family care demands by developmental stage, 168–70
family support for, 170–72, 176
policy supports for, 165, 174–75, 175t, 177
workplace support for, 172–74, 173
clan culture, 222
Clark, Dorie, 476
Clinton, William Jefferson “Bill,” 201
coding categories and process, in work-family research, 40–41, 43
community, work-family, 6, 289–97
civic engagement, 290, 291, 296
conceptualization of, 290–92, 297
connections, 290–91
family-friendly, 289, 292
future directions, 297–98
geographic location, 291
life course perspective, 292–93
life satisfaction, 291, 295
physical boundaries of, 291
research, 289–95, 297
sense of, 291, 292
social capital, networks, organization, 291
spillover and, 294
supportive communities, 295–96
theoretical perspectives for, 292–93
Voydanoff's conceptualization of, 290–91
well-being influenced by, 295
work-family interface and, 289–90, 296–97
community-based childcare, 173–74, 290, 294
community resources, 296, 297
friends support, 292
neighborhood attachment, 292
school resource fit and marital quality, 293
sense of community, 291, 292
community support, 295–96
for children with special needs, 168, 173–74, 176
WFC and, 294
compensation mechanism, 102
competing priorities hypothesis, on employee health, 393–94
Competing Values Inventory (CVI), 222
compressed work weeks, 232, 259, 262–63, 354
concreteness resources, in SET, 25–26
conservation of resources (COR) theory, 13, 15, 31–32, 282, 356, 407, 477–78
on multiple personality-based management resources, 72
on personality and values, 70
for recovery, 96, 147
consideration, in leader behavior theory, 250
contemporary career
conceptualizations, 379
context, 384
theories and models, 384–85
control theory, 265–66
core self-evaluations (CSEs), 71, 72, 75
corporate culture, of Kellogg Company, 235–36
Corporate Executive Board (CEB), 461–62
Corporate Leadership Circle (CLC), of FWI, 204, 230, 230t
cost, of work-family intervention, 357
cost-benefit analysis, for work-family interventions, 357
cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), for work-family interventions, 357–58
country characteristics, for children with special needs, 174
courtesy stigmatization, 168, 173
creative work-family management, as FSSB, 245
crisis, work and family in times of, 417–28
adaptation theories, 418–20, 421f
breakup with romantic partner, 423–24
deconstructing, 418
external to individual and family, 424–26
framework for understanding, 418–20
future research, 426–27
(p. 489)
interdisciplinary review of, 420, 422–26
internal to individual and family, 420, 422–24
moderating influences, 420
personal resiliency and, 420, 427
severity, 420, 427
social support for, 427
types of, 422, 424–26
Crisis Theory, 418
cross-domain benefits, through resource gains, 88, 89
cross-national comparisons
in DOL, 133, 134, 136
in national policies, on work-family, 311
of policy supports, for children with special needs, 165, 174–77, 175t
cross-national research, 6, 315–27, 326t, 370
future research, 325–27
national context, boundary management and, 324–25, 325t
review focus, 317–18
WLC and, 315, 318–22, 325–26
WLE and, 315, 322–23
work-life balance and, 323–24
work-life interface and, 316–17
crossover
model, 18, 141–42, 141f, 142f
of positive and negative experiences, 143
processes among couples, 5, 140–48
of resources, 144–45, 147
supervisor-subordinate, 248
technology and, 341–42
cultural factors, in national WLC, 316, 318–20, 321t
cultural norms and values, 311–12, 362–63
culture, 133, 193, 218, 317
adhocracy, clan, hierarchy, 222
corporate, 235–36
gender, 146, 310–11, 312
gender ideology, crossover and, 146–47
neuroscience and, 412–13
organizational, 220, 458–59
work-family, 219–22
data collection methods, 36, 40–41, 44t, 45–47, 45t
day level, recovery and, 98, 99, 101
deep acting technique, in emotional labor, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89
Dehaene, Stanislas, 210
Department of Education, U.S., 166, 211–12
Department of Health and Human Services, U.S., on children with special needs, 166
Department of Labor, U.S., QES of, 12, 212
dependency, conceptualization and prevalence of, 279–80
dependent care support. See organizational dependent care support
Diamond, Adele, 210
diary studies, 46, 88, 102, 114, 143–44, 155, 395
differential reactivity, in personality and values theory, 70, 74, 78
differentiating norm, creating separations, 82
disability. See also children with special needs
American Community Survey on, 166
defined, 166
Department of Education on, 166
social model of, 166
disclosure, 115, 160, 173
discrimination and fairness, at work, 184–86
display rules, 82–93, 85–86, 85f
distributive justice theory, 130
diversity
of modern family, 480–81
of populations, in work-life research, 463
of workforce, 459
division of labor (DOL), 5, 12, 125–36, 379, 448f, 479
consequences, 130–32, 135
cross-national comparisons in, 133, 134, 136
definitions of, 126–27
expansion years shift to, 17
future research, 134–36
gender construction theory, 127
gender in, 126, 128–29, 445
macrolevel perspectives on, 132–34, 136
motivational perspective, 135
predictors of, 128–30, 135–36
relative resources theory, 127
socialization/gender role ideology theory, 127
theoretical explanations of, 127–28
time availability theory, 127
traditional, 53, 54, 127, 146, 182, 302, 443
unequal, 125–26, 132
divorce, 11, 16, 436
dopamine, 407
double transmission, of experiences, 144
dual-career couples, 68, 103, 125, 132–33, 143, 293, 302, 309, 442–43, 459
dual centric employees, 206
ecological approach, of FWI, 199
ecological perspective, of community, 292, 293
ecological theory, 13, 153, 160
ecological validity, 46
economic challenges, for single parents, 365
economic dependency, of women, 126
economic factors, in national work-life interface, 317
economic support, for children with special needs, 172, 176
effective workplaces, 202–9
action plan, 204
characteristics of, 204f
employee health outcomes relationship with, 205f
flexibility in, 206–7
NSCW on, 202
NSE on, 202
positive work outcomes relationship with, 205f
Effort-Recovery Model, 96
egalitarian husbands, 56
egalitarian ideology, 127, 432
egalitarian women, 56
Eisenberger, Naomi, 408
