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date: 04 June 2020

(p. 313) Index

(p. 313) Index

A
acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), 102
acquisitiveness, 21
activity stress, 292
adolescence, 80–87, 90–92, 226–27, 232
affect, 278–79
aggression, 214–17
agreeableness, 306
allo-inclusive identity, 57–58
altruism, 27, 55, 56, 85, 161–71
definition of, 116, 190
empathy-altruism hypothesis, 165
motivation for, 170–71, 205, 209
and neuroscience, 116–18
as part of human nature, 161–62
reciprocal, 213–14
role of self in, 168–70
anger, 21
anorexia nervosa, 97
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 112, 115, 116
anticipatory stress, 292
anxiety, 225, 229, 231–35, 279
apologies, 263
Aristotle, 213
arrogance, 246–47, 251
atomism, 17
attachment anxiety, 225, 227, 229, 232–35
attachment avoidance, 224, 227–35
attachment figure, 232
attachment security, 223–37
attachment style, 227, 231
attachment theory
and Buddhist psychology, 233–37
caregiving system, 225
defensive self-enhancement, 228–30
overview, 224–25
attention, 45n.17, 52, 134
and background experience, 33
egological theories of, 40–41
and hypo-egoic complexity, 140–41
non-egological, 42
and prosocial processes, 154
and social exclusion, 152
attitude, 170
authenticity, 86, 90
autonomous self-regulation, 276
autonomy, 66–67, 68, 207, 208
autotelic experience, 134
B
background experience, 33
basic psychological needs, 207–8, 209
beads, 71
behavior, 53–54
of hypo-egoic, 306
parental, 226
regulation of, 63, 64
shaping, 100
behavior therapy, 100
Being and Nothingness (Sartre), 36
benevolence, 205–17
bipolar disorder, 97
body, 32, 43, 44n.9
body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), 97
borderline personality disorder (BPD), 98, 103
Borneo, 70
Bowlby, John, 224
Buddha, 28n.3, 234, 236, 237
Buddhism
and attachment theory, 233–37
core of, 19, 23
Eightfold Path, 20
ethics, 20, 21
Four Noble Truths, 19–20
Huayan, 24, 27n.1
and humility, 243
Mahayana, 28n.2
meditation, 21–23
nonattachment, 224
no-self, 20, 21, 22, 88
and oneness, 18–19, 23
Theravada, 27n.2
wisdom in, 21, 23
C
caregiving, 225, 230–33, 272, 274
care oneness, 19, 20
causality orientation, 216
children
aggressive, 215–16
attachment of, 226
compassion in, 199
egocentrism, 82–83
hypo-egoic, 90–92, 307
and immediate feedback, 68
and narcissism, 82, 84, 90
perception of need, 166
prosocial behavior, 176, 226–27
quality of life, 235–36
self-esteem, 82
self-serving biases, 80–82
stressors, 64
Chinese philosophy, 23–27
climate, 69–70
Cognitive-Based Compassion Training (CBCT), 192–93
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 100–101, 103
cognitive defusion, 102
collective identity, 57, 303
collectivism, 27
commitment, 73
committed action, 102
common core thesis, 287–88, 289
compassion
in Buddhism, 20, 22–23
and caregiving, 225, 231–33
in children, 199
Dalai Lama on, 223
effective, 233
and hypo-egoic people, 56, 306
meditation, 191–92
in organizations, 192
for others, 50, 55, 189–90, 237
training programs, 192–93, 198
as trait, 190–91
as virtue, 20
compassionate goals, 190, 274–75, 277–80
Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT), 192
Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT), 198
competence, 207
complex societies, 72–73, 74
compulsive self-reliance, 234
conflict, 66–67
conformity, 73
connectedness, 56–58, 154–55, 244, 302, 305
consciousness, 6, 7–8
definition of, 4
egological conception of, 32–34
Gurwitsch’s conception of, 38–42
Husserl’s conception of, 32–34
