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date: 23 August 2019

(p. 1155) Index

(p. 1155) Index

Abandoned Shipwreck Act (1987), US, 116, 597, 949–951, 1014, 1056–1057
rights to access under, 1057
Abandoned Wreck Law (1966), Cayman Islands, 633
Abandoned Wrecks Act (1965), The Bahamas, 641
abandonment, of ships. See also ships’ graveyards
catastrophic, 858
classifications of, 857–860
in coastal Australia, 871f
conflict-inspired, 867–869
consequential, 858
definition, 597, 856
deliberate, 859
obsolescence-inspired, 869–871
reclamation of, 861–862
recycling after, 862–864
ritualistic, 860–862
salvage after, 862–864
ships’ graveyards, 864–871
strategy for, 867–869
structural adaptation and, 861–862
Abdur site, 497
Abele, Mannert, 724
Abydos, Egypt, 350
Accommodation, 616
Acheulean hand axes, 477
acoustic mapping techniques, 69
acoustics. See ocean acoustics
Actaeon, 870
Actium, 318
active framing construction, 33
Adams, Jonathan, 837
Adelaar shipwreck, 56–59
site formation process for, 57–59
site location of, 57
Admiralty anchor, 1106f
admiralty laws, 926
antiquities laws in conflict with, 14
Adney, Tappan, 880
Adria, 814
Adulis site, 501, 503, 767
Adur River, 798
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, 576, 604
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation in, 576, 604, 911, 953
adze, 1106
shipwright, 1122f
Aegean Sea, ship construction near, 364–369
hull construction, 365–366, 366f
aerial photography, 481
aeronautical archaeology, 989–1007
accessibility to, 997
artifacts in, 1002–6
definitions for, 998–1002
government funding for, 994
heritage links, 990–998
identification in, 990–998
on Marshall Islands, 991
newness value assessment in, 998–1002
personal meaning for, 995
purpose of, 992
sites for, 1002–6
special interest collection, 990–998
underwater salvage of, 996, 1000
value ranges for, 991, 995
aerospace archaeology, 1001
Africa. See also East Africa; Egypt; Kenya; Namibia; South Africa; Tanzania; West African Coast
southern region, shipwreck archaeology in, 473–490, 474f
trade routes to, 446
afterpeak. See peak
Aggregate Levy Sustainability Fund, 801
aggregates, 789, 801
Agulhas Current, 474f, 475
Ahananaru, 524
l.’Aimable, 291, 669
aircraft archaeology, 1001
aircraft museums, 993
air-lances, 121
airlifts, 153
nozzles, 151f
air pockets, 205
Aizpurua shipwreck, 209
Aker, Raymond, 197
Akerendam, 1016
Akrotiri, 811
CSS Alabama, 311, 949, 951
(p. 1156) Alaska, US
fishing industry in, 597
as purchase from Russia, 955
shipwreck database, 595
Albenga Foundation, 694
Albenga shipwreck, 6, 382
Album de Colbert, 269, 271
Alexandria, 434, 437–438
Alexandria Harbor, 815
plans for, 816f
Algoa Bay, 475
Allan, James, 197
d ’Almeida, Francisco, 479
Almere cog, 458
Alonnesos, 365, 393
alpha-numericals, prefixed, 236
Alphen shipwreck, 639
Althiburus mosaic, 396f
Alumna (schooner), 599
Amager Strand shipwreck, 235f
Amanmasha envoy, 204
Amer, Chris, 642
American broad axe. See broad axe, American
American Revolutionary War, 645, 867
The Americas, 447–448, 460, 660
amidships, 1106. See also midship
amnesty, for museum collections, 1033
Amor, Diego Carabias, 696
amphoras, 202, 205
from ancient Greece shipwrecks, 383, 384f
graffiti on, 13
from Indian coast shipwrecks, 524, 530
from Kyrenia shipwreck, 315–316
from Madrague de Giens shipwreck, 384
from Roman period shipwrecks, 382–383, 384f
in ship cargoes, 35
stamps, 383
Amsterdam, 183, 330, 482, 767
Amsterdam, Holland, 442, 453, 456, 458, 465
analogy, ethnographic, 892
anchor(s), 1106–8. See also stone anchors
Admiralty, 1106f
best bower, 1108
bill, 1108
bower, 1108
crown, 1108
in deep water shipwrecks, 206
grapnel, 1107f, 1108
iron, 391
kedge, 1108
Ma’agan Michael wreck, 1107f
Nemi excavations, 1107f
palm, 1108
ring-stone, 518
Serçe Limana wreck, 1107f
shank, 1108
sheet, 1108
shoe, 1108
stock planking, 1108, 1126f
stream, 1108
types, 1107f
wooden, 163, 391, 1107f
anchorages, 1046
at Dor/Tantura lagoon shipwreck sites, 178
anchor bed, 1106
anchor drag, 208
anchor joint. See chocks
anchor palm. See peak
ancient harbors, in Mediterranean, 809–826
adverse surface conditions and, 824
during Bronze Age, 810–812
closed, 813
development of, 810–822
Etruscan, 812–814
excavation challenges, 822–285
in Greece, 812–814
Hellenistic engineering, 814–815
multibeam sonar for, 825
Phoenician, 812–814
Roman engineering, 816–822
ancient shipbuilders, master mold design method, 414, 419–420
Anglo-Dutch War. See Second Anglo-Dutch War
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 427
Anglo-Saxon ships, 4, 41
Angola, 486
Angre, Kanhoji, 523
Anguilla, 632–633
AAHS in, 633
Heritage Trail in, 633
animals. See marine animals
Annona ships, 35
anomalies. See shipwreck anomalies
Antelope, 861
Antikythera mechanism, 380
Antikythera shipwreck, 380, 382
Antiquities, Monuments and Museums Act (1998), Bahamas, 641
Antiquities, Monuments and Museums Corporation, 641
Antiquities Act (1906), US, 952–953, 962
antiquities laws, admiralty laws in conflict with, 14
Antonio López, 640–641
Antony, Marc, 394
Aperlae, 818, 821–822
Apollo, 861
Apollonia, 812
Appelbaum, Barbara, 995
Appin shipwreck, 78f
apron, 1108f, 1109, 1132f
stem, 1132f
Aqualung, 5, 380
Arabia, 195, 625–626
Arabian Sea, 527. See also Suez Canal
(p. 1157) Arab traders, 447
in China, 542
in dhow ships, 478, 518
in Red Sea, 507
Aradus, 911
Archaeological and Anthropological Institute (AAINA), 639
Archaeological and Historical Society (AAHS), 633
archaeological diving, 124, 141, 210
Archaeological Research Centre, 644
Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA), 954
archaeology. See also aeronautical archaeology; deep-submergence archaeology; deep water archaeology; experimental archaeology; maritime archaeology; nautical archaeology; shipyard archaeology; underwater archaeology
classical, 9, 379, 397, 924
coastal, 4
contemporary convergences within, 922–925
context for, 1086
ethics and, 917–925, 1096–1097
experimental, 9, 239, 241, 246
new, 1047
in Norway, industry collaboration with, 1016–1019
operational process of ship construction through, 34
processual, 751, 892–893, 895, 1047
public, 1041
remote sensing applications to, 82–83
salvage vs., 929, 1050
as science, 1095–1096
sociopolitical dimensions of, 922
technical system of ship construction through, 34–40
technology in, 329
training, for maritime, 142–144, 146
training for, DSA requirements, 211–212
typologies in, 1086
validity of, 1087–1088
as value-free, 920
whitewater, 6
Archaeology of Whaling in Southern Australia and New Zealand (AWSANZ) Project, 574–575, 593
architects. See naval architects
Architectura Navis (Furtenbach), 260
Archives of the Indies, 13
Area, 927, 927f
Area 240, 787, 795
artifacts from, 803–4
hand axes, 788f
Argentina, 134–136, 686–695. See also Buenos Aires, Argentina; HMS Swift shipwreck
beached shipwrecks in, 183
BG2 shipwreck site, 692–693
Hoorn shipwreck site, 690–692
INAPL, 135, 686
National University of Rosario, 694–695
PROAS in, 686–694
HMS Swift shipwreck site, 687–690
Welsh settlers, 693
Arian’s Indica, 513
USS Arizona, 602, 603f, 725, 952
Arkansas, 861
Arklow Bank site, 84f
armaments, 463–465
rates for, 464
armor, 448, 664, 710
Armstrong, Neil, 1006
Army Corps of Engineers, US, 670
Arniston, 482
Arnold, J. Barto, 95, 291
AR Noyes, 1058
Arqueonautas Worldwide, 476, 480
Arsenale, 417, 436, 455
artemon, 390
Arthasastra, 513
artifact drift, 823
artifacts. See also ceramics; collections, of artifacts
in aeronautical archaeology, 1002–6
from Area 240, 803–4
duplication of, 14
identification of, with Chirp technology, 76
underwater archaeology, special treatment for, 130–131
artificial life systems, 314
Arun River, 798
Asherah, 7
Asia Minor, 163
Athens, Greece, 813
Athlit harbor, 812
Athlit Ram, 35, 318
athwartships, 1109, 1134f
Atlantic Ocean, 798
passenger traffic on, 460
shipping line development on, 460
ships’ graveyards, 864–871
auger, 1109, 1122f
Austin, 668
Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology (AIMA), 575–576
Australia, 561–577
abandonment of ships near, 871f
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation in, 576, 604, 911, 953
archaeological potential, 561–562
coastal archaeology in, 769
Dutch East India Company shipwrecks near, 7
early history, 562–564
European arrival in, 562
(p. 1158) Historic Shipwrecks Act in, 116, 564–565, 570
last glacial maximum in, 562
maritime archaeology history in, 562–563, 1087
maritime research in, 568–575
HMS Pandora shipwreck, 570–572, 571f
HMS Sirius shipwreck, 568–569, 569f
Sydney Cove shipwreck, 573f, 572–574
training in, for maritime archaeology, 566–567
underwater cultural heritage management in, 564–565, 1071
VOC ships in, 562
whaling projects, 574–575
Australian Commonwealth Historic Shipwrecks Program, 1071
authentic reconstruction, 232, 238–241
Authie River, 798
AutoCad, in ship reconstruction drawings, 238
Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE), 211f
autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), 943
ABE, 211f
for DSA, 210
in underwater archaeology, 125
autostereoscopic monitors, 321
avatars, 218
in virtual reconstruction, 310
average frame spacing, 1142. See also room and space
aviation archaeology, 1001
avocational diving, 468
Avon River, 798
Aydhab Island site, 505
Ayn Soukhna site, 354, 498
Azevedo, Lillian, 633, 633f
The Azores, 446, 912
back piece, 1109, 1139f
back rabbet, 1109, 1109f, 1139
back rabbet line, 1109, 1109f
backstay, 456
bacteria, in DSA, 206
The Bahamas, 14, 641–642
Abandoned Shipwreck Act and, 640
Antiquities, Monuments and Museums Act, 641
Bahía Galenses, 693
Bahía Mejillones, 699
Bahía Mujeres, 637
Bahrain, 514
Baiheliang Underwater Museum, 1072
Baja California, Mexico, 976–981
beeswax blocks in, 982
Chinese porcelain in, 982
Manila galleon near, 982
terracotta in, 982
Baja de la Campana, Spain, 209