eldercare, 4, 183–84, 192, 193, 379
emotional boundaries, 112
emotional intelligence (EI), 90
emotional labor, 81
through deep and surface acting, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89
as emotional regulation at work, 84
gendered stereotypes in, 84
home outcomes predicted by, 88–89
suppression and, 84
WFC and, 88
emotional self-efficacy, 90
emotional support, 83, 85, 245
emotional support, as FSSB, 245
emotion regulation, 5, 81–92
boundary management and, 81
costs/gains to cross-domain outcomes, 82
effectiveness and, 82–85, 83t
psychology strategies, 83
questions on, 82t
skills to balance work-family spillover, 82, 90–91
spillover between work and home, 82, 87–91
work and home comparisons, 82–87, 86f, 89
emotion work, 81, 82, 126
avoiding and withdrawing, 84, 402
burnout and, 87
emotion regulation at home, 83–84
expressing and suppressing emotions in, 84
natural for women stereotype, 83, 84
(p. 490)
study of, 410
work outcomes predicted by, 89–90
empathic identification, 141, 145–46
employee assistance programs (EAPs), 11, 115
employee benefit programs, 185, 243
employee health, 6, 156, 202–9, 205t, 230, 230t, 389. See also well-being
complexity and implications, 390–91
effective workplace relationship with, 205f
employee lifestyles, 203
high blood pressure, 203
high priority research agenda, 396–97
men's health and, 203
minor health problems, 203
NIH and CDC on, 355
NSCW on, 203
outcomes, effective workplaces relationship with, 205f
overall health decline, 203
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 203
sleep problems, 203
social relationships affecting, 408
training to increase, 355, 356
employee health hypotheses
competing priorities hypothesis, 393–94
holism hypothesis, 394
strain hypothesis, 395–96
time-bind hypothesis, 392–93
employees, 95, 167–68, 203, 235, 391
attitudes and behaviors, middle managers influence on, 246
coping skills, LMX theory and, 245
without dependents, ODCS and, 279
dual centric, 206
-friendly environments, in family business, 434–37
i-deals of supervisor and, 245–46, 248–49
individual level of, change context and, 219
outcomes, for workplace flexibility, 258–59
perceptions, organizational culture and, 220
performance evaluations for, 248
social and gender roles, 55
work-life solutions expectations, 460
employee value proposition (EVP), 231, 235
Employer of Choice program, of P&G, 239
employers
outcomes, for workplace flexibility, 258–59
parental leave and, 201, 202f
recommendations, for men, 449–50
-sponsored benefits, for SWDC, 190–91, 191t, 192
employment-organizational relationship (E-O-R) view, on workplace flexibility
good and bad consequences of, 258
implementation gap, 257–58
with job control implications, 257
employment trajectory, 127, 129, 135, 176, 424, 447
engagement
burnout and, 143
civic, 290, 291, 296
as positive crossover, 141, 142, 143, 144
work, 143, 145
work-family, 211
episodic approach, 78
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 480
Equal Opportunities Employment Trust, 458
escape hypothesis, 102
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, 389
European and non-European OECD countries, WF policies of, 301, 302, 303 [link] –305 [link] , 305, 312, 313
events-based research, 29
evidence-based strategy, of P&G flex@work, 238
exceptional care, 166
work-life integration and, 167–68
executive functions of brain, 210–11
executive-level managers
career consequences, 244
employee benefit programs, 243
family-friendly policies from, 243
HR executives, 243
managerial support, 244
organizational time demands, 244
organizational work-family culture influence, 244
schedule control, 243
work-family balance facilitated by, 243
exit interviews, 247
exosystems, 153, 292
expansionist theory, 130
expansion years, in 2000s
academic research, 16–18
on Big Five Personality factors, 17
cultural attitudes toward gender equality, 17
divorce increase, 16
DOL in, 17
flexibility and work-family outcomes, 17
gay and lesbian families, 16
methodological approaches, 18
organizations and foundations, 16
peer influences and bullying research, 17
popular topics, 16–17
recession, 16
societal trends, 16
theoretical approaches, 17–18
WFC and stress research, 17
work structure and family, 16
expectations, 410, 412
for emotional supportive activities, of women, 83
of employees, on work-life solutions, 460
for increase in work hours, 229
inequity in work, 185
role, brain, 402–3
experience sampling methodology, 18
expressions, suppression tendencies change for, 83
external change drivers, work-family initiatives as response to, 218
external crisis, 424–26
external validity, 37
extrinsic motivation, 98
Families and Work Institute (FWI)
Ask the Children studies, 209–10
broad, life-cycle approach, 199
change experiments, 199
CLC, 204, 230, 230t
ecological approach, 199
on education, 211
on effective workplace, 202–9
on employee health, 389
on families, 211
Guide to Bold New Ideas for Making Work Work, 207
on health care system, 211
Mind in the Making initiative, 209–10
mission of, 199–200
NSCW, 202, 203, 207, 212, 366, 441
Beyond the Parental Leave Debate: The Impact of Laws in Four States by, 201
research to action approach of, 6, 11, 199–213
SHRM and, 204–9
The State of Health of the American Workforce: Does Having an Effective Workplace Matter, 203
State Parental Leave Study by, 200
theory of change principles of, 204–9
When Work Works project of SHRM and, 204–9
workforce and workplace studies, 200
family, 188f, 211
attitudes, 58–59
changing dynamics of, 443
child outcomes, 5, 15, 151–61, 152f
children with special needs, 5, 165–77, 175t
(p. 491)
conceptual change of, 119
crossover processes among couples, 5
demands, recovery from, 95, 101–2
diversity, 480–81
emotion expression in, 85
grandparent caregiver, 480–81
in I-O/OB literature, 5, 11, 39, 377, 419, 461
multigenerational, 481
national WF policies on life support, 302, 305–7
outcomes, in community research, 293–94
relationships, of SWDC and, 183, 191–92, 193
single workers without dependent children, 5, 182–93, 187t, 191t
structures, in national WLC context, 321–22
work-life program, 230, 230t
family business, work-family issues in, 6–7, 431