instantaneous, 36, 44n.5
non-egological conception of, 34–42
phenomenology of egoic and nonegoic, 31–45
prereflective, 44n.7
pure, 32–33, 35
reflective, 36, 134
Sartre’s conception of, 34–38, 43–44n.1
self-awareness of, 34, 43, 297
unreflected, 37
control, 72
coping, 42, 64
cortisol, 64, 272
cosmic oneness, 18, 19, 20, 56
criticism, 305
crowding, 72
cultural evolution, 63–74
Curse of the Self, The (Leary), 90
D
Dalai Lama, 223–24, 237
Damasio, Antonio, 167, 169
Daoism (Taoism), 24
Darwin, Charles, 189, 213
death, 291
default mode network (DMN), 111–14, 116, 119–21, 124, 149
defensiveness, 260, 264, 305
defensive self-enhancement, 228–30
defined values, 102
deindividuation, 48
delayed-return societies, 65, 69–74
delusion, 98
dependent being, 20
dependent origination, 20, 22
depersonalization, 98–99
depression, 279
desires, 303, 305, 306
destructive aggression, 214–17
detached awareness, 50, 89, 244
dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), 102–3
direct reciprocity, 214
discrimination, 212
dispositional humility, 244, 248
divergent natures, 217
downstream reciprocity, 262
dreams, 227–28
Dreyfus, Hubert, 42
E
ecosystem, 271–82
“at the source,” 276
consequences of, 278–80
elements as system, 277–78
evolutionary underpinning, 272
growth goals, 277
interpersonal goals, 274–75
motivation, 272–74, 280–81
orientation, 303
shift from egosystem, 280
and species preservation, 273–74
traits and states, 277
zero/non-zero-sum beliefs, 276
egalitarianism, 67
ego, 4, 31–45
capacities, 99–100
causes of suffering in, 19
concept of, 49
dissolving, 21
and forgiveness, 257–66
glancing ray, 33
Gurwitsch on, 45n.14
Husserl on, 39–40, 44n.3
Latin meaning of, 49
loss of, 288, 290
and mindfulness, 148–50
moderating in East and South Asia, 17–28
quiet, 50–51, 81, 88–89, 244, 299, 306
and reflection, 35, 36
and self-as-object, 8
terminology of, 11n.1
threat, 260, 261, 264
true, 289
Ego (mobile app), 11n.2
egocentrism, 8, 9, 82–83, 90, 301–2
ego-cogito-cogitation, 34
egoic functioning, 8, 9, 100
egoicism
as default state, 297–98
definition of, 298
excessive, 9
patterns of thought, 54
and self model, 8–9
egoic mindset, 49
egoic phenomena, 134–35
egoic self-representation, 109
egoic state, 49, 58, 259
egoism, 21–23, 161, 162, 298, 303–4
egoistic orientation, 303
egological theory/response, 32–34, 38–41
ego-pole, 33–34
egosystem, 271–82
“at the mercy,” 276
consequences of, 278–80
elements as system, 277–78
evolutionary underpinning, 272
growth goals, 277
interpersonal goals, 274
motivation, 272–74, 280–81
and self-preservation, 273
shift to ecosystem, 280
traits and states, 277
zero/non-zero-sum beliefs, 275
egotism, 54, 258, 298
Eightfold Path. See Noble Eightfold Path
elegance, 162
eliminative mechanisms, 111
emotional competence, 85
emotional resilience, 196–98
emotional tendencies, 304–5
empathic concern, 162–63, 165
empathy, 56, 58, 85–86, 88
definition of, 190
and forgiveness, 262
and hypo-egoic states, 262
related states, 163–64
as source of altruistic motivation, 162–65, 168–70
and tribal morality, 182, 183
empathy-altruism hypothesis, 165
emptiness, 20
enlightenment, 21
entanglement, 72, 73
entitlement, 260, 264, 303
environment, 100
epoché, 32, 36
equanimity, 20
ethics. See morality
eudaimonic living, 213
evolution, 64, 189, 206, 213–17
executive network (EXN), 111–13, 118–19, 124
experience sampling method (ESM), 135, 137–38
experiental processing, 301
extrovertive mysticism, 289, 290
F
fairness, 181
false beliefs, 21
(p. 315) farming societies, 73
feedback, 67, 68–69, 74, 81