Baker, Patrick, 563, 570
balanced rudder, 1109
Ballard, John, 690
ballast, 203, 212, 1109
Ball State University, 635
Baltic Sea, 207, 430f, 433
fishing in, 465
Baltic timber trade, 453, 455
Baltimore clipper, 459
Banc du Cardonnet survey grid, 719
Bangaram Island shipwreck, 528
Barbados, 645, 647
Barbados Museum and Historical Society (BMHS), 645
barber-surgeons, equipment for, 484
Bardo Museum, 5
bark boats, 28
Barker, Richard, 836
Barland’s Farm Boat, 184
barnacles, 165
barrel, 1125f
basalt, 204
Başaran, S., 189
Bascom, Willard, 204
baselines, 466
Basque country, 453, 466
Bass, George, 125, 382, 563, 919, 1086. See also Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Batavia, 488. See also Jakarta, Indonesia
Batavia, 236, 330–331, 563
bateaux
in James River, Virginia, 196
in Quebec, 195–196
Bateux Below, Inc., 1061
Baths of Themetra, Tunisia, 40
bathymetric maps, 69, 320
Bato, 482
batten, 33, 1110. See also ribband(s)
batten clamp. See sintel
Battle of Helgoland, 465
Battle of Sluys, 431
baulk. See beam
Bayeux Tapestry, 428
Bay of Bengal, 524, 526
Bayonne, 436
beached shipwrecks, 183
sea level change and, 183
beads, 212
beakhead, 1110
beam(s), 1110, 1111f, 1114f. See also crossbeam
breadth of, 1112
deck, 1117, 1134f
lower deck, 1111f
orlop deck, 1113f, 1134f
upper deck, 1111f, 1113f
beam arm, 1110, 1111f, 1114f
(p. 1159) bearding line, 1109f, 1110
beeswax blocks, 982
Beeswax wreck, 591
beetle, 717, 1110, 1122f, 1131. See also mallets
Beira harbor, 475
belfry, 1110
Belitung shipwreck, 542
La Belle, 267–284, 664, 924, 949
basic measurements of, 269
centerline timbers, 269f
conservation procedures for, 291–299
deadwood knee, 270f
devis, 268, 271, 282–283
frame positions, 271, 271f
garboard, 270–271, 270f
hull of, 665f
keel details, 269–272, 270f
labels for, 272
longitudinal profile, 273f
nocturnals, 296–299, 298f
perpendicular bisector of, 275–276, 276f
rabbets, 270f, 272, 274
rake measurements for, 278–279
reconstruction issues for, 279–280, 283–284
stem, 272–281, 277f
sternpost, 270, 270f, 272–275, 281–282
wooden chest in situ, 292–296, 292f, 294f
bend molds, 1135, 1135f
Benguela Current, 475
Benin, Bight of, 460
Bennebroek, 481
Benoit, M.F., 908
benthic
biogenic degradation, 204
organisms, 216–217
processes, 207, 214
Bent Prop, 722
Berenice site, 499–501
ship graffito, 503f
Bergen, Norway, 430
Bermuda, 858
Royal Navy Dockyard in, 861
Bermuda Maritime Museum (BMM), 631, 960
Bernstein, David, 774
berth deck, 1110, 1111f
berthing deck beam. See lower deck beam
Bertrand, 195, 626
best bower anchor, 1108
best practice, in museums, 1042–1043
Bet Dwarka Island site, 518–519
archaeological finds, 519
Harappan sites on, 518
Bethune Blackwater (schooner), 674
HMS Betsy, 867–868
bevel, 1110, 1130f
gauge, 1122f
beveled edge. See chamfer
bevel gauge, 1110, 1122f
beveling, 1110
Bézier, Pierre-Etienne, 235
BG2 shipwreck site, 692–693
Bienfaisant, 867
Bikini Atoll, 602, 712
bilge, 1110
mud, 216
bilge boards, 1110
bilge clamp, 1110. See also ceiling
bilge keel, 1110
bilge keelson, 1128
bilge ledge, 1110
bilge strake, 1110, 1111f
bilge wale. See bilge strake
bill, on anchor, 1108
binding strake, 1111f, 1112, 1114f
biofouling, 689
Birkenhead, 482
Birnam Wood, 600
Bismarck, 711
Bismarck, Otto von, 467
bite, 1112
bitts, 1112, 1125f
Blaauwbergstrand, South Africa, 482
Black Assarca Island site, 504
Black Death, 446
Black Sea, 204, 207. See also Kitten, Bulgaria, shipwreck site location at
seafaring routes, 437, 437f
Black Swan shipwreck, 211
blade, steering, 1139f
Blair, Clay, 983
Blaugher, Michael, 992
Bliar, Clay, 971
blockade runners, 1086
block ships, 717, 867
Blume, Curtis, 665
Blundell, Odo, 923
Boardman, John, 10
Board of Aeronautics, US, 1006
boat building. See ship construction
boat ethnography, 881
boat graves, 861
bobstay holes, 1132f
bobstay piece, 1112, 1132f
Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology, 11–12, 14, 16
body lines. See station lines
boilers, 610, 614, 616–617
bolts, 1112, 1124f. See also specific bolts
Bom Jesus, 485
Bonaire, 639
(p. 1160) Bonaparte, Napoleon, 176
bonaventure mizzen, 454
Bon-Porté 1, 37, 163, 209, 365
as sister ship of Jules-Verne 9, 37
boomer systems, in SBPs, 76
Bordeaux, 431, 433
Boscawen, 867
boss. See wart
Boston, Massachusetts, US, 445
botanical analyses, 689, 693, 700
bottom, 1112
bottom-based ship construction, 29–30, 451
bottom-penetrating sonar, 212
bottom planking, 1111f
Bouger, Pierre, 409–410, 414, 416–417
Bouldnor, 800
Boulton, Matthew, 612
Boulton and Watt engine, 613
bow, 1112
construction, 1132f
bow drill, 1112, 1122f
bower anchor, 1108
bowsprit, 1108f, 1112, 1134f
Boxgrove, 764, 795
boxing, 1112, 1127f
Bozburun shipwreck, 216, 409, 416
brace, 1112, 1122f
bracket, 1112
brailing rings, 390
branches, 216
Branch T. Archer, 668
Branford, Eric, 648
Brathwaite, Angelique, 647
Brazil, 695–696
Conde d’Aquila, 695
18th century, 695–696
Mejillones shipwreck, 699
Recife shipwreck, 695–696
16th century, 695–696
HMS Wager, 697–698
breadth, of beams, 1112
breadth of floor line, 1136
breaming. See graving
breaming hook, 1122f
breast hook, 1108f, 1112, 1132f
breastwork, 1112
Bredenhof, 482
breechloading, 463
Bremen Cog, 9, 11, 233, 428, 467, 1087
Bresle River, 798
brion, 269
Bristol, England, 431, 433, 442, 750
British Admiralty, types of, 522
British Archaeological Trust, 1050
British Aviation Archaeological Council, 1002
British Marine Aggregate Producers Association (BMAPA), 786, 799–800
British Overseas Territories. See Anguilla; Cayman Islands; Turks and Caicos
Brittany, 430–431
Britton, Benjamin, 307
broad axe, American, 1122f
broadside gunnery, 465, 601
Bronze age, ancient harbors in, 810–812
Akrotiri, 811
Byblos, 811
Lothal site, 811
Pylos, 812
Tel Dor, 812
Theban tombs, 811
Tyre, 811
Bronze age shipwrecks
as cargo scatters, 209
Dover Boat, 183–184
in Mediterranean Sea, route crossings of, 203–4, 203f
nautical archaeology for, 4
Uluburun, 5, 9
bronze cannon, in Cayo Nuevo Reef, 971
bronze ram, 207–8
Brother Jonathon (steamship), 596–597, 951
Browne, Charles, 613
Brozoski Museum, 138, 156–158, 687
Bruni, Stefano, 186
Brunswick, 482
Bruseth, James, 291
Brutus, 668–669
Buckeye State, 611
Budhel site, 520
El Buen Consejo shipwreck, 632
Buen Jesus Nuestra Señora del Rosario, 211
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 136, 196, 694
building stone, 384, 819
bulkhead, 551–552, 554, 1112
bulwark, 1111f, 1112
bungs, 205
buoyancy, in ship construction, 28–29, 205
burden, 1112
Bureau of Land Management, 671
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), 91
buried ships, 182–198. See also shipwrecks
antiquity to Late Roman Period, 183–187
beached shipwrecks and, 183
from Byzantine period, 187–191
dendrochronology studies of, 188
galea ships, 189–191, 191f
Helgeandsholmen Island ships, 192
from Medieval period, 192–194
of modern era, 196–197
near London, England, 195
near New York City, 195
near San Francisco, California, 195–197
from Roman period, 192
from seventeenth to nineteenth centuries, 194–197
at Yenikapi site, 182, 188–191
Burlington Bay Horse Ferry, 1059–1060, 1060f
(p. 1161) Burmeister & Wain Shipyard, 193
butt, 1112
butt joint, 1112, 1127f, 1130f
buttock, 1112
buttock lines, 1113
B&W 1, 193
B&W 2, 193
B&W 3, 193–194
B&W 4, 193–194
B&W 5, 193–194
B&W 6, 194
B&W 7, 194
B&W 8, 194
B&W engine factory site, 861
Byblos, 204, 811
byrding-type ships, 42
Byzantine period, 177
buried ships from, 187–191
galea ships, 189–191
shipbuilding during, 190
cable locker, 1113
Cabo de Boa Esperanza. See Cape of Good Hope
caboose, 1113
Caesar, Julius, 389
Caesarea Marittima, 390, 818, 824, 1070
USS Cairo, 6, 115
caissons, 718f
Calais, France, 431, 798
Cala Sant Veniç, 163, 365, 369
calcereous mollusk burrows, 207
Calicut, India, 479
California, US, 1065–1066
California Gold Rush, 195–196, 595–597
Pacific Ocean steamers, 595–597
California v. Deep Sea Research, 951
Caligula (Emperor), 381, 392
Callmer, Johan, 742
Cam2measure, 235
camber, 1111f, 1113
Campbell, Åke, 734
Campeche, Sound of, 969, 975–977, 978f
“El” Pesquero, 978
Canada. See also Great Lakes region; Quebec, bateaux
beached shipwrecks in, 183
cultural resource management in, 960
underwater preserve programs in, 1067–1069
whitewater archaeology in, 6
Canada Shipping Act of 2001, 960
canal boats, 9, 1058–1060, 1074
canals, construction of, 450. See also Grand Canal; Panama Canal; Shropshire Union Canal; Suez Canal
ship size and, 458
Canary Islands, 446
Candace, 197
cannons, 433, 448–452, 461–463
at Don Pancho site, 975, 980
in ship construction, 35–36
Cano, Javier García, 695
canoes, for Lucayan tribes, 642
Canoes of Oceania (Haddon/Hornell), 589
Canterbury Archaeological Trust, 184
cant frames, 1113, 1120, 1133f
cap, 1113
Cap Blanc Nez, 798
Cape Agulhas, 475
Cape Dramont, 6
Cape Gelidonya shipwreck, 6, 15, 209, 362, 382
Cape Horn, 460, 595–596
Cape Iria, 209
Capelotti, P.J., 1001
Cape of Good Hope
indigenous people of, 477f
shipwreck research for, 481
Cape of Storms, 479
Cape Town, South Africa, 479–480
shipwrecks near, 479
Cape Verde Islands, 446, 662
La Capitana de los Mares del Sur, 931
Capo Granitola A shipwreck, 385
caprail, 1111f, 1113
capstan, 1113
crab, 1116
caravela, 451
cardboard models, of ships, 237
careen, 1113
careening techniques, 52, 193, 667, 840
carets, 1135f
cargoes, on ships
of amphorae, 35
capacity for, 205
ghost, 216
invisible, 208
cargo ships, 529, 811
Caribbean Community (CARICOM), 933
Caribbean Sea, 629–651. See also Anguilla; The Bahamas; Bermuda; Cayman Islands; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Haiti; Jamaica; Puerto Rico
cultural resource management, 960
future policies, 650
heritage value of, 629–630
international developments in, 630–631
map, 630f
regional developments in, 630–631
treasure value of, 629–630
UCH of, 629–631
underwater cultural heritage programs in, 1072