boundary management, 433–34, 437
communication and, 432
conflict among family members, 433
employee-friendly environments, 434–37
entrance or exit conflicts, 435, 437
future research suggestions, 436–38
identity development and, 435
marriage, divorce and, 436
particularities of, 432–33
pertinent issues in, 433–36
positive consequences, 433
pressure on family system, 432–33
role conflict in, 433, 434, 437
sibling rivalry and, 435
family-centered services, for children with special needs, 170–71
family-friendly backlash, 185, 192
family-friendly community, 289, 292
family-friendly policies and practices, 185, 251
fear of negative repercussions, 243
of federal agencies, 223–24
front-line managers and, 245
men use of, 446–47
middle managers and, 246
national culture influence on, 218
organization's positive work-family culture and, 243
family-friendly workplaces, 295, 449–50
family labor, 129
assessment measurement for, 126–27
emotion work, 126
higher family satisfaction from, 56
marital quality link, 131
marriage stability and, 58
negative effect on pay for women, 58
unpaid work as, 126
women more time on, 56, 58, 62, 125, 480
family meals, 157, 158
Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA), 14, 201–2, 316, 482
family policy, in liberal model countries, 174–75
family-related activities, for recovery, 97
family structures, 3, 16, 19, 321–22
family support, for children with special needs, 170–72, 176
family-supportive organizational perceptions (FSOPs), 250, 273, 275
family supportive policies, 481–82
family-supportive supervision, 244–45, 248
family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSBs), 396
creative work-family management, 245
emotional support, 245
FSOPs influenced by, 250
instrumental support, 245
LMX desirable work-family outcomes and, 245, 246
managerial work-family training for, 248–49
role modeling behaviors, 245, 246
training for, 355–56
fatherhood, 443–44
The Fatherhood Project, of Levine, 11, 12
fathers
at-home, 446
changing role of, 444–46
cultural evolution of, 441
CWF on, 442
definition of good, 444–45
feminism on family responsibilities of, 11
recommendations for, 450–51
federal agencies, family-friendly policies of, 223–24
feminism, 10–11
fictive kin, of SWDC, 183
flex careers 2005-2014, 209f
flexibility, 186, 192, 204, 208f. See also workplace flexibility
in amount of work, 259, 261t, 262, 264–65
in boundaries, 109, 114–15, 116, 338, 343
decline of manager support for, 208–9
dual centric employees and, 206
as effective business strategy, 206, 206f
in location, 262, 263–64
NSE to track trends in, 208
options and cultural support, 207
P&G and, 237–39
technology and, 341
in time, 259, 262–63
understanding of options for, 206
flexible scheduling, 260t, 351
compressed work weeks, 232, 259, 262–63, 354
flexible shiftwork, 263
flexible work arrangements (FWA), 172, 174–75, 303 [link] –305 [link] , 307, 481
flexplace, 262, 263–64
flextime, 112, 259, 262, 351, 354
of Kellogg Company, 232
from 2005-2014, 208f
flex@work program, of P&G, 237–39
Ford Foundation, 14
Levine's The Fatherhood Project, 11, 12
Work and Family Responsibilities Achieving a Balance initiative, 11
workplace-focused action research, 15
formerly incarcerated parents, as underrepresented population, 363, 366–67
Friedan, Betty, 10–11
Friedman, Dana, 11
friends
bonds of SWDC, 183
support, as community resource, 292
front-line managers
family-friendly policies and, 245
family-supportive supervision, 244–45
supervisor and employee i-deals, 245–46
functional variables, 413
future, 2015 and beyond, 18–20
on family structure, 19
societal trends, 19
Galinsky, Ellen, 11
gender. See also men; women
children and, 158, 159
identity, 130, 131, 133
ideology, 127, 146–47
gender, in WF, 19, 53–64, 84, 89
community, work and family, 297
intersection of, 59–61
limitations and future research, 62–64
literature review, 55–58
neuroscience and, 412–13
pay gap, 56
single parents and, 365–66
spillover and, 89
welfare regime typology and, 302
WFC differences, 55, 60, 61
women caretaker role, in family, 83, 276–77
work and family attitudes, 58–59
gender-based social roles
work and family attitudes and, 54, 54f, 55, 58–59, 62
(p. 492)
work and family time investments, 53–58, 54f, 62
gender construction theory, 127
gender culture
marital satisfaction and, 146
national policies, on WF and, 310–11, 312
gender deviance neutralizing behaviors, 127
gender egalitarianism (GE), 319–20, 321t, 322–23, 324
Gender Empowerment Measure, United Nations, 133
gender equality, 134, 302, 442
cultural attitudes toward, 17, 133
unequal DOL and, 125–26
gender role, 5
in crossover process, 145–47
in underrepresented populations research, 370
in work-family research and practice, 479–80
general employer outcomes, for workplace flexibility, 259
generational differences, DOL influenced by, 128
Georgetown Law, Workplace Flexibility 2010 initiative, 16, 389
Gerson, Kathleen, 17
Get a Life, Not a job: Do What You Love and Let Your Talents Work for You (Caligiuri), 475–76
Give and Take (Grant), 469
Global Diversity & Inclusion practice, of P&G's HR, 237
global integration, workplace flexibility from, 256–57
globalization, 240, 256–57
boundaries and, 109, 115
work-life solutions impacted by, 459–60
Global Opinion Survey, of Kellogg Company, 232–33, 236
global workforce, 4
GLOBE project, 318, 324
humane orientation and, 320
grandparent caregiver family, 480–81
Grant, Adam, 469
growth years, in 1990s
academic research, 14–16
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 14
CWF, 14, 442
FMLA, 14
Ford Foundation, 14
methodological approaches, 15–16
organizations and foundations, 14
parent work and child outcomes research, 15
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, 14
popular topics, 14–15
societal trends, 13–14
theoretical approaches, 15
workforce in, 13
work structure and technology, 13–14
Guide to Bold New Ideas for Making Work Work, of FWI, 207
guilt role, in work-family experience, 73, 89
Harvey, John C., Jr., 207–8
health. See employee health
hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), 46
hierarchy culture, 222
Hochschild, Arlie, 392, 471