fight or flight system, 272
fixed nature viewpoint, 208–9
flow
consequences of, 141–43
as hypo-egoic state, 52–53, 133–44, 306–7
antecedents of, 139
and self-regulation, 140
and self-transcendence, 142–43
and morality, 142
and neurophysiology, 138–39
positive impact on self, 141–42
and self-awareness, 135–37, 142
forgiveness, 123–24, 257–66
Four Noble Truths, 19–20
Freud, Sigmund, 99
G
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 96, 97
general transformation law, 40, 42
generative mechanisms, 111
global morality, 183–85
goals, 53, 54
adaptive, 86
compassionate, 190, 279, 280
growth, 277, 278
interpersonal, 274–75, 277
prosocial, 213
self-image, 278, 279
grandiosity, 84, 97
group selection, 214
growth, 50, 89
growth goals, 277, 278
Gurwitsch, Aron, 31, 35, 38–42, 44–45nn.1217
H
habits of heart, 17–18
harming. See hurting
helping, 206, 211, 213
heteronomy, 8, 9
He Yan, 24
hierarchy, 26, 28n.17
Hinduism, 19
historical oneness, 18–19, 20, 22
horizontal transcendence, 286
Huayan Buddhism, 24
humanity, 57
human nature, 206–11
humility
attractiveness of, 250–51
conceptualizing, 243–48
definition of, 244
dispositional, 244, 248
distinguised from related concepts, 245–46
domains of, 246–48
and forgiveness, 262
intellectual, 246–47
liabilities of, 252–53
measures of, 248–50, 251
and quieted self, 89, 243–53
relational, 247–48
research on benefits of, 251–52
and self-enhancement, 54–55
self-report of, 249–50, 251
situational, 248
hunter-gatherer societies, 63, 65–68, 70–71, 74
hurting, 212–13, 215
Husserl, Edmund, 31–40, 44n.3, 45n.15
hyper-egoicism, 74
clinical disorders with, 95–98, 104
mixed valence, 97–98
negative valence, 96–97
positive valence, 97
vs. hypo-egoicism, 104
hyper-egoic self-regulation, 72, 73
hyper-egoic state
definition of, 257–58
and entitlement, 260, 264
of offenders, 263–64
self-absorption, 259–60, 263
shame and defensiveness, 260, 264
social dominance and self-presentation, 260–61
and transgression, 259–62
hypnosis, 114–16
hypo-egoic clinician, 103–4
hypo-egoic disorders, 98–99
hypo-egoic functioning, 3–11, 85, 88, 102
hypo-egoicism, 9–11
assessing, 104
characteristics of, 300–302, 300t
in children, 90–92, 307
cognitive characteristics, 300–302
and cultural evolution, 63–74
as default mode of self–regulation, 64
directly promoting, 101–3
dispositional, 297–308
development of, 307
emotional tendencies, 304–5
evolutionary grounding, 213–17
experiental processing, 301
vs. hyper-egoicism, 104
interpersonal implications, 305–6
in isolation tank, 293
low egocentrism, 301–2
low individuation, 302
motivation, 303–4
and mysticism, 285–94
in positive psychology and psychology of religion, 286–87
present-centered focus, 300–301, 305
religious and spiritual, 291
social evaluation, 304
hypo-egoic mindset, 49–51
in clinical setting, 99–103
increasing, 103
hypo-egoic phenomena, 47–58, 134–35
developmental and prosocial dimensions of, 79–92
propensity to experience, 306–7
vs. self-enhancing strategies, 80–82
social implications of, 90–91
hypo-egoic processing, 109–25
hypo-egoic self-regulation, 53–54, 64, 68, 69
hypo-egoic sense of self, 43
hypo-egoic state, 52, 74, 111
in adulthood, 87–88
complexity, 140–41
and empathy, 262
and forgiveness, 261–62
and mindfulness, 113–14, 147–55
multiple systems supporting, 125
neuroscience of, 110, 113–25
of offenders, 264–65
and perspective-taking, 262, 265
and prosocial behavior, 55–56, 91, 261–62
I
identity, 56–58, 71
illumination, 40
imaginary audience, 83
immanence, 36–37, 39
immediacy, 67, 68–69