CARICOM. See Caribbean Community
carling, 1113, 1114f, 1129, 1134f
Carlsson, Dan, 742
Car of Neptune, 614
Carondelet, 672
(p. 1162) Carrell, Toni, 648
carrick bitts, 1114, 1125f
Cartagena, Colombia, 699
Carthage, 813
Carucci, Marshall, 894
carvel-built construction, 435, 451–452, 1114
clinker-built vs., 1114
carvel joint. See butt joint
Casson, Lionel, 36
USS Castine, 678n2
cast iron, 624
Castle Island ships’ graveyards, 866f
castles, 207, 429
Castro, Filipe, 9, 312, 641
Catalonia, 11, 242
catastrophic abandonment, 858
cathead, 1108f, 1114
cattail, 1114
Cattewater shipwreck, 255
caulking, 1115. See also luting
caulking batten, 1115
caulking irons, 1122f
caulking mallet, 1115, 1122f
causeways, 815
Cave Automated Virtual Environments (CAVEs), 310, 313f
Cavelier Sieur de La salle, Robert, 267, 291, 664
Cayman Islands, 633–636
Abandoned Wreck Law and, 633
CINM, 634
Heritage Trail in, 365
shipwreck inventory for, 634
Cayman Islands National Museum (CINM), 634
Cayo Nuevo Reef, 971–972
C&C Technologies, 674
Ceci, Lynn, 774
ceiling, 1114f, 1115, 1134f
common, 1111f, 1116
Celèbre, 1068
centerboard, 1115
centerboard schooners, 674
Center of Nautical and Regional Archaeology Dor (CONRAD), 169
Central America, 13, 15, 206, 214–215
central longitudinal timbers, 175
Centre for Maritime Archaeology and Conservation (CMAC), 287, 641
Centre for Underwater Archaeology (CAU), 250
ceramics
during ancient Greece, 386
at Dor/Tantura lagoon shipwreck sites, 172
from Ma’agan Michael wreck, 163
from Media Luna Spring, 972
during Roman period, 386
Cermeño, Juan Rodrigues, 591
César I. See Villenueve-Bargemon I
Ceylon, 523
Chagos Archipelago Marine Reserve, 957
chamfer, 1115, 1130f
Champlain II, 1060–1061
channel, 1115
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, 596
Channel Islands National Park, 596
channel wale, 1115
Charles Cooper, 870
Charles I (King), 415, 434, 440
SS Charles Morgan, 717
Charleston, 669
Charleston, South Carolina, US, 467, 618, 951
Charley Nobel, 1108f, 1115
Charlotte Dundas, 612
chase port, 1115
Chaul, 522
check. See shake
cheek, 1108f, 1115, 1125f
Cheops ship, 182, 861. See also Khufu ships
Chesapeake Bay, 713
Chevalier, Michel, 621
Chibuene, Mozambique, 479
Childe, V. Gordon, 921
Chile, 696–699
Comisión Nacional de Monumentos, 696
18th century, 699
Mejillones shipwreck, 699
19th century, 696–697
outreach, for excavations in, 696
Valparaíso project, 696–697
HMS Wager, 697–698
China
Arab merchants in, trade with, 542
beached shipwrecks in, 183
cultural resource management in, 961
dynasty timelines for, 538t
European influences on, 553
Grand Canal, 495, 553
during Han Dynasty, 541
in Japan, during expansion, 541, 544
Korea and, during expansionism, 544
log boats, 537, 541
maritime characters in early texts, 537
maritime study from, 545–550
during Ming Dynasty, 553–555
Mongols and, 544–545
during Neolithic period, 541
nonexpansion as state policy in, 555
pre-expansion maritime history, 536–543
during Shang Dynasty, 537
ship construction, during maritime expansion, 535–556
during Sing Dynasty, 543–553
during Sung Dynasty, 546
during Tang Dynasty, 542–543
during Yuan Dynasty, 543–553
chine, 613, 1115
(p. 1163) Chinese porcelain, 982
Chios, 433
Chios, 208
Chippewa, 638
Chirp technology, 75f, 76
artifact identification with, 76
chisel. See mortising chisel
Ch’ng, Eugene, 314
chocks, 1114f, 1115, 1130f, 1132f
Chrisi Island, 205
Christensen, Arne Emil, 417
Christianshavn, Denmark, 193, 861
Chubut, 692–693
Churchill (schooner), 597–598, 598f
Chuuk Lagoon, 602
Cicero, Marcus Tullius, 385
Ciencias y Ecología Aplicada (CEA), 696
Cinchorro Bank, Biosphere Reserve, Quintana Roo, 983
Cinque ports, 429f
cistern, 1115
City of Adelaide, 859
City of Hawkinsville, 1062
City of Waco, 678
Ciudad del Carmen, 979
Civil War, US, 467–468, 601, 602, 662, 670–673. See also Confederate States of America
converted ferries during, 670–671
Claasen, Cheryl, 768
clamps, 1111f, 1115, 1129, 1133f. See also specific clamps
Clapton logboat, 867
Clarke, Arthur C., 52–53, 923
classical archaeology, 9, 379, 397, 924
Claudius (Emperor), 185, 821
Claudius, port of, 37, 39
shipwrecks in, 185
Clausen, Carl, 95
clench bolt, 1124f
clenched lap. See clinker-built
Cleopatra, 394, 1072
USS Clifton, 671
clinch, 1115
clinker-built construction, 450–452, 458, 1116
carvel-built vs., 1114
in Nordic ships, 451–452, 458
roves, 1116
Slavic, 450
clipper ships, 460
cloud computing, 322
club maul, 1122f
Clydesdale Plantation, 459f
coak, 1116
coak joints, 1136
coaming, 1114f, 1116, 1122
coastal activity zones, 764
coastal archaeology, 4, 763–778
in Australia, 769
coastal definitions in, 764
coastal paradox, 765
coastal surveys, 770–771, 777
continuity in, 773–774
cultural processes in, 764–766
development of, 766–770
dynamism in, 773–774
environmental processes in, 764–766
environment and, 775–776
erosion, 764, 766
Ferriby boats in, 767
history of, 766–770
maritime archaeology and, 770–771
method for, 776–778
ports in, 765
in Scandinavia, 765
sea level changes, 765–766
shell middens in, 767–768
site formation processes, 766
social identity in, 772–773
state formation, 774–775
subsistence in, 770
theory in, 772–776
in US, 769–770
coastal communities, 895
Coastal Maritime Archaeological Resources (CMAR), 596
coastal paradox, 765
coastal process zone, 764, 766
coastal surveys, 522, 524, 742, 768–770
tidal levels for, 777
Coastal Zone Management Unit (CZMU), 647
Cochin, 50, 479
cod, as replacement for herring, 465–466
cognitive landscapes, 745, 746, 751–754
cogs, 428–429
Cold War, 708, 712, 721, 725, 868
Coleman, Ron, 570
collections, of artifacts. See also curators
deaccessioning of objects in, 1041, 1049–1050
early collection strategies, 1042–1045
expansion of, 1046
storage facilities for, 1049
at HMS Swift shipwreck site, 154–155
Colloques Internationaux d’Histoire Maritime, 908
Colombia, 699. See also Cartagena, Colombia
outreach, for excavations in, 699
colonialism, 446–448
with merchantmen ships, 460
colonization. See colonialism
Columbus, Christopher, 441, 632
Comacchio shipwreck, 184, 395
Comet (schooner), 599
(p. 1164) Comisión de Rescate Arquelógico Submarino (CRAS), 642–643
Comisión Nacional de Monumentos, 696
commercial fishing
in Alaska, 597
as archaeological threat, 1010–1013
in Baltic Sea, 465
in North Sea, 465
trawler nets, 202
trawling, 803, 1011–1013, 1014
commercial salvage, of shipwrecks, 592, 643, 700, 1011, 1098
Commission Internationale d’Histoire Maritime, 909
common ceiling, 1111f, 1116
community museums, 1048
companion, 1116
companion way, 1116
compass timber, 1116
compound molds, 1135, 1135f
compressors, at HMS Swift shipwreck site, 136, 138, 146–147, 152–153
computer aided design (CAD), 309
computer vision, 322
concentration of capital, 447, 465
concrete technology, in Roman harbors, 816–817, 819–820
hydraulic, 817, 819–820
concretions, 126, 253–254, 288, 290, 484, 692, 971, 1094
Conde d’Aquila, 695
Confederate States of America, 468, 666
Congrès Internationale de Sciences Historique, 909
Conrad, Joseph, 763
Conrich, Robert, 632
Consejo para la Conservación y Estudio de Sitios y Recursos Arqueológicos Subacuáticos, 640
consequential abandonment, 858
conservation movements
cultural resource management and, 943–944
museum programs and, 1044–1045
nautical archaeology and, 9
conservation procedures, at shipwreck sites, 156–157
for La Belle, 291–299
electrolytic reduction, 295
for encrustations, 288–290, 289f
for 1554 plate fleet, 287–290
for Mardi Gras shipwreck, 299–301
in maritime archaeology, 286–302
for ‘mystery’ wooden chest in situ, La Belle, 292–296, 292f, 294f
of nocturnals, 296–929, 298f
with PEG, for ship wood, 165–167
Conservation Research Laboratory, 267, 287, 664
conservators, in museum, 990
Constantinople, 5, 188, 826
contaminations, of excavation sites, 216
Contarini 1, 408
Contiguous Zone, 927, 927f
Continental Europe. See Europe
Continental Shelf, 475
contour mapping, 95–96
control points, 235
Convention on Salvage, 935
Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage of Europe, 947
Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage (UNESCO), 15–16
Convert shipwreck, 634
Cook, Greg, 127f, 645
Cook, James, 589
Copenhagen, Denmark, 33, 193
copper-bottomed vessels, 206, 1116
copper fastened, 1116
copper pellets, 217
coprolites, 216
cordage, 1116
Corinth, 813
Cornwallis Cave wreck, 867
Corpus Christi Museum of Science and History, 290
Cosa harbor, 817
Costeau, Jacques-Yves, 5
Council for Nautical Archaeology, 7
Council of Europe, 933
Council of Museums (COM), 1032
counter, 1108f, 1116, 1133f, 1139f
counter timbers, 1116, 1133f
County Hall, 184, 861
Courtney, T.W., 837
Coustea, Jacques, 380
‘Cowcatcher.’ See Jason
crab, 1116
cradle, 1116
craters, from relics, 206
Crawford, O.G.S., 767
Cremonia, 672
Crete, 203, 205, 349
crews, on ships, 393, 431, 434, 456
hierarchy among, 31
crib hulk, 861
Croatia, 1071
crone, 1116
crossbeam, 1116
riding bitts, 1125f
cross pillar. See pillars
crosspillars, 1113f
Crossthwaite, Molly, 633f
crotch, 1116
crown, 1108. See also camber
Crown Estate, 786
Crumlin-Pedersen, Ole, 40, 233
Crusaders, 437–438
The Crusades, 438
crutch, 1117, 1134f
Cuba, 642
Cuba, 694
cuddy, 1117
Culip VI shipwreck, 251–252, 254, 260–261, 408
floor timber molds, 414f
cultural heritage, maritime, management of, 1090–1091. See also underwater cultural heritage
legislation for, 1090–1091
value of, 629–630, 920
cultural landscape, 734
cultural parks, 1048
cultural resource management, maritime, 942–963
in Canada, 960
in Caribbean, 960
in China, 961
conservation processes and, 943–944
international perspectives on, 958
international support for, 944f
outreach as part of, 955–956
in Portugal, 960
preservation laws and, 945–956
scuba as factor in, 942
in South Africa, 960
technology as influence on, 943–945
in Turkey, 959–960
with volunteer divers, 952f