Hochschild, S. E., 12, 104
on blurred boundaries, 115
escape hypothesis, 102
holism hypothesis, on employee health, 394
home
demands, SCM and, 144
spillover between work and, 82, 87–91
surface acting at, 88, 89
work activities during time at, 97–98, 99
Household, Work, and Flexibility survey, 319
household labor, 126, 131
men's contributions to, 125, 134, 445–46, 448–49
recovery and, 98
women role in, 56, 58, 62, 125, 480
human behavior, neuroscience principles of
attention role, 403, 404–5
avoid threats and maximize rewards, 402
expectations role, brain and, 402–3
human resources (HR), 208
executives, 243
exit interviews, 247
initiatives, 394
managers' beliefs and positivity, 246
preemployment assessments, 247
human resources policies
of Kellogg Company, 232, 233
of P&G, 237
strategic, 247–48
WLJA to determine, 247
IBM strategic work-family policy, 247–48
i-deals, of supervisor and employee, 245–46, 248–49
identity
development, in family business, 435
theory, 281–82
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, 364
immigrant workers, 363, 365
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, 364
Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation Opportunity Act and, 364
implementation gap, 257–58
inception years, in 1970s and 1980s
academic research, 11–13
on child and maternal well-being, 12
DOL, 12
EAPs, 11
feminism, 10–11
methodological trends, 13
movement of women into workforce, 10–11
no-fault divorce, 11
organizations and foundations, 11
on parenting values and behaviors, 12
personal experiences, 10
popular topics, 11–12
public values change, 11
role-based theories, 13
societal trends, 10–11
stress theories, 13
theoretical approaches, 12–13
inclusion, 5, 48, 165, 182, 185–86, 192, 480, 481
incremental prediction, conceptualization beyond, 76–77
indirect crossover, 141–42
individual differences, in recovery process, 99
individualism/collectivism (I-C), 318, 321t, 322, 324, 460
individual outcomes, in community research, 295
individual variables, 413
individual well-being, DOL and, 131
industrial and organizational/organizational behavior (I-O/OB) literature, 5, 11, 39, 377, 419, 461
Industrial and Organizational Psychology and Organization Behavior, 356–57
Industrial Revolution, 119–20
child labor during, 110
patriarchal nuclear family from, 110
subordination, from work for wages, 110
time regulation in, 110
work dissociation from family life, 110
working together as family decrease, 110
work-nonwork boundaries influenced by, 110–11
information and communication technologies (ICT), 6, 98, 333–46
antecedents, outcomes, and moderating factors, 335–37t
managers role for use of, 340–41
physical ailments from use of, 346
psychological detachment and, 100
(p. 493)
use, predictors of cross-domain, 339–40
initiating structure, in leader behavior theory, 250
Institute for Museum and Library Sciences (IMLS), 211
institutional and economic factors
in national WLC, 320–22
in national work-life interface, 316–17
institutions, 326
as factors, in national context and WLC, 316–17
instrumental support, as FSSB, 245
integration, work-life, 111, 113t, 338
for employees exceptional care, 167–68
global, workplace flexibility due to, 256–57
Perlow on, 117
pitfalls, 117–18
preferences for, 112–13
productivity decrease, 117
research with LMX theory, 250
segmentation compared to, 111
social media and, 118
work-life outcomes and, 116–17
integrative norms, with affiliative emotions, 82
intention, in TPB, 30–31
internal validity, 37
interview, work-family research, 186–92
intrinsic motivation, 97
Investing in Innovation Fund, of Department of Education, 211–12
JD-R Model. See Job Demands-Resources
job attitudes, 344–45
job characteristics, 153–54
parental withdrawal and, 156
parent health behavior and, 156
Job Characteristics Model, 394–95
job control, 104, 257, 265, 342–43
Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model, 13, 143, 147, 265, 292, 407, 478
job functioning, recovery and, 95
job performance, 89
work enrichment and, 30
job-related burnout. See burnout
job-related self-efficacy, crossover of resources and, 144–45
job satisfaction, 61
telework and, 344
WFC relationship with, 231, 460
job security, 322
job sharing, 232, 265
job stress. See stress
kaleidoscope career model, 383
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss, 11–12, 14, 111, 394
Kellogg, W. K., 231
Kellogg Company, 231
compressed work weeks, 232
corporate culture, 235–36
flextime, 232
future focus areas, 236
Global Opinion Survey, 232–33, 236
job share, 232
One Thing conversation, 233, 234, 236, 239
part time work, 232
regional approach, 235
telecommuting, 232
TM/OD team, 233–34
value-based culture of, 231
Work-Life Initiative, 233–34
latent class analysis (LCA), of personality, 77
leader behavior theory
consideration in, 250
for initiating structure and consideration, 250
leader-member exchange (LMX) theory, 26–27, 246, 247, 248, 250
employee's coping skills and, 245
family-supportive supervision and, 244–45
managerial work-family training and, 248
research on training leaders, 251
leadership
intervention research, 251
levels, alignment and coordination across, 251
studying over time, 251–52
work-family attitudes and outcomes influence by, 243–47
leadership theory and research, 6
leader behavior theory, 250
LMX theory, 26–27, 244–48, 250, 251
transformational leadership theory, 250
Lean In (Sandberg), 16, 479
leave. See also statutory leave
for dependent care, 272
paid, women impacted by, 482
policies for children with special needs, 175–76
legislation, for work-family
FMLA, 14, 201–2, 482
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, 14, 364
leisure time, 133
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population, 16, 363, 366, 480
level of control, 45t
Levine, James, 11, 12
Liberal welfare model, 301
family policy in, 174–75
workplace flexibility policies, 174
Lieberman, Matthew, 408, 411
Life-Career Rainbow, 378–79
life course factors, DOL and, 129
life-course perspective
on career, 379–82
of community research, 292–93
life roles
multiple, 109, 112
SWDC ratings on importance of, 187–88, 188t, 189
life satisfaction
community and, 291, 295
