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date: 12 May 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter describes methodological and design considerations central to the scientific evaluation of treatment efficacy and effectiveness. Matters of design, procedure, measurement, data analysis, and reporting are examined and discussed. The authors consider key concepts of controlled comparisons, random assignment, the use of treatment manuals, integrity and adherence checks, sample and setting selection, treatment transportability, handling missing data, assessing clinical significance, identifying mechanisms of change, and consolidated standards for communicating study findings to the scientific community. Examples from the treatment outcome literature are offered, and guidelines are suggested for conducting treatment evaluations that maximize both scientific rigor and clinical relevance.

Keywords: Measurement, random assignment, randomized clinical trial (RCT), treatment evaluation, treatment outcome

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