immediate-return societies, 65–69, 70, 74
impartiality, 183–84
impermanence, 20, 21, 22
implicit association test, 251
implicit religion, 286
inclusive fitness theory, 213
incongruities, 292
individual identity, 57
individualism, 17
individual self, 303
individuation, 302
Indra’s net, 24
industriousness, 180
infants, 176, 181–82
information, 72
ingroup biases, 181–82, 183
inhibition, 261, 264–65
instability, 86
instantaneous consciousness, 36, 44n.5
instinct, 167, 168
integral oneness, 56
intellectual arrogance, 246–47
intellectual humility, 246–47
(p. 316) intellectual servility, 247
intentionality, 34, 45n.15
interdependence, 50, 89, 275
intergroup contact, 185
internal logic, 54
interpersonal goals, 274–75, 277
interpersonal offenses, 259–62
introspection, 100
introvertive mysticism, 289, 290
intuition, 183
intuitive morality, 183
invulnerability, 83
I-self, 4, 10, 148
isolation tank, 292–93, 294n.5
J
James, William, 86, 285, 287–88
justifying stories, 73
K
karma, 22–23
kindness, 190, 199, 223–24, 235, 237
kin selection, 213, 214
knowledge, 246–47
Kongzi, 24
L
Laozi (Lao Tzu), 24
Leary, Mark, 27
Logical Investigations (Husserl), 37
lojong, 192
love, 122–23
lovingkindness, 20, 22–23, 234, 237
loving-kindness meditation, 191–92
M
Mahayana Buddhism, 28n.2
major depressive disorder (MDD), 96–97
mammals, 272
mania, 97
maternal love, 122–23
M’buti people, 66
McDougall, William, 168
medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), 110, 112, 114, 125, 149
medial temporal lobe (MTL), 121
medication, 104–5
meditation, 21–23, 56, 88, 113, 191–92, 233–34, 301
mental health, 252
mental representations, 5, 6, 9
Me-self, 4, 5, 10, 148, 149, 149f
methylphenidate, 293–94
Metta Sutta, 20
mindfulness, 149f
in Buddhism, 88, 233–34
and experiental processing, 301
as hypo-egoic state, 113–14, 147–55
in mitigating egoism, 21–23, 148–50
and social inclusiveness, 153–55
and social threat, 150–53
“third wave” approaches, 101–3
training, 151, 154, 155
mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), 101–2
mindless absorbed coping, 42
minimal self, 42, 43
model of moral motives (MMM), 179–80, 179f
modesty, 245
Mohanty, J.N., 42
moral foundations theory (MFT), 179, 180, 181
morality, 175–85
Buddhist, 20, 21
definition of, 175
dual nature of, 177–79
and flow, 142
global, 183–85
in infants, 176
inherent, 176–77
intuitive, 183
mapping of domain, 179–81
and neuroscience, 118–20
tribal, 181–83
mortality, 55
mother-child relationship, 224, 235–36
motivational interviewing, 104
motivational systems, 272–82
motor mimicry, 163
M Scale. See Mysticism Scale
multilevel selection, 214
Mystical Orientation Scale (MOS), 289, 290
mysticism, 120–22, 285–94, 302
Mysticism Scale (M Scale), 289–90, 294
N
narcissism, 9, 17, 54, 82, 84–85, 90, 195, 229, 258, 259
narcissistic personality disorder, 97
narrative self, 45n.13
nature, 26–27, 58, 67–68, 69, 74
needs, 166, 207–8, 209, 303
neo-Confucianism, 23–27
neural networks, 111
neurophysiology, 138–39
neuroscience, 109–25
nirvana, 22–23
Noble Eightfold Path, 20
noeses, 40, 45n.15
nomads, 66, 71
nonattachment, 224, 236–37
non-zero-sum beliefs, 275–76, 277
normative narcissism, 82, 90
no-self, 20, 21, 22, 88
O
obedience, 73
offenders, 262–65
oneness, 56–57, 286, 289
in Buddhism, 18–23
in Chinese philosophy, 23–27
cosmic, 18, 19, 20, 56
historical, 18–19, 20, 22
integral, 56
sentient being, 18, 19, 20, 22
shared fate, 19, 20, 22
Wang on, 26
operant conditioning, 100
optimal functioning, 68
ownership, 70
P
Paleolithic societies, 64–66, 68, 69
