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date: 18 February 2020

(p. 559) Index

(p. 559) Index

Page numbers followed by f or t indicate a figure or table on the designated page

absolute accuracy, 39, 452
research on, 40–41
absolute judgment accuracy, 30, 35n1, 67
factors influencing, 68–70
in older adults, 522–23
accessibility, 87–88, 89, 90, 301n2, 481
accuracy, 24, 32, 33, 358. See also absolute accuracy; absolute judgment accuracy; judgment accuracy
of CJs, 128, 129–30
of metamemory states, 8, 9
of monitoring, 35, 207–8
quantity-accuracy trade-off, 174t, 176f, 183, 360
relative metacognitive, 52
accuracy-oriented approach, 358
Ackerman, R., 15, 180, 367, 507
acquisition, 201
actions, 9
Adams, A., 280, 526
additivity, 114
ADHD combined type (ADHD-C), 476
ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I), 476
Adiv, S., 15
adolescents. See metacognitive knowledge
Adrales, K., 511
adult egocentrism, 290
affect, 255f, 259f
closing remarks on, 263
conceptualization of, 248
curiosity and, 254–55
fluency and, 260–61
future directions for, 263
introduction to, 245–46
metacognitive difficulty and, 257
metacognitive feelings and, 248–50
mood effects and, 251–63
remembered utility and, 253–54
self-concept and, 257–59
stimulus emotionality and, 250–51
surprise and, 255–57
underlying mechanisms of, 259–63
Agarwal, P. K., 211
age-invariance, 84
agency, 419–20, 467
agenda-based regulation (ABR), 209, 327, 328–29, 330
agentic tasks, 438–39
Age X Condition, 433, 439
aging, 32t, 519. See also older adults
Ahmad, M., 502
akinetic mutism, 412
Alban, M. W., 392
Alexander, K. W., 395
Allendoerfer, K. R., 280
Allman, J., 421
Allwood, C. M., 177
Alter, A. L., 250
alternative outcomes effect, 111t
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 17, 451–52, 453t, 454t, 455t, 459f
anosognosia in, 463–64
conclusion to, 467–69
control in, 462–63
experimental findings on, 452–67
fractionation of metacognition in, 458–60
future directions for, 468–69
monitoring and, 461–62
overconfidence and, 452–57
recollection and, 460–61
sensitivity approach and, 457–58, 458f
amnesic patients, 474
anagrams, 206–7
analogous retrieval warnings, 391
analytic reasoning, 250
anchoring and adjustment, 292t
ancient Greeks, 7
Anderson, J. R., 277
Andrews, S., 162
angular gyrus (AnG), 437
animal metacognition, 269–70, 279f
approaches to, 270–74
in comparative context, 282–84
conclusion to, 284–85
disrupted encoding increasing escape responses and, 280–81
knowing and remembering, 277–78
memory-based information-seeking responses and, 274–77
prospective CJs and, 281
RCJs and, 281
remembering samples or not, 278–80
serial list items and, 280
animations, 205
anosognosia, 451–52, 455, 456, 473
in AD, 463–64
conclusion to, 467–69
future directions for, 468–69
implicit awareness and, 466–67
models of, 464–66, 465f
Ansay, C., 312
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 408, 410, 411–17, 413f, 415f, 416f
anxiety, 475
disorders, 474
aphasics, 415
applied metamemory, 17
applied settings, 493, 505, 513
Arbuckle, T. Y., 14, 66, 67, 71, 73, 76
area under ROC curve (AUC), 56–58
Ariel, R., 209, 329, 548
Aristotle, 7
Arnal, J. D., 397
Arnold, N. R., 158
arousal, fluency-related, 261–62
assessed probabilities, 128
Aßfalg, A., 15
associative mediator-based strategies, 165
associative memory, 161, 541
Atance, C., 300
attention
deployment of, 122–23
divided, 119, 120
PAM, 219–21, 222t, 236
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 474, 476
autism, 474, 476–77, 483
autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 476
autobiographical conceptual memory system (ACMS), 464
autobiographical memories, 388, 399n1
autobiographical tasks, 388–89, 395
automatic assimilation, 292, 292t
automatic processing, 235
autonoetic consciousness, 460–61
autonoetic metacognition, 419
(p. 560) awareness
CAM, 464, 465f, 467
conscious, 247
implicit, 17, 463, 466–67
metamemory, 247, 473, 479–83, 480f, 482f
self-awareness, 478
spontaneous metacognitive, 407
Azevedo, R., 251, 334
BA10. See Brodman Area 10
Babinski, Joseph, 451
Babinski syndrome, 468
back-end control, 357, 358–69
control of grain size and, 364–67
control of report option and, 359–64, 359f, 360f
cued-recall performance and, 372–74, 373t
dual-criterion satisficing model and, 367–68, 368f
research applications, 369
Bäckman, L., 458, 459, 460
Bacon, E., 16, 17, 409, 478, 479, 480, 481
Baddeley, A. D., 435
Bahrami, B., 143
Bahrick, H. P., 378
Bakker, A., 237
Balota, D. A., 86, 318, 541
Bandura, A., 257
Bar, S. K., 261, 319
Bar-Anan, Y., 254
Baron-Cohen, S., 476
Bartlett, F. C., 358, 387
Basile, B. M., 275, 284
Bassili, J. N., 143
Batchelder, E., 159
Batchelder, W. H., 152, 159
Bawa, S., 320
Bayen, U. J., 15, 16, 27, 151, 152, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 232
Beal, C. R., 497
Beck, E. F., 501
Becker, A. S., 251
Begg, I., 316
beliefs
false, 299
about learning, 198–200
memory, 543, 552
about memory, 347
preexisting, 343, 344t
social, 137, 142
source guessing and, 155–60
Belli, R. S., 155
Benjamin, A. S., 73, 75, 163, 308, 313, 314, 317, 318, 319, 320, 479, 544
Benoit, G. E., 396
Beran, M. J., 15, 277, 281
Bernstein, D. M., 15, 300
Besken, M., 29
Best, C. A., 477
between-subjects comparison, 187
Beyth, R., 289
bias. See also hindsight bias
background of, 109–11
calibration, 362, 364
conservatism and, 114–16
decisions from experience and, 121–22
deployment of attention and, 122–23
general discussion of, 121
habitual, 312
historical viewpoints on, 109–11
hypotheses guided information search and, 122–23
instructional, 188
memory as primitive, 121–23
memory-process account of confidence and probability judgment, 111–14, 111t
multimedia, 205
overconfidence and, 116–17
overconfidence bias, 142
scaling, 44–45
scores, 31–33
sources of, 114–21
subadditivity and, 117–21
summary of, 123
biased memory search, 292t
bilateral IFC, 89
binary betting, 47, 49
binary JOLs, 45–46, 47
binary tasks, 51–52
Bird, J. E., 313
Bisanz, G. L., 310, 506
Bjork, E. L., 202, 210, 211, 316, 317, 319
Bjork, R. A., 13, 15, 68, 199, 200, 210, 313, 329, 331, 341
Bjorklund, D. F., 501
Blank, K., 292, 294, 296
blank-in-the-mind states, 96, 104, 105–6
blank retrieval, 370
blended classrooms, 334
blockers, 349
blocking, 528
Bobrow, D. G., 539
Boburka, R. R., 297
Bol, L., 204
bonobos, 275
Borkowski, J. G., 492, 497
Bothwell, R. K., 184
Botvinick, M., 412
Botwinick, J., 520
Bouazzaoui, B., 547
Boywitt, C. D., 161
Brainerd, C. J., 397
Brandt, M., 237, 293
Brennen, T., 97
Brewer, N., 179, 181, 186, 187, 315
Brier, G. W., 30, 41
Brigham, J. C., 184
Brigham, M. C., 320, 521
Broca’s area, 415
Bröder, A., 154, 293
Brodman Area 10 (BA10), 408, 410, 418, 421
Brown, A. S., 1, 7, 11, 96, 97, 101, 466, 491, 492, 499, 500, 510
Bruce, P. R., 520
Brunswik, E., 27
Buchner, A., 293
Bulevich, J. B., 392
Bull, R., 182, 183
Bunnell, J. K., 521
Burgess, P. W., 369
Burson, K. A., 32
Buschke Cued Recall Procedure, 455
Butler, A., 200, 211
Buttaccio, D. A., 14
Butterfield, B., 412, 504
Cadieux, M. J., 316
calibration, 27, 39, 110, 174t, 185, 380n3, 457
absolute accuracy and, 40
analyses, 187
bias, 362, 364
of CJs, 142
confidence criteria and, 41
curve, 41, 42f, 128, 176
good, 52, 109, 186
index, 30
mapping 1 and, 59
miscalibration, 128