culverin, 461–462
Cummins, Alissandra, 647
Curaçao, 639–640
Curaçao Maritime Museums, 640
curators, 1041
current-borne particles, 207
currents. See ocean currents
curved S scarf, 1117, 1127f
Cussler, Clive, 924
cutting-down line, 1117
Cutty Sark, 311
cutwater, 1108f, 1117
cylinder timbers, 621–622, 625
Cyprus, 163, 204
Cyprus-Egypt route, 204
Dabhol site, 522–523
dagger knee, 1111f, 1117
dagger piece, 1117
Dalswinton Loch, 612
damaged edges, 235
Damianidis, Kostas, 417
Danish Asiatic Company, 482
Danish Maritime Institute (DMI), 238
Danzig/Gdańsk, 453
Dartmouth shipwreck, 61–63
discovery of, 63
site formation process for, 63
site location, 62f, 63
Darwin, Charles, 1095
Dashur boats, 182, 352, 354
databases, in digital libraries, 335–336
David, 193
D-Day wreckage, site formation processes for, 720
dead flat, 1117
Deadman’s Island wreck, 667
dead museums, 1045
deadrise, 1111f, 1117
deadwood, 1108f, 1117, 1133f. See also rising wood
deadwood knee, 1108f, 1117
of La Belle, 270f
deadwood rabbet, 1130f
deadwork, 1117
deal, 1117
Deane, Anthony, 452
debris
anomalies, 105–6
trail, 109
deck beam, 1114f, 1117, 1134f
deck beam scarf, 1114f
deck framing, 1132f
deck framing details, 1113–1114f
deck hook, 1117, 1132f
deck plank, 1114f
deck transom, 1117, 1133f
decompression diving, 6, 210
nitrogen narcosis from, 823
at HMS Swift shipwreck site, 143, 145, 148
Deep Spank, 215
deep submergence archaeological excavations (DSAE), 212–213
deep-submergence archaeology (DSA) 202–218. See also deep water archaeology; deep water shipwrecks
artifact identification in, 213–214
AUV for, 210
bilge mud in, 216
deep spank in, 215
dendrochronological studies in, 216
DGPS for, 212
digital video of, 218
divers, 210–211
DNA retrieval in, 216
documentary films of, 218
DSAE, 212–213
dynamic positioning in, 212
elevators in, 216–217, 217f
fiber optics in, 212
ghost cargoes in, 216
high-definition video in, 212
(p. 1166) hull-raising in, 216–217
methodology limitations of, 212
paleoethnobotanical materials from, 216
photomosaics for, 213
preserved wood timbers in, 216
publication of project, 217–218
recording in, 210
ROVs for, 210, 210f, 212
SBPs for, 213
sediment traps in, 214
side-scan sonar in, 212
site planning for, 213
snufflers in, 212, 214, 215f
synthetic sandbags in, 217
three-dimensional constructs of, 218
training requirements for, 211–212
treasure hunting and, 211
vessel ethnic identity and, 213
water dredges for, 214
Deep Water, Ancient Ships (Bascom), 204
deep water archaeology, 15–16
development of, 15
future potential of, 1093
in international waters, 15
with Ormen Lange, 1019–1028
power plants, 208
of Uluburun shipwreck, 15
deep water boring mollusks, 207
deep water shipwrecks
air pockets in, 205
amphoras and, 202, 205
anchor drag in, 208
anchors in, 206
anthropogenic threats to, 208
forensics of, 204–8
geological effects on, 208
hull timbers, 207
marine borers and, 205–6
treasure hunting of, 208
waterlogging of, 205
Defence (ship), 867, 1134f
Defiance, 670
De Gama, Vasco, 441, 446, 479
degradation, of PEG, 168
Delaware River, 612
Delgado, James, 197, 596
deliberate abandonment, 859
deliberate wrecking, 859
Deliverance, 594
Delos, 813
de Luna, Tristán, 662–663
Denbigh, 671
dendrochronology studies, of shipwrecks, 171, 177, 184, 188
in DSA, 216
Department of Naval Architecture and Offshore Engineering, 238
depth of hold, 1117
desalination phase, of Ma’agan Michael wreck, 168
design, in ship construction, vessel size and, 392–393
desktop surveys, in underwater archaeology, 115–117
Desoto Wildlife Refuge, 195
Devendra, Somasiri, 869
devis, 268, 271, 282–283
Dewolf, Helen, 297
dhow ship, 478, 518
diagonals, 1118
diagonal braces, 1117
diagonal framing, 1117
diagonal scarf, 1118, 1127f
Diaz, Bartolomeu, 441, 479
dictionaries. See marine dictionaries
Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), 70
for DSA, 212
for Oranjemund shipwreck, 485
in underwater archaeology, 118
Digital Archive Network for Anthropolgy and World Heritage, 332
digital documentation, of DSA, 218
digital elevation models, 312
digital imaging, in pre-disturbance surveys, 129–130, 129f. See also underwater photography
digitalization
in post-excavation documentation, 245
in ship reconstruction, 245
digital libraries, 327–344, 343f
archaeological data enhancement in, 331–333
contextual uses of, 329
databases in, 335–336
glossaries, 335
information retrieval, 337–338
interfaces in, 339
metadata in, 341
multilingual glossaries, 339
NADL, 328, 333–342
for nautical archaeology, 332
ontologies in, 335, 341–342, 342f
purposes of, 331
scholarship and, 328–329
ship reconstruction and, 330–331
supporting materials in, 336–339, 337f
treatises in, 337, 338f
visual representations of ships in, 340–341
digital recording, of drawings, in ship, 245
digitizing arm, 235
dimensional draft, 410, 410f, 414–415, 420
diminishing strakes, 1111f, 1118
Dinty Moore, 676
dipoles. See magnetic dipole
Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM), 245–246
Direct Survey Method, at Dor/Tantura lagoon shipwreck sites, 173
The Dirty Gang, 1044
discarding of ships, ritualistic. See ritualistic abandonment
display cases, underwater, 565
distance-angle measurements
in pre-disturbance surveys, 128
for underwater archaeology, 124
diurnal corrections, in magnetic anomalies, 106
dive platform, 138, 149
at HMS Swift shipwreck site, 141–142
dive safety officers, 144–145
diving. See also self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
archaeological, 124, 141, 210
avocational, 468
decompression after, 143, 145, 148
in human-occupied submersibles, 9
regulations, 143
safety officers, 144–145
supervisors, 144–145
at HMS Swift shipwreck site, 138, 140–144
diving helmets, 4
diving supervisors, 144–145
DNA, 216
Dobbs, Chris, 12
dockyards, 351, 434, 480, 523, 836–837, 840–841, 848
documentary films, 218
of HMS Swift shipwreck site, 143
Dodington, 482
Dogger Bank, 86, 794
Doggerland shipwrecks, 313–314, 793–795
doits, 486
Dokos, 209
Dolphijn shipwreck, 634
Dominica, 647
Dominican Republic, 14, 642–643
CRAS in, 642–643
Don Pancho site, 974–976
cannons at, 975, 980
lead ingots at, 980, 981f
Dora Bluhm (schooner), 599
Dor shipwrecks, 169–178, 171t, 176f. See also Tantura lagoon, shipwrecks sites in
anchorage at, 178
ceramics at, 172
dating of, 171
depth of, 172–173
direct measurements at, 173
DSM at, 173
Dymo tags at, 173
geography for, 169
hull conservation in, 174–175
hull construction in, 177
orientation of sites, 170
petrographic analysis of, 172
photomosaics of, 173–174, 174f, 175f
recording of, 173–174
retrieval decisions at, 174–175
RIMS surveys of, 170
sampling of wood, 168
shallow-water excavations of, 172–173
strake-based construction in, 176
tagging at, 173
timber origin of, 175–176
transition in construction of, 176–177
underwater photography of, 173–174
water dredges for, 171
WEB measurements, 174f
Dotson, John, 439
Dotterel, 861
double clench nails, 165, 368, 450
double-ender, 1118
double framing, 1118, 1130f
Dover, England, 183, 798
Dover Bronze Age Boat, 183–184
dowel, 1118
Drachio, Baldissera Quinto, 415
draft, 1118
draft marks, 1118
drag, 1118
dragging, 466
draught. See draft
drawings, in ship reconstruction, 236–239
with AutoCAD, 238
with DDM, 245–246
with digital recording, 245
inner-edge line drawings, 238
NMF Ship software program, 238
outer hull lines, 238
three-dimensional, 245
torso drawings, 238
drawknife, 1118, 1122f
dredgers. See water dredges
drift, 1118
drift bolt, 1118
Drogheda Boat Project, 236, 245
dromons, 191
Dronningen, 241–242
drop keel. See centerboard
drop strake, 1118
dry-dock(s), 839–41
designs of, 840–841
floating, 458
launches from, 839–841
purpose of, 840
in US, 841
(p. 1168) Dublin, Ireland, 41
Duck Pond shipwreck, 634
dugouts, 4, 33, 350, 452, 508, 645
dunnage, 1118
Dunnottar Castle (tallship), 600
Dutch East India Company, shipwrecks, off Australia, 7
Dutch fluit, 207
Dutch Republic, 480, 486. See also Holland; Low Countries; The Netherlands
Dwarka site, 514–519
Bet Dwarka Island, 518–519
jetties at, 516–517
ring stone anchors at, 518
stone anchors at, 516t, 517–518, 518f
stone structures at, 516–517, 517f
Dymo tags, 164, 173
dynamic positioning, in DSA, 212
Eagle, 868
East Africa, 447
East Anglia, 787, 795
East Asia, 536f
schematic models of vessels, 537f
shipbuilding in, during Chinese maritime expansion, 535–556
East Carolina University, Maritime Studies Program, 8, 319, 672, 699
East Greece, 163
East India Company (EIC), 447, 486, 489
East Indiamen, 459, 461, 1087
East Indies, 457
echo sounders
MBES, 68–69, 79
SBES, 68, 74
economic landscapes, 746
Ecuador, 702
education, for nautical archaeology, 7–8. See also training, archaeological
Edward I (King), 431
Edward III (King), 431
Edwin Fox, 861
Egadi Islands, 208
Eglinton, 564
Egypt, 204. See also Abydos, Egypt; Ayn Soukhna site; Cyprus-Egypt route; Wadi Gawasis site
boat graves, 861
Dashur boats, 182, 352
early ship construction in, 350–360
funerary boats, 351–353
Khufu ships near, 5
Minoan sailing to, 203–4
papyriform boats, 351
riverine craft, 350–354
seagoing vessel construction, 354, 359–360
18th century, 695–696, 699
Eighty Years War, 480
ekeing, 1118, 1132f
Elbe River, 798
electrolytic reduction, 295
electronic media, DSAE reliance on, 217–218
Elephanten, 193
elevators, 216–217, 217f
Elissa shipwreck, 206
Emanuel Point, 663
Emanuel Point II shipwreck, 664
Emerald Bay Historic Barges State Park, 1065
emergency procedures, at shipwreck sites, 146
emporion, 813
Ems River, 798
Encyclopedia of Maritime and Underwater Archaeology, 733
endposts, 165–166, 175, 177
engines
Boulton and Watt engine, 613
game, 309–310
high pressure, 621
low pressure, 612–613, 619
side lever, 614–615
England, 768. See also London, England
English Channel, 439, 794, 797–798
English East India Company, 480, 582
entrance, 1118
