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date: 25 August 2019

Appendix: Scientific Analyses and Dating Techniques

Abstract and Keywords

Appendix: Scientific Analyses and Dating Techniques

Keywords: Appendix: Scientific Analyses and Dating Techniques

The following table is intended to convey the overall breadth and scope of some scientific analyses and dating techniques that can be applied to artifacts and samples recovered from maritime archaeological sites. It is not a comprehensive resource, nor does it reflect the information that can be gleamed from the cultural properties or typological classification of artifacts that often complements the scientific analyses. Given the rapid pace of development in many of the following areas of research, this material is represented in a cursory introductory format, leading the reader to explore current publications that discuss the capabilities and limitations of the analyses and dating techniques mentioned below. (p. 1152) (p. 1153) (p. 1154)

Material

Dating

Identification & Provenience

Ceramics

Fission-track dating

Atomic absorption spectrometry

Optical classification

Electron probe microanalysis / scanning electron probe microanalysis

Rehydroxylation dating (limited)

Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

Thermoluminescence / optically stimulated luminescence

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

Mössbauer spectroscopy

Neutron activation analysis

Optical classification

Petrographic analysis

Scanning electron microscopy

X-ray fluorescence

Particular Cases

• Burned clay

Archaeomagnetic dating

Glass/Faience

Fission-track dating

Atomic absorption spectrometry

Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

Neutron activation analysis

Scanning electron microscopy

X-ray fluorescence

Metals

Atomic absorption spectrometry

Electron probe microanalysis / scanning electron probe microanalysis

Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

Metallographic examination

Neutron activation analysis

Scanning electron microscopy

X-ray fluorescence

Particular Cases

• Archaeometallurgical slag

Optically stimulated luminescence

• Lead

Magnetic properties

Lead isotope analysis

Organics

Radiocarbon dating

DNA analysis

Scanning electron microscopy

Particular Cases

• Bone

Amino-acid racemization

Isotopic analysis

Uranium-series dating

• Shell

Amino-acid racemization

Gas chromatography mass spectrometry

Gas liquid chromatography

Infrared spectroscopy

Isotopic analysis

Optical classification

• Tooth

Electron spin resonance dating

Isotopic analysis

Uranium-series dating

• Textiles

Chromatography

Microwear analysis

• Wood/charcoal

Dendrochronology

Sediments

Optically stimulated luminescence

Thermoluminescence

Particular Cases

• Tephra

Tephrochronology

Stone

Fission-track dating

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry

Microwear analysis

Particular Cases

• Burnt flint/stone

Thermoluminescence

Atomic absorption spectrometry

• Calcium-carbonate rich rock

Uranium-series dating

• Marble

Cathodoluminescence

Neutron activation analysis

Isotopic analysis

• Obsidian

Obsidian hydration dating

Fission-track analysis

Scanning electron microscopy

Neutron activation analysis

X-ray fluorescence

Atomic absorption spectrometry

• Volcanic rock

Argon-Argon dating / Potassium-Argon dating