monitoring and, 366
plots, 177
of RCJs, 51
recalibration hypothesis, 46–48
research on, 110
resolution versus, 207–8
SCM and, 135
UWP and, 45
Calkins, Mary Whiton, 7, 17
Call, J., 274, 275, 276, 277
Calvillo, D. P., 292, 296
capacity, 475
capuchin monkeys, 272, 273, 275, 277, 278, 283
Carpenter, M., 206, 274, 275, 276, 277
Carrier, L. M., 199
Carroll, M., 68, 162
Carruthers, P., 283
Castel, A. D., 67, 68, 70, 74, 203, 208, 209, 349, 457, 523, 548
older adults and, 17, 314
part-list cuing and, 320
Castro, L., 273
Catani, M., 421
categorization strategies, 498
category cues, 69
category judgments, 45, 140, 142
causal attribution, 501
causal model theory (CMT), 296
cause heuristic, 159
Cavanaugh, J. C., 494
ceiling effects, 177
Chasteen, A. L., 235
checker OCD, 475
children, 9–10, 275. See also metacognitive knowledge
with autism, 476
JOLs and, 66
theory of mind and, 299–300
chimpanzees, 274, 275, 277, 278
choice latency, 135, 138
choosing rate, 174t
Chrabaszcz, J. S., 14
chronic fatigue syndrome, 474
Claparede, E., 467, 468
Clare, L., 467
classical judgments, 14–15
classroom-based studies, 211
Cleary, A. M., 14, 98, 101, 102, 103, 105, 250
Clifford, B. R., 173
Coffman, J. L., 509
cognitive awareness model (CAM), 464, 465f, 467
cognitive effort, 249
cognitive interruption, 256
cognitive interviews, 181–82, 393
cognitive neuroscience. See also source monitoring framework
conclusion to, 442
cutting edges and, 440–42, 440t
extensions and applications, 441–42
functional connectivity between brain regions and, 439
future directions for, 440–42, 440t
LPPC and, 435–37, 435f, 436f
PFC and, 437–39
reinstatement effects and, 432–35
specificity and, 441
Cognitive Neuroscience, 426
Cognitive Tutor™, 334
Cohen, L., 297
Cohen, S., 313, 317
coherence theories, 144
collateral knowledge effects, 397–99
collateral recollection effects, 396–97
combined contributions, 88–90
commission errors, 84, 233–34
comparative cognition, 283
comparative psychology, 278
compensation, for perceived poor memory, 159–60, 160t
comprehension monitoring, 327
computer-based training systems, 334
conceptual tasks, 438–39
conditional metacognitive knowledge, 492
confidence, 26t. See also overconfidence; subjective confidence; underconfidence
commonly observed effects and, 111t
criteria, 41, 52–58
cutoffs, 41
FOC, 452, 460
hypercorrection of high-confidence errors, 295
MCS, 143
memory-process account of, 111–14
minimum-confidence criterion, 367
older adults and, 529–30, 530f
preexisting confidence in memory, 344–47, 346f
RC, 26, 34, 183–84, 185
response latency and, 135–37
response repetition and, 139
source-attribution, 163
within-person consistency and, 137–39
confidence/accuracy (C/A), 128, 130, 142–43, 174t, 184–86
confidence judgments (CJs), 109, 127, 500, 504–5, 547
accuracy of, 128, 129–30
bases of, 128–29
calibration of, 142
consensuality principle and, 141–42
inaccuracy of, 129–30
prospective, 281
confidence main-effect issue, 173
confidence resolution, 52–58
conformity, group pressure toward, 143
Connor, L., 32, 86, 87, 392, 457, 521, 546, 547, 553
conscious awareness, 247
conscious knowledge, 491
consensuality principle, 130, 141–42
consensually-correct (CC), 130, 141–42, 143
consensually-wrong (CW), 130, 141–42
consensus
consistency and, 140
cross-person, 135–37
interparticipant, 139–40
item consensus, 133, 135, 136f
conservatism, 111t, 114–16
consistency. See also self-consistency model
consensus and, 140
full, 138
item consistency, 132, 133, 138, 138f
source-item, 157–58
within-person, 137–39
contemporary knowledge, 459
context, 236–37
contextual information, 85
contingency-based source guessing, 157, 160t
control, 12, 174t. See also back-end control; front-end control; quality-control processes
in AD, 462–63
development of, 505
in education, 200–209
of event memory, 178–83
of eyewitness identification, 188–91
of grain size, 364–67
intentional forgetting and, 342
JOLs and, 65–66
of memory, 15–16
metaintentions and, 228t, 231–38
monitoring and, 34–35, 82f, 83
older adults and, 537–54
of one’s own learning, 208–9
PFC and, 437–39
policy, 362, 363
processes of, 26, 26t, 34–35
of report option, 359–64, 359f, 360f
of retrieval, 24
sensitivity, 360, 362–63, 481
of study, 24
control affects monitoring (CM), 507
controlled forgetting strategies, 343–44
convergence, 283
converging evidence, 52
core questions, 23–25, 24t
Cornoldi, C., 310
Correa, D., 455
correlations, 34
correspondence theories, 144
corroboration
collateral knowledge effects and, 397–99
collateral recollection effects and, 396
Corsale, K., 498
Cortical Midline Structures, 419
Cosentino, S., 468
cost, 218–22
Costermans, J., 312
Cotel, S. C., 397
Coursera, 335
Covey, J. A., 176, 177
Coyne, A. C., 520
Craik, F. I. M., 69, 314, 316, 418
creeping determinism, 290, 296
criterial recollection task, 394
criterion performance, 27, 28f, 31, 34
criterion shift account, 189, 364
criterion tests, 33
Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, 139
cross-person consensus, 135–37
Crowley, M., 483
crows, 281
Cuddy, L. L., 14, 66, 67, 71, 73, 76
cue diagnosticity, 27, 28f
cued recall, 69
free recall versus, 318–19
performance, 372–74, 373t
cue familiarity, 87, 89, 90
cue utilization, 27, 28f, 48–51, 73, 202, 500, 503
curiosity, 254–55
curse of knowledge, 206, 211, 290, 526
Cutler, B., 184
D’Angelo, M. C., 250
Daniels, K. A., 526
(p. 562) Danion, J. M., 479
Daprati, E., 479
Dar, R., 475
Darwin, C. R., 249
data
analysis and interpretation of, 27–35
major collection methods of, 25–27
PDB, 464
dated knowledge, 459
Davelaar, E. J., 314
Davidson, P. S., 161
Davis, E. S., 414
Davis, M. L., 313
decision by sampling, 121
decisions from experience, 121–22
decision-variable partition model, 41
declarative metacognitive knowledge, 473, 491, 492, 493
development of, 494–99
ToM and, 494
declarative metamemory, 259, 494
Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM), 380n5, 388, 396, 399
defensive processing, 292t, 297, 298
Deffenbacher, K. A., 184
DeForrest, R., 230, 232
déjà vu, 96, 101–4, 408, 410, 411
Delaney, P. F., 344, 347
delayed JOL effect, 33, 72, 204, 230, 477, 501, 543, 553
delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS), 278, 284
Dell’Acqua, F., 421
de Marcas, G., 461
DeMarie, D., 509
dementia, 237, 464, 466, 467
Denhiere, G., 310
Denny, B., 419
Department of Education, 335
deployment of attention, 122–23
depression, 474–75, 483
Descartes, R., 408, 417, 420, 421n2
descriptive cues, 69
desirable difficulties, 2, 210
Destan, N., 505
development, of metamemory, 17
Devine, P. G., 188
Devolder, P. A., 521
DeWinstanley, P. A., 211, 316, 317
DF benefits, 343
DF costs, 343
diary studies, 97
different-dimensions hypothesis, 49, 50
difficulty, 238
desirable, 2, 210
feeling of, 248–50, 249f, 253
metacognitive, 257
digger wasps (Philanthus triangulum), 409
digital environments, self-regulated learning in, 334–35
dimensional attributes, 91
direct-access approach, 8, 43, 73, 97, 128, 129, 202
directed forgetting (DF), 342
item-method studies, 348–53
list-method studies, 343–48, 344t, 346f
direct retrieval, 129, 377
discrepancy
detection of, 411–17, 413f, 415f, 416f
reliability-validity, 142
discrepancy plus attribution, 220
discrepancy reduction (DR), 209, 310, 311, 313, 327, 328–29
discrimination failure, 120