psychological detachment from work and, 98, 99
life-span, life-space theory of careers, 378–79
life stage, community and, 295
low-wage workers, as underrepresented populations, 363
macrolevel perspectives, on DOL, 132–34
research on, 136
macrosystems, 153, 292
management, 242
behavior patterns, 220
support, 463–64
managers. See also middle managers
burnout of, 147
effectiveness, Kellogg's Global Opinion Survey on, 232–33
flexibility support decline by, 208–9
ICT usage role, 340–41
support, work-life research on, 463–64
women positions of, 55, 229, 442
work-family training, 248–49
marital relationships, 293
community and, 294
marital satisfaction, 61
gender ideology and culture, 146
positive crossover and, 143
marital status
DOL influenced by, 128
gender and SWDC, 184
marital well-being, 130, 131
DOL and, 132
marriage, 3–4, 229
family business and, 436
men and women ratings on, 444f
premium, for men, 184
stability, family labor and, 58
status, work discrimination and, 184–85
masking norms, communicating impartiality, 82
matching model, of vocational choice, 377
materialistic individuals, work overload and, 74
maternal gatekeeping, 479
maternal well-being, 12
(p. 494) maternity leave, 305–6, 306f, 309t
Medicaid, 172
men
agentic characteristics, 54, 55
as breadwinner, 444
caregiving and household work, 125, 134, 445–46, 448–49
family domain participation, 125
family-friendly policy use, 446–47
health of, 203
marriage premium for, 184
in paid labor force, 54, 444
parent, marriage, career ratings, 444f
unequal DOL and, 126
unpaid labor role, 479
WF issues for, 7, 441–51
work identity, 58
workplace policies shaped by, 442
men, work-family issues for, 7
changing dynamics and, 443
changing role of fathers, 444–46
employer recommendations, 449–50
fathers' recommendations, 450–51
hourly work challenges, 447
key debates and knowledge gaps, 448–49
paternity leave for, 306, 447, 449, 450–52, 479
researchers' recommendations, 451
workplace and, 446–48
workplace culture realities, 448
Merchant, Nilofer, 468
mesosystems, 153, 292
methodology and measurement approaches, WF, 5, 36, 49
coding categories and process, 40–41, 43
current review comparisons, 45t
data collection methods issues, 37, 40–41, 45–47
in expansion years, in 2000s, 18
experience sampling, 18
frequency of work-family studies by journal, 39, 39t
in growth years, in 1990s, 15–16
in inception years, in 1970s and 1980s, 13
literature search and study criteria, 39
objective outcome measure issues, 37, 38–39, 41, 47–48
research design issues, 37, 40, 43–45
sampling issues, 37–38, 40, 41–43
shortcomings of, 36
WFC studies, 47
methods, in work-family research, 36–49, 44t, 45t
microsystems, 153, 292
middle-level management, 242–43
work-family interface influenced by, 250–51
middle managers, 147
employee attitudes and behavior influenced by, 246
front-line managers report to, 246
LMX theory and, 246–47
mindfulness-based interventions, for WFC, 482
Mind in the Making initiative, of FWI, 209–10
Mind the Making: The Seven Essential Life Skills Every Child Needs, of FWI, 210–11
mobile devices, 100
greater workload and, 334
modern family, 480–81
moods
reappraisal tendencies effectiveness, 83
spillover, 88
multigenerational family, 481
multilevel research, 41, 249–51, 267, 313
multinational organizations, work-family practice within, 6, 229–40
corporate culture, 235–36
CPG companies, 231
Kellogg Company, 231–36, 239
work-life effectiveness, 230–31
multiple data collection methods, 46
multiple data sources, 41
multiple life roles, 112
boundaries and, 109
multiple role participation theory, 407
multipliers application, rethinking time and, 482–83
multitasking, 404–5
multiwave research, 40, 43, 48
nano boundaries, for electronics, 105
national context
boundary management and, 324–25, 325t
WLE and, 322–23, 323t
work-life balance and, 323–24
national context, WLC and, 325–26
cultural factors, 316, 318–20, 321t
institutional and economic factors, 320–22
national context, work-life interface and
cultural factors, 316, 318–20, 321t
economic factors, 317
institutional factors, 316–17
national culture, 193, 218
National Dialogue on Workplace Flexibility (NDWF) forums, 208
National Institutes for Health (NIH), 355
national policies, on WF, 6
comparative studies, 301–2
cultural norms and values, 311–12
DOL and, 132
in European and non-European OECD countries, 301, 302, 303 [link] –305 [link] , 305, 312, 313
experiences, impact of, 309–13
family life support and, 302, 305–7
gender culture and, 310–11, 312
social class and, 312
social policies and, 300
static and dynamic approaches to, 307–9
traditional-family dimension, 302
WFC and, 310, 320–21
women employment participation increase, 312
workplace support and, 311, 313
National Study of Employers (NSE), of FWI, 202, 207, 208, 212–13, 255
National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW), of FWI, 202, 203, 207, 212, 366, 441
National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 166
negative affectivity (NA), 72, 75, 342, 419
negotiation process, for DOL, 135–36
neighborhood, 290, 291, 292
neuroscience perspective, of work-family interface, 6, 401–14
discussion on, 410–11
future research suggestions, 411–12
habits and, 410–11
principles of human behavior, 402–5
self-report in research, 411–12
variables for, 412–13
WFC neural processes, 404–6
work-family balance neural processes, 408–9
work-family enrichment neural processes, 406–8
NICHD Early Child Care Researchers Network, 15
Nippert-Eng, Christina, 111
no-fault divorce, 11
nonprobability sampling methods, 38
nonstandard work schedules
child age and, 158
child development and, 154, 156–57
gender and child behavioral problems, 158
psychological well-being and, 156–57
nonwork. See also work-nonwork
activities, by SWDC, 189–90, 189f, 190f
crises, 6, 419, 426
segmentation between work and, 110–11
(p. 495) Obama, Barack, 4
objective outcome measure issues, 37, 38–39, 41, 47–48
frequency of, 47t
objective strain, 167
Occupational Health Psychology (OHP), on work-family intervention research, 358
Occupational Information Network (O*NET) data, 18
One Simple Thing policy, of PepsiCo, 239–40, 462