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), 799
environmental possibilism, 772
Ephesus, 183
Eratosthenes Seamount, 204
ErieQuest, 1068
Erlandson, Jon, 765
erosion, 764, 766
Espey, Huston and Associates, Inc., 671
Espíritu Santo, 284, 290, 663
ethics, 917–925, 1096–1097
codification of, 918
context for, 918–919
for maritime museums, 1097
professional, 919
public, 919
social implications of, 917–918
ethnoarchaeology, 892, 897n1
ethnography, maritime
boat recording, 528
evidence of, 478, 489
sociocultural depth of, 890
ethnohistorical studies, 880, 887, 891, 893–894
Etruscans, 186
ancient harbors for, 812–814
Euboea, 163
(p. 1169) Europe. See also Denmark; England; France; Germany; Greece; Ireland; Italy; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Scotland; Spain; Sweden; United Kingdom
World War II losses, of life and crafts, 710
Evans, Oliver, 613
excavations. See also maritime archaeology; shallow-water excavations, of Dor/Tantura lagoon shipwreck
of ancient harbors, in Mediterranean, 822–825
contamination of, 216
digital elevation model, 312
DSAE, 212–213
funding for, 136–137
at Nemi, 389
objectives, 137
at Ormen Lange gas field, 1025, 1026f
outreach for, 319–320, 662, 678, 686, 955, 1091
planning for, 135–138
post-excavation documentation, 233–236
reburial after, 1050
safety on, 145–146
sponsors for, 136
at HMS Swift shipwreck site, 137, 140f, 146–159
3D computer models, 238
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), 647, 927–928, 927f, 946
Exeter Book, 427
exhibitions. See maritime museums
expansionism, 490
in China, 535–556
Expeditions Unlimited, Inc., 672
experience, archaeological, 142–143
experimental archaeology, 9, 239, 241, 246
maritime, 233
eye bolt, 1118, 1124f
eyes, 1118. See also hawse hole
Fabrica de Galere, 415
faering, 9
fair, 1118
fair curve, 1118
Falkland Islands, 134, 870
fall home. See tumblehome
False Bay, 475
false keel, 1108–9f, 1111f, 1119, 1130f
false keelson. See rider keelson
false piece, 1139f
false stem, 1119
false sternpost, 1119
Farmer, George, 687
FaroArm, 234–237, 234f
post-excavation documentation, 234–236, 234f
scale models, 237
vector graphics in, 235
FaroArm-Rhino Archaeology Users Group (FRAUG), 245
Farragut, David, 670
fashion piece, 1119–1120, 1133f
fastenings, 1124f. See also bolts
fathometer, 122
Fathom Five National Marine Park, 960, 1068
HMS Favourite, 134
fay, 1119
Federal Law on Archaeological, Artistic and Historical Monuments and Zones (Mexico), 984–985
Federal Sea Law, Mexico, 985
Federal University of Pernambuco, 695
Fennia, 870
Fernandes, Manoel, 418
Ferriby boats, 184, 551, 767
ferries, 456, 1059, 1060f
converted, during US Civil War, 670–671
horse-powered, 11
routes for, 749
steam power and, 614
ferromagnetism, 94
fiber optics, 212
1554 plate fleet, 287–290
figurehead. See head
figure piece, 1119, 1132f
filling frame, 1119, 1130f
filling piece, 1119, 1130f
fine lines, 1119
finite element analysis, 311
Finland, underwater cultural heritage programs in, 1072
Finney, Ben, 589
first futtock, 1130f
first square frame, 1132f
fish, 1119
Fish and Wildlife Service, US, 195, 953
fishhooks, 518, 530
fishing. See also commercial fishing
in Alaska, 597
in Baltic Sea, 465
dragging in, 466
folkloric traditions for, 882
in India, within communities, 888
among Maori people, 887
optimal fishing areas, internationally, 1011
during post-Medieval period, 465
in UK communities, 886
fishplate, 1119, 1124f
fish weir, 773
Fitch, John, 612–613
Fiumicino ships, 37, 37f, 185
archaeological interpretations of, 38–39
fixed tenon and single mortise, 1136, 1137f
Fjellström, Phebe, 742
flare, 1119
flat scarf, 1119, 1127f, 1130f
flat wedge. See forelock bolt
Fleet Air Arm Museum, 1005–6
Flemming, Nicholas, 767
floating drydocks, 458
(p. 1170) floating hypotheses, 244, 1088
floats, 28
floor, of vessel, 1119
floor head, 1119
floor head line. See rising line
floor ribband, 1119
floor rider, 1113f
floor timber, 1109f, 1119, 1130f
HMS Florida, 667
Florida, US. See also Pensacola Bay; Tampa Bay
Bureau of Archaeological Research, 663, 1062, 1075–1076
Division of Historical Resources, 673, 674, 1062
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, 1066–1067
Underwater Archaeological Preserve system, 1062
Florida Aquarium, 673
Florida Museum of Natural History, 635
Florida State University, 649, 672
flotas, 677n1
flotsam, 929t
flush deck, 1119
folklore traditions, in maritime communities, 885–887
fishing as part of, 882
Fontánez-Aldrea, Richard, 640
foot wale, 1111f, 1120
force feedback manipulation, 214, 1025
Ford, Julie, 712
fore-and-aft sails, 456, 597
forecastle, 51, 63, 197, 1120
forefoot, 1108f, 1120
fore hood, 1120
forelock bolt, 1120, 1124f
forepeak. See peak
forestry. See Baltic timber trade
formaldehyde, 168
Fortress of San Juan de Ulúa, 969
Forward, 1061
frame(s), 29, 1119–1120, 1130f. See also ship construction; skeletal construction; specific frames
active, in ship construction, 33
battens and, 33, 1110
fashion pieces, 1119–1120
floor timber, 1109f, 1119
futtocks, 1120
passive, in ship construction, 33
top timbers, 1120
frame head. See timber head
frame heel. See timber heel
France. See also Marseilles, France
beached shipwrecks in, 183
navy, early, 419
ship construction in, 451
Franchthi Cave, 203
freeboard, 1120
freedom of high seas, 926–927, 945
free tenon and three or more mortises, 1136, 1137f. See also coak joints
free tenon and two mortises, 1136, 1137f
French and Indian War, 867
French Caribbean, 638–639
GRAN in, 605
French Frigates Shoal, 594, 598
Friel, Ian, 836
frigates, 598, 634, 698
Frontenac, 618
Frost, Honor, 36
F.T. Barney, 948f
full-rigged ships, development of, 455f, 460
full-scale reconstructions, 239–241
archaeological evidence requirements for, 240–241
boatbuilders’ experience in, 240
documentation for, 241
of Gokstad, 239
inner-edge lines drawings, 239–240
with I-ship program, 246
with NMF Ship software program, 238, 246
public awareness as outcome of, 241
of Rana, 243
of Saga Siglar, 242–243
sailing trials after, 241–244
ship-finds and, 241
of Skuldelev ships, 240f, 242–243
standardized trials for, 242–243
tool marks, 241
of Viking, 239
Fulton, 614
Fulton, Robert, 611, 613. See also steam power; steamships
Fulton-Livingston monopoly, 614
Fundación Terra Firme, 699
funerary boats, in Egypt, 351–353
hull construction for, 352f
fungi, 216
furring. See sheathing
Furtenbach, Joseph, 260
Fury Shoals site, 504
futtock(s), 1120
second, 1111f
futtock head, 1130f
futtock plank, 1120
futtock rider, 1113f
Gadaranoussi Island. See Chrisi Island
Gagnan, Emil, 5
CSS Gaines, 672
galea ships, 189–191, 191f
La Galga, 951
Galilee, Sea of, 11, 863
Galle, port of, 488
gallery, 1120
(p. 1171) galley, 454, 1120
of HMS Swift, 689
Galveston, Texas, US, 661, 676
game engines, 309–310
gammoning hole, 1121, 1132f
gammoning knee, 1121
gammon piece, 1121, 1132f
garbage, 216
garboard, 1109f, 1111f, 1121
Garcia Ortiz, Gustavo Adolfo, 641
Gariep River, 474
Garrison, Ervan, 96
Gaspar, Harold, 643
Gawronski, Jerzy, 838
Gela, Greece, 209
Gela 1, 163, 365
Gela 2, 163, 365
General Bustamante, 101, 667
General Butler, 1058
General Carleton, 11
General Harrison, 197, 197f
General Knox, 858
General Law of National Properties (2004), Mexico, 985
genetic research, 919
Geneva Kathleen shipwreck, 635
Genoa, Italy, 431, 438–439
sailing vessels, 432
Genoese-Venetian Wars, 438–440
Gentlemen of Fortune, LLC, 677
Geographical Information System (GIS)
for Oosterland, 489
in virtual reconstruction, 308
for Waddinxveen, 489
geological phenomena, 208
geometry. See practical geometry
Geo T. Lock, 676
German Atlantic Expedition, 68
Germany. See also Nazi Germany
ship construction in, 450
U-boats, 710–711, 713–714, 944f
Ghogha, port of, 521
ghost cargoes, 216
Ghost wreck, 458f
Gibbons vs. Ogden, 614
Giglio, 163, 365
girdling, 1121
Giza, Egypt, 182, 351
Glamis shipwreck, 636
glass. See raw glass
glass beads, 212
glass wreck, 176
Gledstanes (whaler), 594
Gli Gli Carib Canoe Project, 647
globalization, 446–448
Global Positioning System (GPS)
DGPS, 70
“layback” in, 70
remote sensing with, 69–70, 122
shipwreck anomalies and, 97
in underwater archaeology, 115, 118
glossaries, in digital libraries, 335
Goa coast, 527
Goggin, John, 6
Gökçay, M., 189
Gokstad, 427, 860
as buried ship, 182
full-scale reconstruction of, 239
replica of, 9
gold, 446, 468, 595–597
Goldcliff site, 777
Goldenhorn (tallship), 600
goniometer, 257
Goode, George Brown, 1045
The Good Ship (Friel), 836
Goodwin and Associates, Inc., 670
gouge, 1122f
Governor Stone, 675–676
Gower, Erasmus, 134
Gower, Patrick, 134, 687
Grace Dieu, 767
graffito, 503f
Grand Banks, Newfoundland, 466
Grand Canal (China), 495, 553
Grand Congloué, 5–6, 380, 382
Grande Island, 527
Grand Ribaud, 163, 365
Granzow, Charles, 598
grapnel anchor, 1107f, 1108
grating, 1121
Graveney Boat, 5
graving, 1121
graving iron, 1121, 1122f
graving piece, 1121, 1126f
Gray, Dorrick, 648
Great Barrier Reef, 570
Great Britain. See England
Great Cataraqui River, 869
Great Lakes region, 468, 618–619, 623. See also Lake Erie; Lake Huron; Lake Michigan; Lake Ontario; Lake Superior
steamship service in, 618–620
Great Raft, 622
Great Yarmouth, 786
Greece. See also East Greece; Gela, Greece
ancient (450 BCE - 400 CE)
amphoras, from shipwrecks, 383, 384f
ancient harbors in, 812–814
cargo from shipwrecks during, 383–386
fineware pottery during, 386
manufactured goods, 385
(p. 1172) naval fleets during, 393–395
reference sources for, 379–380
rivercraft, 395
seafaring society during, 379–397
seagoing ships during, 386–393
ship construction technology during, 386–389
trireme, 394
vessel rigging and equipment during, 389–392
vessel size during, 392–393
maritime museums in, 5
naus in, 4
Green, Jeremy, 563
Greenland right whale, 466
green museums, 1048
Grenada, 647–648
grids. See survey grids
Grieco, Glenn, 283
Griffiths, Richard, 690