disfluency, 246, 250, 259, 260
disfluent condition, 206
displeasure, 248
distinctiveness, 393–95
distinctive processing, 7
distribution shift, 364
divided attention, 119, 120
Dixon, R. A., 10
doctor-lawyer paradigm, 156–57, 157f, 163
Dodson, C. A., 394, 498
Do Lam, A. T. A., 410, 414, 418
Dolan, R. P., 410
dolphins, 271, 271f
Donders, K., 164
dorsal LPPC, 435
Dougherty, M. R., 14, 77, 114, 120, 312, 314
Minerva-DM and, 111, 112, 116
PRAM and, 76
WM and, 118
dropping items, from further study, 330–31
drug use, 234
dual-criterion satisficing model, 367–68, 368f
dualism, 417
dual-task performance, 100
DuCharme, W. M., 114, 115
due dates, 326, 326f
Dufresne, A., 313, 506
Duke, M., 457
Dunlosky, J., 13, 75, 313, 316, 331, 522, 541, 542, 543, 544, 547, 553
delayed JOL effect and, 72, 230
discrepancy reduction hypothesis and, 209, 310, 311
emotionality and, 251
history of metamemory and, 7
JOL accuracy and, 32, 33
multimedia bias and, 205
PRAM and, 67
retrospective memory and, 223
study strategies and, 199, 200
timing of JOLs and, 71
Dupuis, S. E., 156
Dybdahl, R., 97
Dywan, J., 358
Eakin, D. K., 528
early selection, 369, 442n6
ease of learning (EOL), 26t, 251, 500–501, 545, 545f
Ebbinghaus, H., 358
ecological models, 112
ecphory, 370
Edry, E., 461
education, 510–11. See also self-regulated learning
accuracy of monitoring and, 207–8
conclusions to, 211–12
control in, 200–209
controlling one’s own learning, 208–9
future directions for, 211–12
introduction to, 197–98
JOLs and, 201–6
monitoring in, 200–209
predicting others’ performance and, 206–7
self-regulated learning and, 210–11
students’ beliefs about learning, 198–200
edX, 335
Efklides, A., 15, 105, 106, 246, 251, 253, 255, 256, 258, 262
Ehrenberg, K., 157
Einstein, G. O., 218, 220, 221, 234
Eisenhauer, M., 293
Ellis, H. C., 251
Elwood, K. D., 318
emotion, 15, 245
stimulus emotionality, 250–51
emotionally conscious experience, 412
emotional material, 526–27
emotional reactivity, 466
empiricism, 143
empty intervals, 349
encoding, 16, 158, 427–29, 428f
disrupted, 280–81
effects, 111t
eyewitness identification and, 184
influences on JOL magnitude, 69–70
metaintentions and, 223–24
source, 160–62
specificity of, 434
tactical strategies and, 315
termination of session, 313
Engen, T., 104
England, B. D., 76
enriched model of metacognition, 247
environmental support, 547, 549f
epilepsy, 103
episodic FOK, 83, 84f, 460
episodic memory, 99, 112, 387, 388, 399n1, 479, 527
epistemic egocentrism, 290
Epley, N., 250
Epstein, W., 204
equal-variance (EV), 54f
Erdfelder, E., 293
Erev, I., 116
(p. 563) Ernst, A., 17
escape option, 276
evaluation
idiosyncratic distinctiveness and, 395–96
source distinctiveness effects and, 393–95
Evans, J. R., 180
event-based tasks, 219
event memory, 171, 191
control of, 178–83
monitoring of, 173–78
event recall, 173–83
event-related potential (ERP), 432
executive anosognosia, 465
expectation condition, 501
expected retention intervals, 319–20, 319f
expected-utility maximizing model, 365
experience-based approach, 128, 129
experience-based judgments, 74, 500
expertise
effects, 111t
older adults and, 526–27
explanatory questioning, 333
explicit knowledge, 491
explicit memory, 478
exposure via experience, 316–17
exposure via instruction, 316
external sources, of information, 150
extrinsic cues, 73
extrinsic source features, 161
eyewitness identification
control of, 188–91
monitoring and, 183–88
eyewitness memory, 11, 15, 171–72, 504
conclusions to, 191–92
event recall and, 173–83
methodology in, 172–73
terms used in studies of, 174t, 175t
eyewitness testimony, 393
Eyre, R. N., 250
Eyssell, K., 297
face recognition, 477, 528
factual knowledge, 491
false alarm rates (FARs), 47, 50, 53, 55
false beliefs, 299
false identification, 188–89
false memories, 11, 231, 380n5, 387–88, 389t, 390f, 431–32
corroboration and, 396–99
evaluation and, 393–96
false memory tasks and, 388–89
orientation and, 390–93, 391f, 393f
false memory tasks
autobiographical tasks, 388–89
DRM tasks, 388
misinformation tasks, 388
prevention of, 390
familiarity, 43, 295, 388, 396
of cues, 87, 89, 90
Gestalt familiarity hypothesis, 102, 103
older adults and, 529–30
Farrant, A., 229
fast processing, 261
Fawcett, J. M., 348
feeling of confidence (FOC), 452, 460
feeling of difficulty, 248–50, 249f, 253
feeling of knowing (FOK), 26, 26t, 81–82, 312, 409, 415, 417, 474, 483, 500, 503–4
accessibility and, 87–88, 301n2
AD and, 452, 459
combined contributions and, 88–90
concluding remarks to, 90–92
consensuality principle and, 141
cue familiarity and, 87
curiosity and, 254
episodic, 83, 84f, 460
future retrieval and, 82–85
Hart and, 8
inferential basis for, 86–88
internal monitor and, 85–86
mPFC and, 418
as multiply determined, 88–90
OCD and, 475
older adults and, 527–28, 538
relative accuracy of, 33, 84
schizophrenia and, 481–82, 482f
feeling of rightness, 462
feeling states, 407
Ferrell, W. R., 41
Fiechter, J. L., 317, 319
Finger, K., 395
Finke, R., 155
Finley, J. R., 318
Finn, B., 16, 49, 75, 208, 209, 253
first-candidate target percent, 376, 377, 381n10
Fischhoff, B., 110, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 296
Fisher, R. P., 173, 180
Fisk, A. D., 234
Flavell, J., 1, 2, 9, 11, 66, 246, 310, 491–94, 496, 500, 505, 506
Fleming, S. M., 410, 418
flipped classrooms, 334
floor effects, 177
fluency, 202, 246, 258, 259, 261–62
affect and, 260–61
conceptualization of, 260
fluent condition, 206
Foley, M. A., 154
font size, 27, 29, 203, 264n6, 349, 350, 458
forced-choice tasks, 109, 176
forced report, 189, 380n1
forensic psychology, 127
forget cue, 343
forget-did-nothing, 343
forget group, 343
forgetting, 16, 341, 527. See also metaforgetting
judgments of, 75
format dependence, 111t, 122
Foster, D. P., 16, 179, 180, 344, 349, 351, 368
Fotopoulou, A., 463
Frankovich, L., 316
Fraundorf, S. H., 314
Frederick, S., 46
Fredrickson, D. L., 253
Freeman, K., 317, 457
free narrative, 174t, 180, 182
free recall, 183, 360, 380n1
cued recall versus, 318–19
free report, 174t, 189, 359, 380n1
Friedrichs, A. G., 66
Frijda, N., 248
Frith, C. D., 479
Froger, C., 547, 550
frontal lobe lesions, 474
frontal-parietal networks, 90
front-end control, 357–58
cued-recall performance and, 372–74, 373t
empirical findings and, 374–79
metacognitive framework of, 369–72
frowning, 249
Fujita, K., 277, 278
full consistency, 138
functional connectivity, between brain regions, 439
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 410, 414, 419, 421, 432–34, 442, 442n1
fusiform face area (FFA), 428
future retrieval, 82–85
Fux, M., 475
Gabrieli, J. D. E., 414
Gales, M. S., 155
Gallo, D. A., 11, 16, 391, 392, 394, 395, 397, 399
game-based learning, 334, 335
game show paradigm, 83, 83f
gamma, 174t
Goodman-Kruskal co-efficient, 53, 55f, 67, 70, 363
Garcia, T., 10
García-Bajos, E., 177
Gaussian distributions, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58
Geary, D. C., 511
Geiselman, R. E., 393
gender, height and, 114–15, 115t
Gendolla, G. H. E., 251
general-knowledge (GK), 51, 52
generate-recognize strategy (G-R), 377, 378
(p. 564) generation, 70
effect, 198, 316
failure, 378
of hypotheses, 112
Gerler, D., 87
Gestalt familiarity hypothesis, 102, 103
Ghatala, E. S., 502
Ghetti, S., 395, 505
Gil, R., 460
Gilbert, D. T., 254
