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date: 04 December 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter provides an overview on cognitive disorders in adults from a neuropsychological perspective. It begins with a critical review of existing taxonomies for these disorders, especially those contained in the DSM-IV and continues with a summary of neuropsychological terminology used in the chapter and the effects of focal brain lesions. A number of medical and neurological disorders are described, and their cognitive correlates are reviewed using data from clinical case studies and epidemiologic research. The conditions summarized include a brief consideration of medical disorders that do not involve primary central nervous system pathology, followed by extensive review of brain insults (trauma, infections, exposures) and primary neurological disorders (dementias, cerebrovascular disease, motor system disorders, structural lesions, epilepsy, autoimmune disorders). A concluding section describes current issues in understanding cognitive disorders and likely future approaches to research on them.

Keywords: Brain trauma, cognitive disorders, cognitive impairment, dementia, encephalopathy, neurocognition, neuropsychological assessment, subcortical dementia

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