One Thing conversation, at Kellogg Company, 233, 234, 236, 239
online boundary management, 115–16, 118
onsite childcare, 112, 115, 185, 272
organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB), 462
organizational climate, 225
challenging compared to dull work, 221
hierarchy, 221
interpersonal relationships nature, 221
leveraging of, for culture change, 221
management behavior patterns, 220
support and rewards focus, 221
work-family culture compared to, 220–21
for work-life effectiveness, 229–30
Organizational Climate Measure, 222
organizational culture
employee perceptions and, 220
formal supports, 458
work-life solutions within, 458–59
organizational dependent care support (ODCS), 6, 351, 354–55
availability of, 273, 277–78
benefits of care work, 280–81
choice for, 281
dependency for employees prevalence, 279–80
distal predictors of use, 278
equity-based and equality-based norms, 275
financial assistance, 272
FSOPs and, 250, 273, 275
identity and well-being theories, 281
level of need, 273–74
need and use focus, 279–81
need-based model, 6, 272, 274f, 282–83
need for, 275–77
nonuse of, 275
penalty and perception of penalty for use of, 278
primary research findings, 273
proximal and distal outcomes, 278–79, 283
qualitative RFD, 276–77
quantitative RFD, 276
reduced work hours for, 272
resources for, 272
stakeholders and, 279
theoretical foundations, 281–82
types of, 272
use of, 273, 275, 282–83
WFC and, 273, 282–83
organizational embodiment, 250–51
organizational health, 390
organizational leadership
coordination across levels, 247
executive-level managers, 243–44
front-line managers, 244–46
future research opportunities, 249–52
management, 242
middle-level, 147, 242–43
middle managers, 246–47
supervision, 242, 244–45, 248
trickle-down effect of, 246
work-family attitudes influence by, 243–47
work-family support, 247–49
organizational leadership future research, 249
leadership intervention research, 251
research across leadership levels, 250–51
studying leadership over time, 251–52
work-family research integration with LMX theory, 250
organizational outcomes, child outcomes impact on, 151
organizational practices, 5
dependent care support need-based model, 6, 272, 282–83, 284t
DOL lack of integration with, 135
leadership theory and research, 6
research-to-action approach, 6, 11, 199–213
work-family practice, in multinational organizations, 6
workplace flexibility practices, 6
workplace initiatives, 6
organizational variables, 413
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 125, 302
family database on work-family policies, 308
organizations and foundations, 161, 220, 403f
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 14, 204, 212
APA, 11, 86
building outdoor areas, for recovery, 104
Catalyst not-for-profit research, 11
CWF, 14, 442
Ford Foundation, 11, 12, 14, 15
recovery in, 104–5
resources of job control or social support, 104
scheduling work tasks during working hours, 104
SIOP, 11
training programs for recovery skills, 104–5
WFHN, 16, 18, 359, 389, 390, 393, 395, 397
WFRN, 16, 19, 24
W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 211
work-life solutions in culture of, 458–59
outcomes. See also children outcomes; work-family outcomes
cross-domain, 82
employee health, effective workplaces relationship with, 205f
employees, for workplace flexibility, 258–59
family, in community research, 293–94
general employer, for workplace flexibility, 259
home, emotional labor predicted by, 88–89
ICT, 335–37t
individual, in community research, 295
LMX desirable work-family, 245, 246
measures of, in work-family research, 38–39
objective measure issues, 37, 38–39, 41, 47–48, 47t
parent, 155
positive work, effective workplace relationship with, 205f
segmentation and work-nonwork integration, 116–17
of work, predicted by emotion work, 89–90
work-family, influenced by leadership, 243–47
work-family, intervention research, 352–53t, 356
work-family, social policies and, 301
work-family, technology and, 4, 240, 340–45
for work-nonwork boundaries, 109–10
out of school care, for children with special needs, 169
paid labor force, 133
assessment measurements for, 127
DOL and, 129
hours, career success and, 56
marital well-being and, 131
(p. 496)
married couples and, 3–4, 229
men in, 54, 444
pay relationship for women in, 57
WFC and life-stress, 56
women increase in, 3, 10–11, 55–56, 125, 229
paid leave policies, women impacted by, 482
parent. See also single parents
adolescent conflict, work demands and, 154
child development concerns, 151
-child interaction, 155–57, 161, 293, 364, 427
health behavior, job characteristics and, 156
outcomes, 155, 157
psychological functioning, unfavorable parenting behavior and, 158
parental leave, 129–30, 202f, 300, 479
employer size, 201
FMLA and, 201–2
length of leave, 201
national, 134, 311
in national policies, 306, 306f, 308, 308f
opponents of, 200
percentage of employers offering less than 12 weeks of, 202f
proponents of, 200
Temporary Disability Insurance for, 201
from 2008 to 2014, 203t
wage replacement, 201
women impacted by, 482
parenthood, transition to, 168
parenting values and behaviors, 12
parent work-family experiences
child age influence on, 158
child outcomes and, 153–55
child outcomes moderators of link, 158–59
children observation of, 160
on enhanced child outcomes, 155
family meal and child development, 157, 158
job characteristics, 153–54
organization, community, and society role in, 161
parent interaction with children and, 157
parent outcomes and, 155, 157
SCM on child outcomes and, 152f, 153
unfavorable parenting practices and, 157
work-family interface, 157–58
work schedule, 153, 156–57
Parsons, Talcott, 111
particularism resources, in SET, 25
part time work, 449
of Kellogg Company, 232
paternity leave, 306, 447, 449, 450–51, 479
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, of 2010, 203
patriarchal nuclear family, 110
peer advocates, system navigators, and peer supports, 171
penalties, for ODCS use, 278
PepsiCo One Simple Thing policy, 239–40, 462
Perlow, L. A., 117
permeability, in boundaries, 109, 114–15, 116, 338, 343
personal agency, 385
personality
DOL link to, 129
interactionist perspective and, 69