Gilewski, M. J., 10
Girard, T. A., 479
gJOL. See global JOL
Glenberg, A. M., 204
Glisky, E. L., 161
global JOL (gJOL), 456f
Glucksberg, S., 312
goal-directed memory decisions, 435
goals, 9
Goldfarb, K., 87
Goldsmith, M., 16, 129, 178–80, 191, 359, 362, 365, 367, 442n5, 551
Gollwitzer, P. M., 235
Gomes, D. M., 296
good calibration, 52, 109, 186
Good Information-Processing Model, 492, 511
Goodman-Kruskal gamma co-efficient, 53, 55f, 67, 70, 363
Goodmon, L. B., 344
Google Scholar, 1
Goto, K., 281, 284
grade point averages (GPA), 200
grain size, 174t, 179, 180, 181, 301n1, 359, 391, 442n5
control mechanisms and, 367
control of, 364–67
empirical findings and, 365–66
metacognitive framework and, 364–65
monitoring effectiveness and, 366
performance consequences and, 366
Grammer, J. K., 509
Granhag, P. A., 176
Gray, S. J., 392
Groninger, L. D., 66
Grossman, L. R., 318
group decisions, 143
group pressure, toward conformity, 143
groupthink phenomenon, 143
Guatemala, 97
Gulledge, J. P., 281
Guttentag, R. E., 509
Guttmannova, K., 274
Guzel, M. A., 377
Gwyer, P., 173
Habeck, C., 412
habitual biases, 312
Hacker, D. J., 204
Hafliger, A., 316
Hahn, Hilary, 95
Hakeem, A., 421
Halamish, V., 376, 378, 380n9
Hall, J. W., 318
Hampton, R. R., 275, 278, 284, 420
Hancock, T. W., 233
Hanczakowski, M., 27, 45, 46, 48, 49, 51, 52, 84, 460
Harbison, J. I., 112, 312, 314
hard-easy effect, 41, 111t, 129
Hardt, O., 293
Harris, L. M., 219, 528
Harrison, T. L., 221, 222
Hart, Joseph, 1, 7, 8, 81, 84, 85, 86, 88, 503, 504
Hartwig, M. K., 199, 200, 331
Harvey, P. D., 398
Hasselhorn, M., 510
Hatton, N. P., 234
Heavey, C. L., 248
height, gender and, 114–15, 115t
Hell, W., 292
Hembacher, E., 505
hemiplegia, 468
Hermesh, H., 475
Hertzog, C., 32, 74, 316, 543, 544, 546, 547, 548, 550, 551, 554
discrepancy reduction hypothesis and, 310, 313
face recognition and, 528
MIA and, 10
older adults and, 17, 521, 522
self-testing and, 541
heuristic SMF, 430
Heyer, A. W., 314
Hicks, J. L., 233, 461
Higham, P. A., 14, 27, 49–52, 58, 84, 177, 181, 362, 377–78, 460
item-context effects and, 47
UWP and, 45
highlighting, 333
Hilbert, M., 121
hindsight bias, 15, 289–91, 290f, 294f, 295f
final word on, 301
future research and, 298–301
learning and, 300
memory design and, 290, 290f, 291–93
metacognition and, 299
motivational theories of, 292t, 297–98
reconstruction bias and, 293–97
theories of, 291–98
theory of mind and, 299–300
three-component model of, 291t
Hines, J. C., 547, 553
Hintzman, D., 111
hippocampus, 89
history, of metamemory research, 7–13
hit rates (HRs), 47, 50
Hoch, S. J., 295
Hodge, D., 395
Hoffman, R., 164
Hoffmann-Biencourt, A., 507
Holgate, B., 316
Hollins, T. J., 11, 15
Holroyd, C. B., 412, 417
Hölzl, E., 298
Horgan, D., 204
Howard, C., 483
Howie, P., 503
Hoyt, J. D., 66
HRs. See hit rates
Huet, N., 479
Hughes, G., 8, 14
Huijgen, J., 410
Hultsch, D. F., 10
Humphrey, N., 408
Humphreys, K. R., 98, 250
Hunt, R. R., 233, 236
Hunter, M. A., 118
Hurburt, L. T., 248
Huron, C., 479
Hussey, E. K., 314
Hutchins, T. L., 100
Hutchinson, J. B., 436, 437
HyGene model, 112, 113f, 114, 116, 117, 119, 121
hypercorrection effect, 412
hypercorrection of high-confidence errors, 295
hypotheses generation, 112
hypotheses guided information search, 122–23
hypothetical design, 291, 294, 296
Ibabe, I., 177
identification decision, 171
idiosyncratic distinctiveness, 393, 395–96
I-knew-it-all-along effect, 290
imagination inflation effect, 388, 392
implementation intentions, 234–36, 237–38
implicit awareness, 17, 463
anosognosia and, 466–67
implicit memory, 478
importance, 237
inaccuracy, of CJs, 129–30
incentives, 314–15
incidental forgetting, 342
incremental-knowledge theory, 529
independent component analysis (ICA), 439
Indo-European languages, 97
inference-based approaches, to judgment, 27
inferential accounts, 73–75
inferential-deficit hypothesis, 528
inferior frontal cortex (IFC), 89
inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, 421
information-based approach, 128, 129
information-seeking paradigm, 274, 282
information theoretic approach, 121
informativeness, 358
inhibition failure, 120
Inman, A., 280
(p. 565) Innes-Ker, A., 177
input-bound proportion, 380n2
institutional reality monitoring, 427
instructional bias, 188
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), 334
intentional forgetting, 342–43
preexisting beliefs about, 343, 344t
interaction of memory variables, 499
interactive imagery, 70
interleaving, 331, 332, 332f
internal dimension, 41, 42–44, 43f
internal mapping, 39–40, 40f
absolute accuracy and, 40–41
binary tasks and, 51–52
conclusions to, 59
confidence criteria and resolution, 52–58
cue utilization and, 48–51
future directions for, 58–59
potential combinations of, 41f
scale values as response criteria or cutoffs, 41–44
scaling biases and, 44–45
UWP and, 45–48
internal monitor, 85–86, 87
internal sources, of information, 150
internal states, 32–33
interparticipant consensus, 139–40
interpersonal reality monitoring, 427
interruptions, 256
interval production, 122
interviewing procedure, 181–82
intrinsic cues, 73
intrinsic source features, 161
intuition, 393
irrelevant information effects, 111t
Isingrini, M., 460, 540, 547
item-based analyses, 137
item consensus, 133, 135, 136f
item consistency, 132, 133, 138, 138f
item-method directed forgetting studies
future directions for, 353
measurement issues and, 348–53
summary of, 353
item selection, 26t, 542–46, 543f, 545f
it-had-to-be-you effect, 159
I-would-have-seen-it-if-it-had-been-there strategy, 399n2
Izaute, M., 16, 17, 84, 409, 481
Jacobs, D. M., 261
Jacoby, L. L., 206, 358, 369, 377, 392
James, N., 457
James, W., 81, 96
Jameson, K. A., 87
Jansari, A., 234
Jaswal, V. K., 498
Jenkins, A. C., 419
Joaquim, S. G., 87, 97, 461
Johnson, M., 149, 154, 155, 159, 164, 392, 425, 427, 551
Jones, R. W., 457
Jönsson, F. U., 104, 250
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 426
Joyner, M. H., 511
judgment accuracy, 27–35, 28f. See also absolute judgment accuracy; relative judgment accuracy
interpreting differences of, 31–34
measurement of, 30–31, 30t
judgment and decision-making (JDM), 109. See also bias
judgments. See also confidence judgments; probability judgment
bases of, 27–35
category, 45, 140, 142
classical, 14–15
common, 26t
differences in magnitude, 28–29
experience-based, 74, 500
influence on memory, 76–77
mean, 31, 32t
online construction of, 142–43
predictive, 210
prospective, 66
retrospective, 66
RJR, 8, 8t, 81, 85, 90, 503
theory-based, 74–75, 500
judgments of forgetting, 75
judgments of learning (JOLs), 14, 26–29, 26t, 40, 162–63, 208, 231f, 328, 414, 500
AD and, 452
ADHD and, 476
autism and, 477
binary, 45–46, 47
within control framework, 65–66
delayed, 33, 72, 204, 230, 477, 501, 543, 553
direct access accounts and, 73
early research on, 66–67
in education, 201–6
encoding influences on magnitude of, 69–70
eyewitness memory and, 172
factors influencing relative accuracy of, 70–72, 72f
final thoughts on, 77
future directions for, 75–77
inferential accounts and, 73–75
influence of judgment on memory and, 76–77
metaintentions and, 229–30
methodology and, 67–72
monitoring and, 65–66, 201–6
multiple cues to, 77
notable findings on, 67–72
older adults and, 520
pending issues, 75–77