Grimmer, John, 647
gripe, 1108f, 1120, 1121, 1132f
Grotius, Hugo, 945
ground penetrating radar, 825
Groupe de Recherche en Archèologie Navale (GRAN), 605, 696
in French Caribbean, 605
groynes, 1046
USS Grunion, 724–725
Guadeloupe. See French Caribbean
Guagliardo, Juan Pablo, 700
gudgeon, 1121, 1139f
Guérout, Max, 638, 644
A Guide to Over 900 Aircraft Museums, USA and Canada (Blaugher), 992
Gulf of Barake, 518
Gulf of Kachchh, 519, 530
Gulf of Khambhat, 520–522, 530
stone anchors in, 521
Gulf of Mexico, 660–679, 661f
as blackwater environment, 662
centerboard schooners in, 674
colonization of, 662–666
commercial sailing vessels in, 673–676
conquest of, 662–666
early naval activities in, 666–668
exploration of, 662–666
high-visibility environments in, 661–662
important ports, 661
New Spain fleet shipwrecks in, 973
privateering in, 666–669
Spanish presence in, 664
steamships in, 676–678
territory redefinition, 666–673
trade routes through, 662–663
gun carriage, 59
gundeck, 464, 1113f, 1121
gunports, 461, 463
framing, 1108f, 1121
gunpowder, 462
guns. See specific guns
gunwale, 1111f, 1121
Gurob ship, 316–318
VRML models, 317
Gustav Adolf II (King), 467
Haarlem, 481
habitation sites, 209
Haddon, A.C., 589
Hague Convention, 934
Haiti, 643–644
National Office of Marine Archaeology in, 644
half beam, 1121
half-frame, 1121
Halford, William, 601
Hall, Jerome, 643
Haltenpipe, 1016
Hamilton, Donny, 288
Hampshire Avon River, 798
hand axes
Acheulean, 477
Area 240, 788f
hand drawings, 175
hand mill of stone, 519
handspike hole, 1125f
Han Dynasty, 541
hanging knee, 1111f, 1114f, 1121
Hannah Elizabeth, 101, 669
Hanseatic League, 430, 433
Hanson Aggregate Marine Ltd., 786
Hanuman-no-Timbo site, 520
Harappan sites, 514
on Bet Dwarka Island, 518
Budhel site, 520
Hanuman-no-Timbo site, 520
Lothal site, 520
Padri site, 520
harbor charts, 115
Harbor of Theodosius, 188, 409
harbors. See also specific harbors
land and sea, interface of, 1091
harbor tug, 459
harpins, 1121
Harpster, Matthew, 409, 416
Harris and Morgan Steamship Line, 676
Hartlepool, England, 864
Harvest (whaler), 594
Hassan, Abu-Zaid, 507
hatch beam, 1122
hatch coaming. See coaming
hatchway, 1122
Hathab site, 521
Hatshepsut, 203, 354, 497, 811
(p. 1173) USS Hatteras, 671
Havana, Cuba, 661
Hawaiian Islands
northwestern, 593
Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, 600, 952
Pearl Harbor, 602–4
Hawai ìola, 590
hawse block, 1122
hawse bolster, 1122
hawse hole, 1108f, 1122, 1132f
hawse hook, 1122
hawse pieces, 1120, 1123, 1129
hawse pipe, 1123
hawser, 1123
Hays, Raymond, 639
head, 1123. See also timber head
head knee, 1123. See also cheek; knee of the head; timber head
head ledge, 1114f, 1123
headrails, 1108f, 1123
head timber, 1123
health and safety officers, 1052
health hazards, PEG as, 168
hearth, 1108f
Heart of Darkness (Conrad), 763
Hecht Museum, 162
heel, 1123
heel knee, 1123
Helgeandsholmen Island ships, 192
helm, 1123
helm port, 1123, 1133f
helm port transom, 1123
helmsman’s box, 1139f
Henderson, Graeme, 563, 576
Henry the Navigator, 441
Henry V (King), 439, 451
Henry VI (King), 432
Henry VII (King), 433
Henry VIII (King), 12, 959
Herculaneum, 183
Hercules (ROV), 214
heritage
biases and, 921
conceptual definitions of, 929t
ethics and, as subjective, 920
international perspectives on, 920–922
national perspectives on, 920–922
ownership issues and, 918, 929
protection zones, 927
as public issue, 928
sociopolitical dimensions of, 922
treasure hunting vs., 11–14, 930–932
heritage ships, 1043
Heritage Trail
in Anguilla, 633
in Cayman Islands, 365
Hermes (whaler), 594
Herodotus, 478
Heroine, 622–625, 622f
hull construction, 623–624
propulsion machinery of, 625f
reconstructed lines of, 623f
herring industry, 465–466, 1021
Highborn Cay shipwreck, 637, 641
high-definition video, in DSA, 212
high-energy environments, 90, 97, 104, 475, 599, 605, 777
high pressure engines, 621
hippopotamus teeth, 527
Hispaniola, 643
historical ecology, 776
Historic Environment Records (UK), 1091
Historic Pensacola Preservation Board, 663
Historic Shipwrecks Act (1976), Australia, 116, 564–565, 570
Historic Wrecks Act (2002), Bermuda, 960
Historic Wrecks Advisory Committee (HWAC), 632
Historic Wrecks Ordinance (1974), Turks and Caicos, 636
Hitler, Adolf, 467
Hjortspring boat, 35, 860
H.L. Hunley, 236, 311, 924, 951
Ho, Bert, 635
Hobson, McLean, 648
hog chain truss, 620
hogging, 1123
hoggin truss, 1123
hog timber. See rising wood
Hokule ’a, 590, 590f
hold, 1113f, 1123
holding tanks, 167
Holland, 465
Ministry of Foreign Affairs in, 485
National Archives, 486
polders, 11
shipbuilding in, 33, 193
hollow molds, 1135, 1135f
holograms, 246, 322
Homer, 210, 813, 895
hominids, 477
hooding ends, 1123
hook(s), 1123, 1125
breaming, 1122f
hook and butt planking, 1125, 1126f
hook bolt, 1124f, 1125
hook scarf, 253–254, 261, 1125, 1127f
Hoorn shipwreck site, 690–692
in situ stoneware, 691f
Hornell, James, 589, 883
horning, 1125
horning pole, 1126
horse-powered ferries, 11
horseshoe plate, 1108f, 1124f, 1126
horsing, 1126
Howe, K.R., 589
Huang Ti, 541
(p. 1174) Hudson River, 610
steamship travel on, 613
Huis te Crayensteyn, 481
hull construction
Aegean ships, 365–366, 366f
apron, 1108f, 1109
of Dor/Tantura lagoon shipwrecks, 174–175, 177
for Heroine, 623–624
of Jules-Verne 9, 37–38
in Ma’agan Michael wreck, 164, 166–167
sheathing, 1144
in ship construction, 29–30
during Song Dynasty, 547–548, 548f
for steamships, 618–619
timber, 207, 1108f
hull lines, 169, 239
Hulls, Jonathan, 612
hull timber, 207, 1108f
human error, as cause of shipwrecks, 51
Humber River, 798
CSS Hunley, 467
Hunter, John Bradford, 836
Hunter, Louis, 621
hunter-gatherer camp sites, 477
huri boats, 507–8
USS Huron, 1064–1065
hybrid vessels, 547, 554–555
hydraulic concrete, in Roman harbors, 817, 819–820
hydrodynamic laboratory tank test, 239
hydroliminality, 753
hydro-probes, 120–121
hypodermic needles, 164, 174, 297
hypozomata, 1126
Iberian shipbuilding tradition, 255, 446–447, 451. See also Spain
ICOMOS Charter, 631
icons. See religious icons
idiosyncratic museums, 1042
Ijsselmeer, 194. See also polders; Zuyder Zee
Île du Levant, 6
Immersive Education Media Grid, 322
immigrations, in museum exhibitions, 1048
impact velocity, 206
impregnation, 165–166, 168, 297
incense artifacts, 385
l’Inconstante shipwreck, 634
India, 513–531
amphoras, 524, 530
Bet Dwarka Island site, 518–519
coastal archaeological sites, 515f
Dwarka site, 514–519
fishing communities in, 888
Gulf of Khambhat, 520–522
Harappan sites, 514
Indian Ocean trade and, 514
Indo-Chinese trade, 521–522
Lakshadweep Islands site, 527–529
Maharashtra Coast, 522–523
Mesopotamia sites, 514
Persian Gulf sites, 514
Pindara site, 519–520
Roman trade with, 497–503
Saurashtra coast, 519–521, 530
ship construction development, 514
shipwreck study, off coast of, 526–530
steamship wrecks, 528–529
Tamilnadu coast, 523–526
Traditional Boats Project in, 883f, 884
Indiamen ships, 330, 459, 461, 482, 487f
Indiana, 619–620
Indiana University, 643
Indian Ocean, 437, 438
indigenous peoples
maritime history for, 887, 894
perspective of, in museum exhibitions, 1048
watercraft for, depictions of in museums, 1048
Indonesia, 447, 884, 888. See also Jakarta, Indonesia
sea nomads in, 888, 895
induction. See magnetic induction
induction dredge. See water dredges
industrialization
military influenced by, 449
during post-Medieval period, 449–450
Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), 70
infant burials, at Media Luna Spring, 971
informational technology (IT) specialists, 1052
ingots, 212, 530. See also gold; lead ingots; silver
Inhambane harbor, 475
initial graphics exchange specification (IGES) file, 238
(p. 1175) inner-edge lines drawings, 238
for full-scale reconstructions, 239–240
inner resource landscapes, 746
inner stempost, 1126
inner sternposts, 1108f, 1126, 1133f
in situ conservation, 1051
of Dor/Tantura lagoon shipwrecks sites, 169–178
of Ma’agan Michael wreck, 161–169
Institute for Particle Physics, ETA, Zurich, 171
Institute for the Visualization of History (VIZIN), 315–316
Institute of Anthropology (Argentina), 142
Institute of Field Archaeologists, 959
Institute of Jamaica (1879), 644
Institute of Maritime History (IMH), 649
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA), 7, 12, 170, 189, 236, 382, 645, 971
Institute of Sea Sciences and Limnology, UNAM, 973
Instituto de Investigaciones Constaneras (IIC), 641
insurance. See maritime insurance
insurance laws. See laws, insurance
Intan shipwreck, 543
interfaces, in NADL, 339
intermediate timbers, 1126–1127
International Commission for Maritime History. See Commission Internationale d’Histoire Maritime
International Committee for the Underwater Cultural Heritage (ICUCH), 576, 632
International Committee of Historical Sciences (ICHS), 909
International Committee on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), 116, 933
in situ preservation guidelines, 1050
HMS Swift investigations, 134
UCH under, 946–948
International Council of Maritime Museums (ICMM), 1032, 1047
International Council of Museums (ICOM), 1032, 1047
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration, 7, 569
international law, for underwater cultural heritage, 949
International Maritime Economic History Association (IMEHA), 909
International Maritime Organisation (IMO), 933
International Seabed Authority (ISA), 928
International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology, 239
International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology, and Cultural and Heritage (VAST), 308
international waters, 211, 460, 958, 1015
deep water archaeology in, 15
inverted knee. See standing knee
Invincible, 75f, 83
invisible cargoes, 208
Ireland, 768, 791. See also Dublin, Ireland
Spanish Armada shipwrecks near, 7
Traditional Boats Project in, 881–882, 897