LCA use for examination of, 77
within-person variation in behavioral expressions, 77
personality and values, of worker, 5, 78
central traits role in work-family experience, 71–73, 75
conceptualization beyond incremental prediction, 76–77
defined, 68–69
DOL and, 129
future research directions, 75–76
Person x Situation view, 70
role of time, 77–78
secondary traits role in work-family experience, 73–74
tests of theories on, 76
theory on relation to work-family experiences, 69–71
values role in work-family experience, 74–75
personality and values theory, 69, 74, 78
PE fit theory and, 27–28, 70–71
value congruence, 70–71
personality theory, 69
personality traits, 73
personal resiliency, crisis and, 420, 427
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, 14, 364
person-centered perspective, 76–77
person-environment (PE) fit theory, 27–28, 70–71
person level, recovery and, 98, 99
Person x Situation view, in work-family experiences, 70
physical boundary work tactic, 112
policy impact, 300
politics of change, 223–25
positive affectivity (PA), 72, 75
positive crossover
broaden-and-build theory and, 142
of engagement and satisfaction, 141, 142, 143, 144
future research on, 147
JD-R Model and, 143
negative states and, 143
reciprocal mood crossover, 143
positive emotions, 401
positive interdependencies, between work and family, 60, 61
positive organizational scholarship (POS), 407
positive work outcomes, effective workplace relationship with, 205f
preemployment assessments, 247
prefrontal cortex (PFC), of brain, 405
prioritization, 405, 410
probability sampling methods, 38
processual change, 216–17, 217t, 223, 226
Procter, William Cooper, 236
Procter & Gamble (P&G), 236
Employer of Choice program, 239
flex@work program, 237–39
future areas of focus, 239
historical approach to work-life solutions, 237
productivity, integration decrease of, 117
professional part-time, 264–65
protean career model, 382, 443
Providence Public School Department (PPSD), 211–12
psychological detachment, from work, 98–101, 103, 161, 343
psychological strains, 140, 343–44, 378
psychological theories of vocational choice and career stages, 377–78
psychological well-being, nonstandard work schedule and, 156–57
psychophysiological theory, 408
public policies, 320–21
qualitative RFD, 276–77
Quality of Employment Survey (QES), of U.S. Department of Labor, 12, 212
quantitative RFD, 276
racial and ethnic differences
in caregiver strain, 167
in DOL, 128–29
radical change, work-family initiatives and, 225
reciprocal mood crossover, 143
recovery, from family demands in work domain, 95, 101–2
recovery, from work in family domain
activities and experiences contributing to, 97–99, 101, 103–4, 190f
benefits of, 96–97
individual differences and work-situation factors, 98, 99
(p. 497)
WFC and work-family facilitation, 100–101
work-family boundaries and, 99–100
recovery, work-family interface and, 5, 95–106
benefit for employees' job functioning, 95
COR approach, 96, 147
definition, 96
Effort-Recovery Model, 96
employees regeneration from work, 95
research agenda, 103–5
role segmentation, 96
settings, activities and experiences, 96
spillover processes, 96
WFC, 96, 103
work-family enrichment, 96, 97
recovery activities and experiences, 190f
family-related, 97
household and childcare activities, 87
ICT, 98
person and day level for, 98
relaxation, mastery, control, 98
sleep, 96, 101
social activities, 97
sports and exercise, 97, 99
WFC and, 96, 103
work activities during time at home, 97–98, 99
for work performance outcomes, 101
work-to-family facilitation and, 103–4
recovery implications for organizations, families, individuals, 104–5
reduced-load work, 264–65
reduced time 2005-2014, 209f
Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), 403
Reinventing You: Define Your Brand, Imaging Your Future (Clark), 476
relative resources theory, for DOL, 127, 135
theory of marital power and decision making, 128
research. See also cross-national research; work-life research
academic, 11–18, 466–76
community, 289–95, 297
dissemination, 472
events-based, 29
multilevel, 41, 249–51, 267, 313
multiwave, 40, 43, 48
practice concerns and, in change context, 218–19
research, DOL future
additional correlates introduction, 135–36
on integration with other literature and theoretical frameworks, 134–35
macrolevel, 136
research design, in work-family research
data collection methods, 36, 40–41, 44t, 45–47, 45t
level of control, 40, 43, 43t
levels of analysis, 41, 44t
Pearson chi-square tests, 43
study setting, 40
time horizon, 40, 44t
triangulation, 44t
research-to-action approach, by FWI, 6, 11, 199–213
action plan, 200
on effective workplaces, 202–9
methodology of, 200
parental leave legislation, 200–202
subject in, 199–200
work practice decentralization, 6
resource and referral (R&Rs) services, 115
resource drain mechanism, 87, 88, 102
respite services, 171–72, 176
responsibility for dependents (RFD), 275–77, 368
Results Only Work Environment (ROWE), 355, 393, 457, 473
reticular activating system (RAS), of brain, 403
return on investment (ROI), organizational, 349, 357
Rokeach value survey, 74
role conflict
with childcare, 379
in family business, 433, 434, 437
role conflict theory, 15, 266–67
role modeling behaviors, as FSSB, 245, 246
role segmentation, psychological detachment from work and, 96, 99, 100
same-sex couples, 129, 366, 480
sampling issues, in work-family research, 40
importance of considering, 37–38
nonprobability sampling methods, 38
probability sampling methods, 38
respondents to nonrespondents comparison, 38
response rate report, 38, 42
sample characteristics comparison to source population, 38
sampling method, 38, 41–42, 42t
source population, 37–38, 43
target population, 37, 43
unknown sources, 38
Sandberg, Sheryl, 16, 479
satisfaction
job, 61, 231, 344, 460
life, 98, 99, 291, 295
marital, 61, 143, 146
as positive crossover, 141, 142
schedule control, 395
ROWE on, 355
work redesign initiatives to increase, 355
schedule flexibility, 392–93
Schein, Edgar, 219–20
school resources, in community, 293, 294, 295
science translation into practice, 7
secondary traits, in work-family experience, 74
guilt role, 73, 89