percentage-scale, 45
procedural memory and, 501–3, 503f
retrieval influences on magnitude of, 69–70
scale, 45–46, 48, 49
schizophrenia and, 481
self-paced study time and, 35
soliciting predictions of, 75–76
theoretical accounts for bases of, 72–75
time-based influences on magnitude of, 68–69
judgments of remembering and knowing (JORKs), 524
judgments of source (JOSs), 162–63, 165
Juslin, P., 185, 186
Justice, E. M., 497, 498
Kahn, I., 463
Kahneman, D., 2, 115, 253, 289, 293
Kao, Y. C., 414
Karpicke, J. D., 200, 313, 330, 331
Kaszniak, A. W., 457
Kebbell, M. R., 176, 177
Keleman, W. L., 76
Kelley, C. M., 68, 206, 250, 299, 347, 358, 392, 418, 419
Kent State University, 329
Kikyo, H., 89, 418
Kim, S., 293
King, J. F., 67, 70, 73
Kircher, T. T. J., 479
Kirchler, E., 298
Kirsch, I., 369
Kirwan, A., 68
Klauer, K. C., 157
Klayman, J., 32
Klein, K. R., 98
Kliegel, M., 226, 233, 234
Klosterman, I. H., 511
“knowing how,” 492
“knowing that,” 492
“knowing why,” 492
knowledge, 539. See also metacognitive knowledge
collateral knowledge effects, 397–99
conditional metacognitive, 492
conscious, 491
contemporary, 459
curse of knowledge, 206, 211, 290, 526
dated, 459
explicit, 491
factual, 491
GK, 51, 52
incremental-knowledge theory, 529
metamemory, 473, 479
source guessing and, 155–60
world, 491
Kobasigawa, A., 313, 506
Kober, H., 419
(p. 566) Koch, K., 204
Koehler, D. J., 113, 114
Kolers, P. A., 398
Konopka, A. E., 163
Koriat, A., 15, 68, 75, 129, 179, 180, 207, 250, 461, 462, 463, 506, 507, 512, 551
accessibility and, 481
control and, 178, 191
cue-utilization account and, 202
cue utilization model and, 503
direct-access account and, 9, 73
FOK and, 88, 89, 91
free report and, 359
grain size and, 442n5
retention intervals and, 319
satisficing model and, 365
self-paced study time and, 310
signal detection theory and, 43
Kornell, N., 16, 75, 199, 200, 206, 208, 209, 313, 329, 331, 420
Korsakoff syndrome, 409, 474
Krawietz, S. A., 106
Kreutzer, M. A., 10, 493, 494, 496, 497
Kron-Sperl, V., 510
Krueger, L. E., 546
Krüsken, J., 251
Kubat-Silman, A. K., 316, 541
Kuhlmann, B. G., 15, 16, 27, 158, 159, 161, 162, 552
Kumar, R., 15
Küppers, V., 159, 160
Kurtz-Costes, B., 511
Kusumi, T., 230, 231, 233
laboratory-based studies, 211
labor-in-vain effect, 209, 329
Lachman, M. E., 541
Lampinen, J. M., 11, 16, 395, 397
Lamson, N., 550
Lane, A. M., 251
Lange, N. D., 509
language, 97, 105, 414
noncognate, 130
production of, 101
ToM and, 494
large-scale decisions, 16, 326
Larrick, R. P., 32
late correction, 369, 442n6
lateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), 437
lateral parietal cortex, 427
lateral posterior parietal cortex (LPPC), 435–37, 435f, 436f
lateral temporal lobes, 89
Lawless, H., 104
learning. See also judgments of learning; self-regulated learning
beliefs about, 198–200
control of, 208–9
EOL, 26t, 251, 500–501, 545, 545f
game-based learning, 334, 335
hindsight bias and, 300
list-learning tasks, 541
long-term, 210
multi-trial learning, 71
RAVLT, 455
relearning, 9, 10t
technology-based programs, 334
from tests, 320
Lee, M., 8, 14, 188
Lefforge, N. L., 248
Lemaire, P., 554
Le Ny, J., 310, 313
Leonard, C., 493
Leonesio, R. J., 66, 546
Le Taillanter, D., 310
letter cues, 69
Levin, J. R., 502
Levy, V. M., 497
Levy-Sadot, R., 89, 461
lexical decision task (LDT), 85, 86, 87
lexigrams, 277
Lichtenstein, S., 110
lies, 431–32
Lindsay, D. S., 155, 184, 185, 392
lineup, 174t, 184, 187, 189
bias and, 188
Lipinska, B., 458, 459, 460
Lipko, A. R., 502
Lipowski, S. L., 502
list-learning tasks, 541
list manipulation, 29, 29f
list-method directed forgetting studies
beliefs about memory developed during, 347
controlled forgetting strategies and, 343–44
future directions for, 347–48
preexisting beliefs about intentional forgetting, 343, 344t
preexisting confidence in memory and, 344–47, 346f
summary of, 347–48
Litman, J. A., 100, 254
Little, J. L., 211
Lockl, K., 494, 501, 504, 506, 507
Loewenstein, G. F., 254, 295
Löffler, E., 10, 17, 25
Loft, S., 234, 236
Loftus, G. R., 164, 300, 314
Logan, J. M., 70
Longitudinal Study on the Genesis of Individual Competencies (LOGIC), 496, 497
long retention intervals, 70
long-term learning, 210
long term memory (LTM), 112, 114, 119, 122
long-term retention, 203
Lopez, J. A., 234
Lories, G., 312
Luna, K., 181
Lyle, K. B., 164
Lyons, K. E., 505
Ma’ayan, H., 207, 310, 506
macaques, 274, 280
MacDonald, S. E., 276
machines, 408–9
Mackenzie, A. M., 198
Maddox, G. B., 541
major data collection methods, 25–27
Malpass, R. S., 188
Mäntylä, T., 226
Mao Zedong, 289–90
mapping 1, 41, 42, 44, 48, 50f, 52, 59
mapping 2, 40
Maril, A., 410, 414, 418
Mark, M. M., 297
Marsh, E. J., 101, 200
Marsh, H. L., 276
Marsh, R. L., 233, 461
Martin, M., 233
Martin-Luengo, B., 181
Martinson, H., 459
Mason, M. F., 261
Massaro, D., 300
massing, 331, 332
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), 334, 335
Masson, M. E. J., 53, 55, 57
mastery, 328, 475
experiences, 257
Masur, E. F., 310, 506
mathematics, 258
Maudsley Obsessional–Compulsive Inventory (MOCI), 475
maximum-confidence slating (MCS), 143
Mazzoni, G., 162, 310, 369, 398
McCabe, D. P., 76, 198, 210, 524
McCarthy, T. T., 155
McCloskey, M., 312
McConnell, M. D., 235
McCurdy, L. Y., 410, 418
McDaniel, M. A., 211, 218, 220, 221, 234
McDermott, K. B., 211, 391
McDonough, I. M., 395
McGillivray, S., 85, 523
McGlynn, S. M., 457
McGoey, P. J., 41
McGuire, M. J., 412
McIntyre, C. W., 310
McKeachie, W. J., 10
McNeill, D., 96, 97
McVay, J. C., 234
mean judgments, 31, 32t
mean performance, 31
(p. 567) mean recall, 32t
medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), 418–20, 428
medial temporal lobe (MTL), 435
Meehl, Paul, 289
Meeks, J. T., 230
Meier, C., 230, 232, 235
Meiser, T., 154, 159, 161, 238
Mello, E., 173
Mellor, S., 297
Melo, B., 369
Meltzoff, A. N., 300
memorizing effort heuristic, 506
memory. See specific topics
memory beliefs, 543, 552
memory characteristics, 154–55
Memory Characteristics Questionnaire (MCQ), 154–55
memory confidence, 344–47, 346f
memory-constraint hypothesis, 528
memory design, 290, 290f, 291–93, 294
memory-for-foils paradigm, 375
memory-for-past-test (MPT), 28
Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), 10
memory monitoring deficiency hypothesis, 501
memory-monitoring framework, 85, 86
memory predictions, 159
memory search time allocation, 312–13
memory strength, 43
mental contamination, 290
mental effort, 249, 249f, 250
mental words, 493–94
Meretoja, M., 318
metacognition. See also animal metacognition
autonoetic, 419
conceptualization of, 246–48
enriched model of, 247
fractionation of, 458–60
hindsight bias and, 299
noetic, 419
self-referential, 419, 438
“Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring: A New Area of Cognitive-Developmental Inquiry” (Flavell), 2
metacognitive and affective model of self-regulated learning (MASRL), 262
metacognitive difficulty, 257
metacognitive experiences, 9, 247, 491
metacognitive feelings
affect and, 248–50
conceptualization of, 248
metacognitive illusions, 129, 457
metacognitive knowledge, 9, 247, 495f
conclusions to, 511–13
declarative, 473, 491, 492, 493, 494–99
education and, 510–11
future directions for, 511–13
introduction to, 491–94
mental words and, 493–94
metamemory-memory relationships and, 507–10, 508f