iron(s)
caulking, 1122f
graving, 1122f
reaming, 1122f
ripping, 1122f
iron, as ship construction material, 453
iron anchors, 391
ironclads, 1046, 1066
iron knee. See plate knee
iron maul, 1122f
iron square-rigged ships, 599–600
I-ship program, 246
Isis, 393
Islamic period, 177
Islamic ships, in Red Sea, 505–7
Island Archaeology (Rainbird), 750
isostatic rebound, 765, 774
Israel, Ma’agan Michael wreck near, 11
Israel Antiquities Authority, 169, 1071
Istanbul, Turkey, 177, 182
Istanbul Archeological Museums, 189, 191
Italy. See also Egadi Islands; Pisa, Italy; Ravenna, Italy; Rome; Sicily, Italy; Venice, Italy; Ventotene, Italy
beached shipwrecks in, 183
trade with, 545–546
Ivanhoe (tallship), 599
Izquierdo, Pedro Pujante, 696, 699
Jacob A. Howland (whaler), 594
Jakarta, Indonesia, 447
Jamaica, 644–645. See also Port Royal, Jamaica
Archaeological Research Centre in, 644
National Heritage Trust Act in, 644
National Trust Commission Act, 644
Jamaica National Heritage Trust (JNHT), 644
Jamaica shipwreck, 634
James Matthews, 563
James River, Virginia, US, bateaux in, 196
Japan
Chinese expansion into, 447, 541, 544
military expansion by, 554
ship construction, 552–553
Japan grounds, 593–594
Jasinksi, Marek, 745
Jason (ROV), 214
Jeddah site, 505
Jedinorog, 1017
jeer bitts, 1125f, 1127
(p. 1176) Jessamy, Michael, 647
Jesús María de la Limpia Concepción de Nuestra Señora shipwreck, 931
jetties, 516–517, 522, 1046
Jhelum, 870
jib-boom, 1128
J.M. Colman (schooner), 599
joggled seam, 1126f
joggles, 1128
Joint Irish Bathymetric Survey (JBIS), 84f
Le Joly, 291
SS Josephine, 677
Josephus, 820
Juan, G., 417–418
Jules-Verne 3, 38f
Jules-Verne 7, 163, 186, 209, 365, 368
Jules-Verne 9, 37, 163, 186, 209, 365, 368
Bon-Porté 1 as sister ship of, 37
hull construction of, 37–38
Jung, Silvano, 989
Jung-Pang Lo, 546
junks, 555
Juno, 951
Jydedybet, Denmark, 867
K. V. Kruse (schooner), 598–599
Kad’yak, 955f
Kahanov, Yaakov, 315
kaiten, 721–722, 722f
Kaliyana, 522
Kalmar Harbor, 867
Kapitan, Gerhard, 188
Karamut, I., 189
Kate Dale, 673
Katsev, Michael, 563
kattumaram, 883f, 884, 885f, 886f
Kautilya, 513
Kaveri River, 524
kayaks. See skin boats
kedge anchor, 1108
keel, 29, 1108f, 1109f, 1128, 1130f, 1132f, 1133f
of La Belle, 269–272, 270f
false, 1111f
in ship construction, 29
steering devices and, 1139f
keel plank, 1128
keelsons, 1108f, 1109f, 1111f, 1128, 1133f, 1134f
keel staple, 1108f, 1109f, 1128
Keith, Donald, 636
Kenchreai, 813
Kennemerland shipwreck, 54–56
discovery of, 54
site formation process of, 54–56
site location, 55–56, 55f
Kennett, James, 774
Kenya, 7
kevel head, 1128
keyed hook scarf, 1127f
Khan, Khubilai, 544–545
Khufu ships, 5, 182, 351
kingplank, 1128
King’s Lynn. See Lynn
Kingston, Ontario (Canada), 763, 869
Kingstown Harbour Project, 649
Kinneret boat, 863
Kitten, Bulgaria, shipwreck site location at, 250–265, 251f
hook scarfs, 253–254, 261
hull description, 251–256
longitudinal section of hull, 258f
Mediterranean vessels and, proportional comparisons to, 257t
reconstruction of, 253f, 256–259
waterlines, 257–259
whole molding of, 259–264
Kizilburun shipwreck, 824
knarr-type ship, 42
knee of the head, 1108f, 1129, 1132f
Knidos, 814f
Knight, Donald, 596
knightheads, 1108f, 1120, 1129, 1132f
knuckle, 1129
knuckle timbers, 1120, 1129
Kobacaş, Ufuk, 189
København, 193
Ko-Hyoteki (two-man submarine), 604
Korea, 7, 447, 541
during Chinese expansionism, 544
Penglai ships, 547, 552
ship construction in, 550–553
Kunene River, 474
Kure Atoll, 600–601
Kwajalein Atoll, 868
Kyrenia II (replica), 390, 391f
Kyrenia shipwreck, 7, 9, 35, 163, 365, 382
amphora from, 315–316
shipboard life from interpretation of, 39–40
virtual reconstruction of, 315–316, 316f
VIZIN and, 315–316
Labrador, Newfoundland, 466, 960
lacing, 1132f
Ladby, 182
Lady Sherbrooke, 617–618
Lady Washington, 319
USS Lagarto, 725
lagoons. See specific lagoons
Lake Austin, 675, 675f
Lake Champlain, 5, 619, 1069
Underwater Historic Preserve, 1059f, 1061
Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, 9, 1073
Shipwrecks! program, 1075
(p. 1177) Lake Champlain Steamboat Company, 615
Lake Champlain Underwater Historic Preserve (LCUHP), 1057–1058, 1059f, 1061
Lake Erie, 618–619, 1065
Lake George, New York, 1061–1062
Lake Harappan, 514, 516, 518–520
Lake Huron, 619
marine sanctuaries in, 1067
Lake Mälalren, 192
Lake Michigan, 619
military wrecks in, 709
Lake Nemi ships, 381–382
Lake Ontario, 618
Lake Superior, 619
Lakshadweep Islands site, 527–529
Lamarão I. See Recife shipwreck
Lamboglia, Nino, 382
Lamboglio, Nino, 382
land, plank surface, 1116, 1129
land and sea, interface of, 1091
landscapes. See specific landscapes
Land Tortoise, 1061–1062
lapstrake hulls. See clinker-built
larboard. See port
LaRoche, Daniel, 196
laser scanners. See 3D scanners
last glacial maximum, 562, 793
lateen mizzen, 189, 390, 507, 555
Latin American and Caribbean Group (GRULAC), 631
launching ways, 841, 843–844, 847
“La Lavandera,” 980
Lavanha, Baptista, 50, 52
Lavrion, 163
Law of Navigation and Maritime Trade (2006), Mexico, 985
Law of the Sea Convention (1982), 889, 926–927
maritime zones under, 927, 927f
Lawrence, Susan, 574
Laws of Oléron, 442, 945
layback, in GPS, 70, 124
lead anchor stock, 519
Leader, Jonathan, 642
lead ingots, 519
at Don Pancho site, 980, 981f
lead sheathing, 36
Lechaion, 813
ledges, 1114f, 1129
leeboard, 1129
leeway, 1129
leisure landscapes, 746
Le Maire, Jacob, 690
Lemée, Christian P.P., 193
Lemineur, Jean Claude, 273
lengthening piece. See ekeing
Lenihan, Daniel, 868
Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies (RIMS), 7–8, 162, 165. See also Ma’agan Michael wreck
Dor shipwreck site surveys, 170
Tantura lagoon surveys by, 169
Leptis Magna, 812
Leshikar-Denton, Margaret, 634
Levant, 163, 811
early ship construction, 360–364
Mazarrone shipwreck, 209, 362–364
level lines, 1129
Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 753
Lewis, Vel, 649
Ley de Monumentos Nacionales y Locales (1977), Cuba, 642
Ley de Protección al Patrimonio Cultural (1977), Cuba, 642
Lezama, Antonio, 700
libraries. See digital libraries
liburnian ships, 394–395
lighthouses, 1046
light port, 1129
lignin, 206
limber board, 1111f, 1129
limber hole, 1111f, 1129, 1130f
limber ledges, 1129
limber strake, 1111f, 1129, 1134f
limen, 813
liminal agents, 753
hydroliminality, 753
Limnoria, 485
Lincoln, Abraham, 670
Linder, Elisha, 162
Lindisfarne, England, 862
line of battle, 464
lines, 1131
lining, 1111f, 1131
Link, Edwin, 644
lintle, 1108f, 1131
Lisht, Egypt, 353–354, 359, 498, 864
Little Salt Spring, 3
Little Salt Spring sinkhole, 3
Livingston, Robert R., 613
Livonia, 453
(p. 1178) load line, 1131. See also draft marks
locked pintle, 1131
lodging knee, 1111f, 1114f, 1129, 1131
Loewen, Brad, 261
log boats, 28
in China, 537, 541
Lois McClure, 9, 1074
Lomellina, 35, 254
London, England, 182
buried ships in, 195
London Charter, 321
Longidienus, Publius, 388f
Long Island Sound, 614
longitudinal. See stringer
longue durée, 750, 773–774
loof, 1131
loom, 1131
Lord Krishna, 518
Lothal site, 520, 811
Louisbourg Harbor, Nova Scotia, 1068
CSS Louisiana, 670
Louisiana Purchase, 620, 666
Louis XIV, 419
Low Countries, 450–451, 798. See also Holland
low-energy environments, 97, 777, 810
lower deck beam, 1111f
lower deck planking, 1111f
lower gundeck, 1134f
lower transom, 1133f
low pressure engines, 612–613, 619
Lucayan tribes
burial canoes for, 642
paddles for, 638
skeletal remains of, 642
Lüderitz, 475
lumber schooners, 597–599
Luna, Tristan de, 662
Luna Erreguerena, Pilar, 632
Lusitania, 711, 959
luting, 1131. See also caulking
luting cove, 1131
Lydia, 197
Lyell, Charles, 923
Lynn, England, 431, 433
Lyonesse, 767
Ma’agan Michael wreck, 11, 161–169, 162f, 175, 365
anchor, 1107f
ceramic artifacts from, 163
conservation of wood at, 165–166
conservation tanks, 168
construction materials of, 163, 165
construction of, 162, 164–165
cradle construction for, 167
desalination phase for, 168
dimensions of original ship, 162
documentation of, 163–165
Dymo tapes, 164
final ports of call and, 163
hull form in, 164, 166–167
keel conservation in, 66
location of, 162
MDF supports for, 166
measurements of, 163–165
PEG as preservative for ship wood, 165–167
Pinus brutia as construction material, 165
Quercus as construction material, 165
radiocarbon dating of, 163
reconstruction of, 161–169
recording of, 163–165
replicas of, 169
sewing holes, 164
shrinkage at, 166
in situ conservation of, 161–169
structure of, 162
tagging of components of, 164
timber marking in, 167
underwater photography of, 164
USS Macon, 962
Madrague de Giens shipwreck, 7, 35, 36f, 40–41, 216, 389, 392–393
amphoras, 384
ship dimensions, 40, 41f
magnetic anomalies, 91–92, 94–104
complex sources, 102–3
contour mapping of, 95–96
diurnal corrections, 106
patterns in, 95–96
shipwrecks and, 95–104
simple sources, 102–3
magnetic dipole, 92–93
shipwreck anomalies and, 104
magnetic induction, 93
magnetic interpretation based on, 104–7, 109
shipwreck anomalies and, 103
magnetic interpretation, in maritime archaeology, 90–92
goal of, 94, 105
magnetic induction and, as basis of, 104–7, 109
Magnetic Island, Australia, 859
magnetic moment, 102–3
magnetism, 92–95, 109. See also ferromagnetism
characteristics of, 94f
permanent, 93
in underwater archaeology, 124
magnetometer, 90–91, 95, 570, 692
in underwater archaeology, 124
Mahabalipuram site, 525–526
Mahabharata, 514–515
Maharashtra Coast, 522–523
Mahdia, 6, 381–382
Mahdia coast, 6, 381, 813
main, 1131
(p. 1179) main frame, 1131
main piece, 1131
Mainz river boats, 185
Mainz river boats (Germany), 185, 395
Mainz ships, 185
Maioli, Maria Grazia, 185
Maitzen, August, 734
mallets, 1131
caulking, 1122f
Mallows Bay, Maryland (US), 870
Malsham, 617
Manders, Martijn, 690
manger, 1132
Manila galleon, 590–592, 981–982
Manimekhalai, 524
manning, 455–457