trait mindfulness, 73
The Second Shift (Hochschild, S. E.), 12
segmentation, 338, 345
behaviors, 100
blurring of boundaries in new world of work, 115
bureaucracy and, 110–11
integration compared to, 111
-integration continuum, 113t
norms, 100
preferences for, 103, 112–13
social media, 118
strategies, 105
transparency and authenticity, 115–16
work-life integration pitfalls, 117–18
work-nonwork integration and work-life outcomes, 116–17
segmentation, between work and nonwork
myth of separate spheres, 111
separation of work from life, 110
theorization of, 110–11
Selection, Optimization and Compensation (SOC) meta-theory, 483
self-esteem between partners, 144–45
self-expansion theory, 144
self-other rating agreement, 28
self-regulation capacity, 88
self-scheduling. See schedule control
Sen, Amartya, 313
sensemaking, 224
sense of community, 291, 292
separate spheres, of WF, 111
setting, 45t
sexual selection theory, 29
Shellenbarger, Sue, 13
sibling rivalry, in family business, 435
(p. 498) single parents, as underrepresented population, 363, 366, 443
economic challenges, 365
schedule flexibility, 365
single workers without dependent children (SWDC), 5
activities during nonwork time, 190f
demographic characteristics of, 187t
discrimination and fairness at work, 184–86
eldercare, 183–84, 192, 193
employer-sponsored work-life benefits, 190–91, 191t, 192
family and relationships, 183, 191–92, 193
family and work ratings comparison, 188–89, 188f
family-friendly backlash and, 185, 192
fictive kin of, 183
flexibility or time off, 186, 192
friends and extended family bonds, 183
future research limitations and directions, 192–93
inclusion in work-life policy implementation, 186
interface between work and life, 183
interview methodology and findings, 186–92
life role importance ratings, 187–88, 188t, 189
literature review for, 183
loneliness of, 183
national culture and, 193
nonwork time with persons, 189–90, 189f
study participants, 186
voluntary kin, 192
work inclusion of, 185–86
work opportunities and, 186
Slaughter, Anne Marie, 16
Sleeping with Your Smartphone (Perlow), 117
smartphones, 100
social activities, for recovery, 97
social capital, of community, 291
social change, in community, 296
social-cognitive career theory (SCCT), 379, 381–82, 385
social-cognitive neuroscience, 411
social democratic welfare regime, 301
social-exchange theory (SET), 25–27
socialization/gender role ideology, on DOL, 127
social learning theory, 411
social media, 467
academic writing adaptation to, 469–73
boundaries and, 109, 115
integration and, 118
transparency and, 115–16
social model, of disability, 166
social networks
broadening of, 469
of communities, 291
social norms, 111
social organization, of communities, 291
social policies, 300, 305
static and dynamic approaches to, 307–9
work-family outcomes and, 301
social roles, of employees, 55
social role theory, 54
social support, neural processes for, 407–8
societal trends, 9, 10–11, 13–14, 16, 18–19
Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), 204
When Work Works project of FWI and, 204–9
on workplace flexibility, 351
Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), 11, 86, 462
socioeconomic status (SES)
health disparities and, 363
parent work-family experiences and, 158–59
source population, 43, 48
spatial boundaries, 112
spillover, 96, 160, 161, 244
community and, 294
defined, 140
of emotions, 81
gender and, 89
of moods, 88
parental negative, adolescent and, 155
positive, 482
technology and, 341–42
between work and home, 82, 87–91
Spillover-Crossover Model (SCM), 141f, 143–44, 146, 147, 152f, 159
spousal interactions, gender role and, 145–46
State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 172
The State of Health of the American Workforce: Does Having an Effective Workplace Matter, of FWI, 203
State Parental Leave Study, by FWI, 200
Status, Certainty, Autonomy, Relatedness, and Fairness (SCARF) model, 408–10, 413
statutory leave, 259, 302, 303 [link] –305 [link]
maternity leave, 305–6, 306f, 309f
parental leave, 129–30, 134, 200–202, 202f, 203t, 300, 306, 306f, 308f, 311, 479, 482
paternity leave, 306, 447, 449, 450–51, 479
stigmatization, 168, 173, 367, 371
strain-based conflict, 103
strain hypothesis, on employee health, 395–96
strategic HR practices
coordination across leadership levels, 247
exit interviews, 247
IBM example, 247–48
for ODCS, 277
preemployment assessments, 247
WLJA for, 247
stress, 405–6
crossover and, 140, 141
positive emotions and, 142
theories, 13
WF comparison of, 87
structural theories, 378
subjective externalized strain, 167
subordination, of worker, 110
substitution theory, 183, 190
supervision, 242, 244–45, 248
supervisor. See also middle-level management
-associated, work-family intervention research, 483
i-deals of employees and, 245–46, 248–49
value similarity between employee and, 70–71, 74–75
supervisor-subordinate
boundary management similarity, 75
crossover, 248
surface acting technique, in emotional labor, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89
surface-level diversity, 76
Survey of Ohio's Working Families study, 102
system justification theory, 479–80
system of care model, in children's mental health, 173
Talent Management and Organizational Development (TM/OD) team, 233–34
target population, 43, 48
technology
boundaries and, 109, 115
boundary theory and management, 337–39, 345
cross-domain ICT use predictors, 339–40
future research on, 345–46
information communication, 6
Kellogg's Global Opinion Survey on impact of, 233, 236
overview of use of, 334, 337
spillover and crossover, 341–42
work-life solutions and, 460
work structure and, 13–14
technology, work-family outcomes and, 4, 240, 340 (p. 499)
flexibility, control, and productivity, 341, 345
job attitudes, 344–45
psychological strain, 343–44
teleworking context, 341, 343, 344–45
work-nonwork conflict, 341–42
technology acceptance model (TAM), 339
telecommuting, 115, 232, 482
telework, 264, 333–34
boundary theory and management in, 339
technology and, 341, 343, 344–45
WFC and, 354
Telework Enhancement Act (the Act), of 2010, 223
temporal boundaries, 112–14
Temporary Disability Insurance, 201