procedural metamemory and, 499–507
Metacognitively Guided Retrieval and Report (Meta-RAR), 370, 371, 371f, 375, 379–80, 380n6
metacognitive regulation, 292t
metacognitive skills, 247, 491
metacomprehension, 204
metaforgetting, 11, 16
conclusion to, 353–54
incidental forgetting and, 342
intentional forgetting and, 342–43
item-method directed forgetting studies and, 348–53
list-method directed forgetting studies and, 343–48, 344t, 346f
missing component in, 341–42
metaintentions, 11
commission errors and, 233–34
context and, 236–37
control and, 228t, 231–37
encoding and, 223–24
framework of, 223–25
future directions for, 237–38
implementation intentions and, 234–36, 237–38
importance and, 237
measures of monitoring and, 237–38
monitoring and, 226–31, 227t
overview of research on, 225–37
performance and, 225
planning and, 234
postdictions and, 230–31
predicting performance and, 229–30
reminders and, 237
retention and, 224
self-report methods and, 226–29
summary of, 238
task difficulty and, 238
task emphasis and importance and, 229, 232–33
meta-level processes, 81, 201, 201f, 409–10
metamemory. See specific topics
metamemory awareness, 247, 473
in schizophrenia, 479–83, 480f, 482f
metamemory errors, 95–96
blank-in-the-mind states, 105–6
conclusions to, 107
déjà vu, 101–4
subjective experiences and, 106–7
tip-of-the-nose phenomenon, 104–5
TOT, 96–101, 99f
Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood (MIA), 10, 475, 479
metamemory knowledge, 473, 479
Metamemory Questionnaire (MQ), 10
metamemory research
brief history of, 7–13
historical timeline of, 12f
metaremembering, 342, 353
Metcalfe, J., 25, 100, 208, 209, 284, 328, 329, 412, 419, 460, 461, 544
FOK and, 33, 87
metamemory research and, 7
neurocognition and, 16
scale JOLs and, 49
spacing and, 313
study time and, 311
TOT and, 97, 99
“Methodological Problems and Pitfalls in the Study of Human Metacognition” (Schwartz and Metcalfe), 23
methodology
conclusions to, 35
core questions and, 23–25, 24t
data analysis and interpretation, 27–35
in eyewitness memory, 172–73
JOLs and, 67–72
major data collection methods, 25–27
of SCM, 133–35
Meyer, D. E., 85, 86
Mickes, L., 43
Middlebrooks, C. D., 85
middle-of-the-scale values, 32
Miele, D. M., 419, 420
Migueles, M., 177
Milne, R., 182, 183
Minerva-2 memory model, 111
Minerva-DM memory model, 111–12, 114, 115, 116, 121
Mini-Mental State Exam, 237
minimum-confidence criterion, 367
minority slowness effect, 143
Minshew, N., 477
misattributions, 431
miscalibration, 128
misinformation paradigm, 163
misinformation tasks, 388
Mitchell, K. J., 16, 300, 419
Mitchum, A. L., 299
MITx, 335
mixed-list condition, 29
Miyashita, Y., 89, 418
mnemonic anosognosia, 465
mnemonics, 7, 70
strategies, 314–15
Mochon, D., 46
modified forget cue, 344, 345
modular memory framework (MEM), 441, 441f
Moely, B. E., 510, 511
Moga, N., 183
Mograbi, D. C., 16, 466, 467, 496
(p. 568) monitoring, 8, 12, 24, 85, 174t, 359. See also source monitoring framework
accuracy of, 35, 207–8
AD and, 461–62
classical judgments and, 14–15
comprehension, 327
control and, 34–35, 82f, 83
in education, 200–209
effectiveness of, 360, 362, 363–64, 366, 380n4
of event memory, 173–78
eyewitness identification and, 183–88
JOLs and, 65–66, 201–6
judgment accuracy and, 31
measures of, 237–38
metaintentions and, 226–31, 227t
in older adults, 520–22, 523–24
performance-monitoring relationship, 172
post-retrieval, 436
PRAM, 67, 76
procedural memory and, 500
reality, 150, 155, 159, 427
schizophrenia and, 481
of SMF, 162–64
as source of subadditivity, 119–21
special issues and, 15
monitoring affects control (MC), 506
monitoring-control effectiveness (MCeff), 372, 373
Montgomery, C., 234
Monthly Weather Review, 30
mood disorders, 464
mood effects, 251–63
Moor, C., 233
Moore, B., 251, 397
Moors, A. C., 313
Morgan, C. L., 270
Moritz, S., 164
Morris, R. G., 16, 466, 469
Moscovitch, M., 369
motivated sense-making, 292t, 298
Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), 10
motivation, 475
games and, 335
for SCM, 130
motivational theories, of hindsight bias, 292t, 297–98
Moulin, C. J. A., 16, 457, 460, 462, 466, 476
Moynahan, E. D., 496
MPV-revised (MPV-R), 222
Mueller, M. L., 13, 14, 75, 333
Mullaney, K., 206
Mullet, H. G., 221
Mulligan, N. W., 29, 161
Multhaup, K. S., 392
multicycle paradigm, 46
multidimensional source memory, 154
multimedia bias, 205
multinomial processing-tree (MPT), 152–53, 153f, 154, 155, 156, 159
multiple-choice questions, 175, 181
multiple cues, to judgment, 77
multiprocess view (MPV), 220, 236
PAM versus, 221–22, 222t
multi-trial learning, 71
multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), 434
Munsayac, K., 233
Munsterberg, Hugo, 11, 387
Murayam, K., 30
Murnane, K., 151
Murphy, A. H., 30, 540, 541
Murray, A. E., 236
Murray, D. M., 184
Murray, E. A., 275
Murray, R., 545, 546, 547
Nagy, Z., 410
naïve sampling model (NSM), 121, 122
Nakamura, K., 156
N-alternative forced-choice (N-AFC), 82
Narens, L., 2, 7, 12, 13, 17, 25, 200, 201, 409, 468, 474, 500
AD and, 462
JOLs and, 65–66
no-magic hypothesis and, 87
Nathan, J. H., 200
National Survey of Student Engagement, 326
Neely, J. H., 86, 318
negative affect, 260
negative mood, 251–52
Neisser, Ulrich, 211
Nelson, T. O., 2, 7, 11–13, 17, 25, 68, 246, 468, 474, 483, 500, 501, 504, 543, 546
AD and, 462
delayed JOL effect and, 72
Goodman-Kruskal gamma co-efficient and, 70
JOLs and, 65–66
LPPC and, 436
monitoring and, 200, 201
no-magic hypothesis and, 87
timing and, 71
Nestler, S., 292, 294, 296
neural reinstatement, 427, 434
neurocognition, 16–17
neuroimaging, 425, 431, 432, 461
neurology, 348, 409
combined contributions and, 89–90
Neuropsychologia, 426
Neuschatz, J. S., 396
neutral cues, 376
Nevill, A. M., 251
Newton, L., 206
Nicholls, L., 418
Nickerson, R. S., 206
Nida, R. E., 509
Niedzwienska, A., 229
Nilsson, L., 553
Nixon, Richard, 289–90
noetic metacognition, 419
no-magic hypothesis, 87
Nomi, J. S., 250
nonanalytic processes, 90
nonchecker OCD, 475
noncognate languages, 130
nonhuman animals. See animal metacognition
Norman, D. A., 539
note-taking, 333–34
notice + search model, 220
novel strategies and, 315–17
Nussinson, R., 250, 310, 506
objective fluency, 260, 261
object-level processes, 81, 201, 201f, 409–10
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), 474, 475–76, 483
occurrence, in hindsight bias, 291
Ochsner, K. N., 419
Odinot, G., 176
odor detection, 104–5
Ogden, R. S., 234
Oka, E. R., 492
O’Kelly, L. I., 314
older adults, 17, 31, 32, 85, 159, 161, 164, 233, 251, 316, 320, 430, 433, 519–20
absolute judgment accuracy in, 522–23
conclusions to, 552–54
confidence and, 529–30, 530f
control and, 537–54
control sensitivity and, 363
DF and, 345
emotional material and, 526–27
expertise and, 526–27
familiarity and, 529–30
FOK and, 527–28, 538
forgetting and, 527
future directions for, 531, 552–54
item selection and, 542–46, 543f, 545f
monitoring with consequences and, 523–24
potential declines in monitoring memory in, 520–21
preserved monitoring in, 521–22
recall output and, 527
relative judgment accuracy in, 522–23
retrieval and, 527–28
self-testing and, 540–42
(p. 569) social context and, 526–27
study time allocation and, 546–48, 548f
subjective memory states and, 524–25, 524f