ratio, 456
Maori people, fishing practices for, 887, 894
mapping techniques
acoustic, for remote sensing, 69
for nautical archaeology, 6–7
Mardi Gras shipwreck, 216, 667–668, 668f
conservation procedures for, 299–301
encrustations on, 299–300, 300f
Mare Island Naval Shipyard, 601
margin line. See back rabbet line
margin plank. See nibbing strake
Maria y José shipwreck, 632
marine animals. See also marine borer larvae
at HMS Swift shipwreck site, 142, 689
marine archaeology, 911
marine boneyards, 857, 860
marine borer larvae, 217
marine borers, 205–6, 485
at HMS Swift shipwreck site, 689
marine compass, 544
marine dictionaries, 269, 1105
Marine Isotope Stage (MIS), 790
marine protected areas, 956–958
marine railways, 844–846, 845f. See also Patent Slipway
marine sanctuaries. See also specific marine sanctuaries
Maritime Archaeological and Historical Society (MAHS), 632, 639–640
Maritime Archaeological Project (MAP) of Table Bay, 476. See also Table Bay
maritime archaeology
accommodations at site, 137
administrative considerations for, 136
archaeological standards for, 137
catering issues, 137
coastal archaeology and, 770–771
conservation in, 286–302
costs of, 12
definition of, 4
depth issues in, 140
dive records in, 145
dive safety officers, 144–145
diving experience in, 143–144
diving operations for, 138, 140–142
diving platforms, 141–142
diving supervisors in, 144–145
documentary filming of, 143
emergency procedures in, 146
ethics and, 917–925, 1096–1097
excavation objectives, 137
experimental, 233
of Greek seafaring, from 450 BCE to 400CE, 379–397
as heritage, 920
insurance coverage, 143
internationality of, 1088
international perspectives on, 920–922
legacy of, 1086
magnetic interpretation in, 90–92
maritime history and, 907–914
maritime law and, 925–928
in Mexico, 967–987
museums, 1032–1054
national perspectives on, 920–922
ownership issues within, 918, 929
personnel for, 142–144
planning for, 135–138
postseason reports, 137
qualifications at, 143–145
range of study for, 913
reburial after excavation in, 1050
remote sensing applications in, 9, 68–87, 1092–1094
role of conservation in, 286–302
of Roman seafaring, from 450 BCE to 400CE, 379–397
safety policies, 144–146
safety procedures in, 145–146
sale of artifacts and, 932
specialized publications for, 911
stewardship of artifacts, 932–934
subjective heritage value in, 920
surface temperature as factor in, 141
threats to, 1049–1051
tidal currents as factor in, 141–142
tidal flow and, 141–142
tourism as influence on, 923–924
training for, 142–144, 146
transportation to sites, 138
treasure hunting vs., 11–14, 930–932, 1047
underwater visibility as factor for, 140–141
uses in, 890–896
water temperature as factor in, 141
Maritime Archaeology (Muckleroy), 26
Maritime Archaeology and History of the Hawaiian Islands Foundation (MAHHI), 605
maritime communities, sea nomads, 888, 895
(p. 1180) maritime communities and traditions, 879–897. See also Maori people, fishing practices for
artisan watercraft, 882
boat recording, 882–885, 883f
criteria for, 895–896
ethnoarchaeology and, 892, 897n
ethnographic analogy within, 892
ethnographies of, 887–889
fishing traditions, 882
folklore within, 885–887
historical overview of, 891–895
Indonesian boats, 884–885
new research for, 896–897
oral histories within, 885–887, 1089
origin stories within, 891
saltwater peoples, 889, 891, 893
sources for, 880–890
strengths of, 889–890
traditional boat studies, 881–885
weaknesses of, 889–890
maritime cultural landscape, 733–754
acceptance of, as theory, 740–742
centers of, 739f, 741f
cognitive landscape, 745
as concept, 733
cultural landscape, 734, 737f
handbook of, 742–744
history of, 735–744
hydrolimnality, 753
international applications for, 744–751
land/sea opposition, 740–742
land uplift, 742
liminal agents, 753
place names, 743, 747
portages, 746
rock carvings, 751, 752f
Scandinavian applications for, 740–742
ship burials in, 753
surveying in, 735, 736f
in Sweden, 735–737
transit lines in, 751
transport enclaves, 749
urban landscapes, 742
wetland offerings, 753
maritime economies. See fishing
maritime empires, 445, 544
Maritime Fife Project, 869
maritime heritage tourism, 1073–1076. See also maritime museums
full-scale replica reconstruction and, 1073–1074
maritime history, 907–914
study sources, 912
maritime insurance, 143, 1056
at HMS Swift shipwreck site, 143
maritime laws. See laws, maritime
maritime museums, 1032–1054, 1034t. See also specific museums
aircraft, 993
amnesties and, 1033
best practice in, 1042–1043, 1050
COM, 1032
commercialization of, 1041
community, 1048
conservation programs in, 1044–1045
conservators in, 1044–1045
curators, 1041
deaccessioning of objects in, 1041, 1049–1050
dead, 1045
deconstruction of, 1050
directors, 1051
due diligence studies, 1044
early collection strategies, 1042–1045
ethics for, 1097
exhibitions in, as tool for societal change, 16, 1047
expansion of collections in, 1046
front of house staff for, 1048
global networks for, 1041
green, 1048
heritage ships in, 1043
human resource personnel in, 1052
ICMM, 1032
ICOM and, 1032, 1047
ICOMOS and, in situ preservation guidelines, 1050
idiosyncratic, 1042
immigration in, as exhibition subject, 1048
indigenous depictions of watercraft in, 1048
indigenous perspectives in, 1048
lobbying by, 1044
maritime archaeologists in, 1041
new museum movements, 1041, 1047–1049
nonconformity in, 1043
politicization of public service and, 1051
private, 195, 1045
rationalizations of, 1049
revolts against, for acquisitive traditions, 13
shipwreck anthropology in, 1046
in situ preservation guidelines, 1050
storage on exhibition, 1049
as teaching facility, 1033
theoretical developments for, 1045–1047
threats to, 1049–1051
in transition, 1042
for underwater cultural heritage, 1072–1073
uniform criteria in, 1052
virtual, 218, 1041
volunteers, 1043–1044
without walls, 1041
Marquis de Jouffroy d’Abbans, 612
Marquis de Malauze, 867
Marsala, Italy, 7
shipwrecks near, 36
Marsden, Peter, 184
(p. 1181) Marseilles, France, 186. See also Musée d’Histoire de Marseille
Jules-Verne 9 shipwreck near, 37
shipwrecks near, 5
Marshall Islands, Republic of, 712
aeronautic archaeology on, 991
Martin, Colin, 563
Martinique. See French Caribbean
Marx, Robert, 644, 963, 970–971
SS Mary, 678
Mary Conley, 111n2
Mary E. Parker, 694
Maryland, US, 1062–1063
Mary Rose, 11–12, 82, 122, 455f, 461, 462f, 924, 959
Marzari, Mario, 409
USS Massachusetts, 678n2, 1062
mast carling, 1114f, 1132. See also partners
master frames, 411f, 412–413
master mold design method, 409–419
for ancient shipbuilders, 414, 419–420
construction tools in, 413f
design legacy for, 418–419
dimensional draft, 410–411, 410f
history of, 415–416
master frames, 411f, 412–413
practical geometry for, 412f
mast hole, 1114f
mast partner, 167, 256, 1114f
mast step, 1132
Matagorda Bay, Texas, US, 267, 291–292, 301, 664, 667, 675, 949
El Matancero, 983
Mataria, Egypt, 353–354
Mathers, William M., 591
Matthews, Sheila, 189
mauls, 1133
club, 1122f
iron, 1122f
Maya people, navigation systems for, 968–969
Mayes, Philip, 644
Mazarrone shipwreck, 209, 362–364
McCarthy, Michael, 563, 989
McGrail Seán, 768
McNiven, Ian, 771
Media Luna Spring, 971–972
ceramic artifacts, 972
infant burials, 971
Mediator shipwreck, 640
Medieval period, 192–194
during fifteenth century, 431
long-distance voyages during, 433–434
maritime community during, 428–430
navigation advances during, 440–441
seafaring during, 426–442
sea trade during, 430–431
types of ships, 428–430, 434–437
warfare at sea, 431
Mediterranean Sea
Aegean ship construction, 364–369
ancient harbors in, 809–826
ancient shipwrecks in, 35, 163, 169, 202–4, 209
architectural tradition, 407–9
early shipbuilding in, 349–370
Egyptian ship construction, early, 350–360
hull construction features, 355t
Levant ship construction, early, 360–364
route crossing of, during Bronze Age, 203–4, 203f
seafaring routes, 437
ship construction, during Middle Ages, 406–422
medium-density fiberboard (MDF)
in Ma’agan Michael wreck, as supports, 166
medullary rays, 235
Medway River, 869
Meginhufr, 1133
Mejillones shipwreck, 699
Melos, 203
memorials, in Pacific Ocean, 602–4
Méndez shipwreck, 209
Meob Bay, 482, 485–486
merchantmen ships, 457–461
armed, 461
colonialism in Americas with, 460
Merchant Shipping Act (2002), Saint Kitts and Nevis, 648
merchant ships, 189–190
Merestein, 481
Merlin, Alfred, 381
Mesolithic Period, 203, 313–314, 349
Mesopotamia sites, 514
metacenter, 1133
metadata, in digital libraries, 341
metallurgy, 450, 541
methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS), 297
Meton, 380
Meuse River, 798
Mexican-American War, 666
underwater archaeological sites from, 678n2
Mexican Maritime Museum, 979
Mexico, 14. See also Baja California, Mexico; Campeche, Sound of; Yucatán Peninsula
Bahía Mujeres wreck, 973
Cayo Nuevo Reef, 971–972
dating of shipwrecks, 978
early recoveries in, 970–971
European navigation to, 969–970
Federal Law on Archaeological, Artistic and Historical Monuments and Zones, 984–985
Federal Sea Law in, 985
General Law of National Properties in, 985
INAH in, 637, 967–975
maritime archaeology in, 967–987
Media Luna Spring artifacts, 972
permanent programs in, 976–982
pre-Columbian navigation through, 968–969
UCH in, 982–985
Meyer, Karl, 13
(p. 1182) mezzaluna, as geometry aid, 262–264, 263f
mezzarola, as geometry aid, 262–264, 263f
Mica shipwreck, 673–674
Michigan, US, 1063
MUPC, 1063
Michigan Underwater Preserve Council (MUPC), 1063
microbathymetry, 206
maps, 213
Micronesia, 605
Middelburg, 481
Middle Ages, ship construction during, 406–422
Middle Passage, 460
Middle Stone Age, 497
midship, 1133
midship beam, 1111f, 1133
midship bend, 1111f, 1133
midship flat, 1111f, 1133
midship frame, 1111f, 1135
in whole molding, 259–261, 260f
Midway Island, 601
Miletus,