summary of, 530–31
task experience and, 525–26
TOT and, 528–29
UWP and, 525–26, 526f
value-directed remembering and, 548–52, 549f
olfactory cortex, 105
Olsson, H., 250
Olsson, M. J., 104, 250
Olsson, N., 185
omission errors, 84
once/twice cue, 49–50
one-step model of fluency, 261
ongoing task, 218–19
online courses, 335
On the Witness Stand (Munsterberg), 387
Oppenheimer, D. M., 250, 333
orangutans, 274, 275, 276
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 513
orientation
recapitulation effects and, 392–93, 393f
retrieval warning effects, 390–92, 391f
test-format effects, 392
Ornstein, P. A., 498, 509, 510
O’Sullivan, J. T., 497
Ottaway, S. A., 251
Ousterhout, H., 221
outcome bias, 290
output-bound proportion, 380n2
overconfidence, 109, 110, 111, 111t, 129, 175t
AD and, 452–57
as bias source, 116–17
metacomprehension and, 204
primary source of, 114
unskilled-but-unaware effect and, 205
overconfidence bias, 142
Pajares, F, 257
Palef, S. R., 398
Palincsar, A. S., 510
Palmer, M. A., 186
Pansky, A., 129, 363, 551
Pappas, B., 459, 460
parahippocampal place area (PPA), 428
parietal cortex, 90
Paris, S. G., 492
Parker, S., 394
partial activation, 528
partial consistency, 138
part-list cuing, 320
Pasek, T., 45, 460
passport effect, 276
Paukner, A., 277
Payne, D. G., 183, 396
Pearlman-Avnion, S., 551
Peck, V. A., 504
Penrod, S., 184
percentage-scale JOLs, 45
perception, 127, 427
Perdue, B. M., 277
Perfect, T. J., 175, 190, 457
performance
criterion, 27, 28f, 31, 34
cued-recall, 372–74, 373t
dual-task, 100
grain size and, 366
metaintentions and, 225, 229–30
predicting, 162–63, 206–7, 229–30
ratings, 40
short-term, 210
SMF and, 162–64
performance-monitoring relationship, 172
Perlmutter, M., 494, 498
personal data base (PDB), 464
person characteristics, 246
person variables, 496
Petkaki, C., 251, 253, 262
petrified self, 467
Petty, C. R., 100
Pezdek, K., 395
Pezzo, M. V., 296, 298
Pezzo, S. P., 298
phantom recollection, 397
phenomenal experience, 410–17, 413f, 415f, 416f
Philanthus triangulum (digger wasps), 409
Phillips, L. D., 110
phylogeny, 285
pigeons, 272, 273, 278, 279, 280
Pintrich, P. R., 10
PISA study, 513
planning, 234
planning fallacy, 325–26, 326f, 336
pleasure, 248
plurality option, 181, 365
Pocock, P., 162
Pohl, R. F., 293
point-biserial correlation, 184–85, 186, 191
Polyn, S. M., 434
poor memory, compensation for, 159–60, 160t
positive affect, 260, 261
positive mood, 253
Postal, V., 475
postdictions, 230–31, 501
Postma, A., 316
postproduction memory processes, 357
post-retrieval monitoring, 436
potential cue, 27
Poulton, E. C., 44, 45
pragmatic skills, 539
predictive judgments, 210
preexisting beliefs, 343, 344t
preexisting confidence, in memory and, 344–47, 346f
prefrontal cortex (PFC), 419, 435, 437–39
prejudgment recall and monitoring (PRAM), 67, 76
preparatory attentional and memory processes (PAM), 219–20, 236
MPV versus, 221–22, 222t
preproduction memory processes, 357
Pressley, M., 320, 492, 502, 511, 521, 538
Price, J., 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 554
primary anosognosia, 466
primates, 272, 275, 408–9
primitive, memory as, 121–23
prioritization, 326, 328, 336
PRMQ, 226
proactive interference paradigm, 120
probability judgment, 110, 120, 121
commonly observed effects and, 111t
memory-process account of, 111–14
probability-matching account, of source-guessing bias, 158
Probex, 121
procedural memory
CJs and, 504–5
control and, 505
EOL and, 500–501
FOK and, 503–4
JOLs and, 501–3, 503f
monitoring skills and, 500
recall readiness and, 505–6
study-time allocation and, 506–7
procedural metacognitive knowledge, 492, 493
procedural metamemory, 494, 499–507
procrastination, 325–26, 326f, 336, 337
production-line quality-control, 370, 379
Pronin, E., 261
prospective CJs, 281
prospective judgments, 66
prospective memory, 217–18, 229. See also metaintentions
event-based tasks and, 219
MPV and, 220–21
notice + search model and, 220
ongoing task and, 218–19
PAM and, 219–20
PAM versus MPV, 221–22
simple activation model and, 220
studying, 218
summary of, 222–23, 238
test-wait-test-exit model and, 219
theories of, 219–22
time-based tasks and, 219
Prospect Theory, 116
proto-self, 419
prototypical majority effect (PME), 143
prototypical metacognitive studies, 172
psychological disorders, 164
psychological noise, 33
psychological theory, 110
(p. 570) psychology, 39
comparative, 278
forensic, 127
social psychology, 127, 143
Psychonomic Society, 2
psychopathic populations, 16
psychopathology, 473–74
ADHD and, 476
autism and, 476–77
depression and, 474–75
future directions for, 483–84
OCD and, 475–76
summary of, 483–84
psychophysics, 106, 127
PsycInfo, 110
pure-list condition, 29
Purtell, K. M., 509
Putman, K., 459
Pyc, M. A., 333, 546
Q’eqchi’ (language), 97
quality-control processes, 357–58
back-end control and, 357, 358–69, 372–74
conclusion to, 379–80
front-end control and, 357–58, 369–79, 373t
quantity, 174t
Quantity-Accuracy Profile (QAP), 361–62, 369, 376
quantity-accuracy trade-off, 174t, 176f, 183, 360
quantity-oriented approach, 358
query theory, 121
questionnaires, 26
Rabinowitz, M., 317
Radvansky, G., 106
Rakow, E. A., 204
random error models, 112
Rast, P., 525
rationalism, 143
rats, 272
Rauchs, G., 461
Rawson, K. A., 200, 230, 546
Raye, C. L., 154
reactivity, 76
Read, J. D., 184, 185
realist bias, 290
reality monitoring, 150, 155, 159, 427
recalibration hypothesis, 46–48
recall
event, 173–83
mean, 32t
output, 527, 551
readiness, 476, 505–6, 541
recognition versus, 318
serial, 380n1
recall-judgment-recognition (RJR), 8, 8t, 81, 85, 90, 503
recall-to-reject, 396, 397
recapitulation effects, 392–93, 393f
receiver operating characteristic (ROC), 47, 48f, 54f
recognition
of faces, 477, 528
failure of, 378
memory, 41, 43, 58, 376
recall versus, 318
RJR, 8, 8t, 81, 85, 90, 503
recollection, 43, 387, 394
AD and, 460–61
collateral effects, 396–97
phantom, 397
recollection bias, 292t, 293
Reconstruction After Feedback with Take the best (RAFT), 294, 296
reconstruction bias, 292t, 293–97
Redelmeier, D. A., 253
Reder, L. M., 82, 83, 87, 312, 317, 550, 552
Rees, G., 410
reflection, 427
region-of-interest (ROI), 433
region of proximal learning (RPL), 209, 311, 313, 327, 328, 329, 544–45
reinstatement effects, 432–35
relatedness, 9, 10t, 27, 68, 77
relative FOK accuracy, 33, 84
relative judgment accuracy, 30, 33, 67
factors influencing, 70–72, 72f
in older adults, 522–23
relative metacognitive accuracy, 52
relearning, 9, 10t
reliability, 131
reliability-validity discrepancy, 142
remembered utility, 253–54
remember group, 343
remembering, 307–9, 309t, 429–30, 497
animal metacognition and, 277–80
exposure via experience and, 316–17
exposure via instruction and, 316
incentives and, 314–15
learning from tests and, 320
memory search time allocation, 312–13
metaremembering, 342, 353
mnemonic strategies and, 314–15
novel strategies and, 315–17
scheduling and, 313–14
spontaneous use of strategies and, 309–15
study-time allocation and, 309–12
summary of, 320–21
tactical strategies and, 315
termination of encoding session, 313
test expectancy literature and, 317–20
value-directed, 548–52, 549f
reminders, 237
repeated choices, 139
report criterion setting, 360, 363
report option, 358
control of, 359–64, 359f, 360f
control policy and, 363
control sensitivity and, 362–63
empirical findings and, 361–62
metacognitive framework of, 359–61
monitoring effectiveness and, 363–64
performance consequences and, 362
representations, shared population of, 139–40
representative design, 129
reproducibility, 131
resolution, 128, 174t, 185, 299, 362, 380n3
calibration versus, 207–8
confidence, 52–58
index, 174t
response bias, 53
response competition, 282
response criteria, 41–44
response cutoffs, 41–44
response habits, 269
response latency, 133, 135–37, 141f
within-person consistency and, 137–39
response repetition, 139
retention, 24, 70, 201, 360
expected intervals, 319–20, 319f
interval, 203f
long-term, 203
metaintentions and, 224
retrieval, 14, 16, 112, 201, 360, 362. See also quality-control processes
blank, 370
control of, 24
depth, 375
direct, 129, 377
fluency, 202
future, 82–85
influences on JOL magnitude, 69–70
latency, 74–75
older adults and, 527–28
orientation, 390–93, 391f, 393f
post-retrieval monitoring, 436
practice of, 203
source constrained, 375–77
as source of subadditivity, 119
spontaneous, 220–21
strategies of, 377–79
tactical strategies and, 315
warning effects, 390–92, 391f
retroactive pessimism, 292t, 297, 298
retrospective confidence (RC), 26, 34, 183–84, 185
retrospective confidence judgments (RCJs), 14–15, 51–52, 76, 281
retrospective judgments, 66
retrospective memory, 218
metaintentions and, 223
Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), 455
(p. 571) rhesus monkeys, 271–75, 273f, 278, 280, 283
Rhodes, M. G., 14, 68, 70, 71, 76, 203, 208, 209, 210, 502, 524, 525
item-method DF and, 349
part-list cuing and, 320
sensitivity approach and, 457
stimulus emotionality and, 250
rhyme cues, 69, 315
Riefer, D. M., 152, 159
Riggs, K. M., 541
right inferior prefrontal cortex (RIFC), 89–90
Rish, S., 475
Ritchie, J. B., 283
Ritter, F. E., 82, 83, 87, 550
Roberts, W. A., 272
Roberts, W. T., 177
Roderer, T., 505
Rodler, C., 298
Roebers, C. M., 183, 503, 504, 505
Roediger, H. L., 183, 200, 211, 333, 391, 399
Roese, N., 296
Rogers, M. C. M., 234, 235, 236, 237, 238
Rogers, W. A., 550
Rönnlund, M., 226
Rotello, C. M., 53, 55, 57
rote-memorization strategy, 24
Rounis, E., 409
Rubin, D. C., 161
Rummel, J., 238
Russell, Bertrand, 420
Russon, R. K., 100
Ryan, M. P., 100
Sahakyan, L., 16, 344, 345, 347, 349, 351
Sakaki, M., 30
sample size effect, 111t
Santi, A., 280
Sarwar, F., 177
satisficing model, 365
Sattler, C., 159
Sauer, J. D., 186
Sauerland, M., 190
scale/binary dissociation, 48
scale-distortion theory, 46
scale JOLs, 45–46, 48, 49
scale values, 40
as response criteria or cutoffs, 41–44
scaling biases, 44–45
Schacter, D., 393, 394, 397
scheduling, 313–14
schemas, 156–57, 157f, 160t, 442n4
schizophrenia, 164, 474, 477–83, 484
metamemory awareness in, 479–83, 480f, 482f
metamemory knowledge in, 479
Schlagmüller, M., 509, 510
Schneider, W., 17, 496–98, 501–7, 509, 510, 513, 538
LOGIC study by, 497
quantity-accuracy trade-off and, 183
ToM and, 494
Schnitzspahn, K. M., 229, 230
Schnyer, D. M., 89, 418
Schooler, J. W., 164
Schreiber, C. A., 253
Schretlen, D. J., 237
Schunn, C. D., 550
Schwartz, B. L., 25, 33, 35, 87, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 250, 461
metamemory research and, 14
neurocognition and, 16
Schwarz, S., 294
Scoboria, A., 369, 398
Seamon, J. G., 399
search strategy, 26t
selective activation and reconstructive anchoring (SARA), 293, 296
selective reporting, 364
self-attributions, 418–19
self-awareness, 478
self-concept, 246, 467
affect and, 257–59
small-scale decisions and, 326–27
Self-Concept in Verbal Mathematical Problems questionnaire, 258
self-consciousness, 460
self-consistency model (SCM), 127
analytic procedure of, 133–35
calibration of CJs and, 142
consensuality principle and, 141–42
consensus and consistency, 140
cross-person consensus and, 135–37
empirical evidence and, 133–42
future work and, 144
general implications of, 142–44
group decisions and, 143
group pressure toward conformity and, 143
implementation of, 131–33
methodology of, 133–35
motivation for, 130
online construction of judgments and, 142–43
philosophical implications of, 143–44
response latency and, 135–37
response repetition and, 139
scores, 132f
shared population of representations and, 139–40
studies and, 134t
of subjective confidence, 131
within-person consistency and, 137–39
self-efficacy, 257, 258
self-esteem, 257, 368
self-initiation, 225, 479, 484
self-monitoring, 500
self-observation, 7
self-paced study time, 35, 207, 310
self-perception, 257
self-referential metacognition, 419, 438
self-reflection, 467
self-reflective consciousness, 411t
central involvement of self, 417–20
conclusion to, 420–21
introduction to, 407–8
machines and, 408–9
mPFC and, 418–20
object-level and meta-level processes, 409–10
phenomenal experience and, 410–17, 413f, 415f
primates and, 408–9
self-regulated learning, 210–11, 325–26, 331f
in digital environments, 334–35
dropping items from further study and, 330–31
explanatory questioning and, 333
future directions for, 336
highlighting or underlining and, 333
large-scale decisions and, 326
MASRL, 262
note-taking and, 333–34
practical recommendations for, 337
self-testing and, 330
spacing and, 331–33
struggling and, 335–36
study-time allocation and, 327–29, 328t
self-regulation, 16, 26, 257, 500, 512
self-report methods, 226–29
self-testing, 198, 199, 200, 317, 330
older adults and, 540–42
semantic association, 315
semantic FOK paradigm, 83–84, 84f
semantic memory, 99
sense-making model, 296
sensitivity approach, 457–58, 459f
sequential presentation, in lineup, 188, 189
serial list items, 280
serial recall, 380n1
Serra, M. J., 76, 205
Set of Leading Contenders (SOC), 112–13, 119
Shachar, Ben, 363
Shaked, D., 462
Shallice, T., 369
shared population, of representations, 139–40
Shaughnessy, J. J., 67, 202
Shaw, R. J., 69
Sheffer, L., 202, 207, 319
Shettleworth, S. J., 278, 280
Shields, W. e., 274, 280
Shimamura, A. P., 409
Shimizu, H., 377
Shin, H., 501
(p. 572) Shitzer-Reichert, R., 503
short retention intervals, 70
short-term memory (STM), 229, 275
short-term performance, 210
Shyi, G., 155
Siegler, R. S., 554
signal detection theory (SDT), 43, 46, 58, 59, 154, 189
sign-language users, 97, 105
Simonides, 7
simple activation model, 220
Simpson, K. C., 314
simultaneous presentation, in lineup, 188
situational flexibility, 430–31, 431f
skill acquisition, 550–51
sleeper effects, 399
small-scale decisions, 16, 326–27
Smith, 235, 236, 237, 238
Smith, D. A., 10, 11, 15
Smith, G. M., 30, 218, 219, 222
Smith, J. D., 274, 277, 280, 281
Smith, R. E., 230, 232, 233, 234
Smith, S. M., 98
Sobel, N., 104
social attitudes, 139, 140, 142
social beliefs, 137, 142
social comparisons, 314
social context, 526–27
social-pragmatic norms, 368
social psychology, 127, 143
Soderstrom, N. C., 15, 76, 210, 211, 524
Sodian, B., 497, 498, 509
Solinger, L. A., 526
Solms, M., 463
Sommer, W., 76
Son, L. K., 284, 311, 313, 317, 460
Souchay, C., 16, 460, 461, 462, 476, 540
source-attribution confidence, 163
source attributions, 430
source binding, 154
source constrained retrieval, 375–77
source context, 378
source distinctiveness, 393
source distinctiveness effects, 393–95
source encoding, processes of, 160–62
source guessing,