Pali Canon, 20, 27–28n.2
parental attachment, 232, 235
parental behavior, 226
parental instinct, 167, 168
parent-child relationships, 230, 231, 233
parochial altruism, 183
parsimony, 162, 170–71
Penan Benalui people, 70
performance, 53
personal fable, 83
perspective-taking, 82–83, 262, 265
phenomenological reduction, 32, 35, 36, 44nn.12
phenomenology
contemporary debates in, 42–43
definition of, 31
of egoic and nonegoic consciousness, 31–45
pure, 32–34
Phenomenology of Thematics and of the Pure Ego (Gurwitsch), 31, 39, 44n.12
poisons, 21
population, 70, 72
positive psychology, 286–87
positive sentiment relation, 170
posture, 163
predisposition, 65
prescriptive moral regulation, 178, 179f, 180
present moment experience, 102
present orientation, 67, 69, 300–301, 305
(p. 317) pressure, 53, 54
privacy, 72
projective empathy, 164
proscriptive moral regulation, 178–79, 179f
prosocial behavior
and acts of caring, 206
and attachment, 230–33
of children, 176, 226–27
as evolutionary, 205, 214
goals associated with, 213
and hypo-egoic states, 55–56, 91, 92, 261–62
motivation, 209
and narcissism, 84
natural proclivities for, 211–13
prosocial emotions, 230–33
prosocial responsiveness, 154
protection, 225
protention, 34
psilocybin, 293–94
psychedelic experiences, 120–21
psychodynamic therapy, 99–100, 103, 104
psychological empathy, 164
psychological needs, 207–8, 209
psychological states, 277
psychological well-being, 279
psychotherapy, 99–103
public image, 304
pure consciousness, 32–33, 35
pure reflection, 36
Q
qi, 23, 25, 28n.5
quieted self, 243–53
quiet ego, 50–51, 81, 88–89, 244, 299, 306
R
radical acceptance, 102–3
rationality assumption, 170
reality, 9, 21
rebirth, 22–23
reciprocal altruism, 213–14
recollection, 37, 39
reconciliation, 73–74
reflection, 35, 36, 39, 44n.5
reflective consciousness, 36, 134
relatedness, 207, 208
relational humility, 247–48
relational identity, 57
relational self, 303
relationships
and compassionate goals, 190
interpersonal, 197–98, 279, 280, 303
and mindfulness, 52
mother–child, 224, 235–36
proceeses, 279
romantic, 150–51, 230–31, 233, 275
release, 261, 265
religion, 71–72, 183, 286–88, 291, 293, 294
Religious Experience Episodes Measure (REEM), 287, 292
repentance, 263
reputation, 177
retention, 34
revenge, 259
reverse dominance hierarchy, 67
rewards, 68
right livelihood, 20
Right Thought, 20
Right Understanding, 20
rituals, 71–72
romantic love, 123, 230
romantic relationships, 150–51, 230–31, 233, 275
S
salience network (SLN), 111–12
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 31, 34–39, 42, 43, 43–44n.1, 44n.8, 44n.12
self
agentic, 111, 111t
attachment and model in adulthood, 227–30
collective, 303
concept of, 17–18, 49
in empathy-induced altruistic motivation, 168–70
and flow, 141–42
individual, 303
merging with other, 168–70
minimal, 42, 43
as model, 7–9
in phenomenology, 32
relational, 303
sense of, 43
symbolic, 71
terminology of, 4
true, 86
two aspects of, 4
as unitary, 110
self-absorption, 90, 259–60, 263–64, 298
self-as-context, 102
self-as-object, 5–9, 148
self-as-subject, 4–7, 111, 148
self-awareness, 3–11, 86, 272, 281
vs. awareness of others, 82
benefits of, 134
capacity for, 47
of consciousness, 34, 43, 297
decreased, 48–49
degree of, 48
effects of, 48
and flow, 135–37, 142
loss of, 135–37
objective, 48
prereflective, 42
self-benefit, 161–62, 165
self-compassion, 50, 89–90, 193–98, 235–36, 262
self-competence, 227–28
self-consciousness, 42, 43
self-determination theory, 205–11, 215, 276
self-development, 208
self-enhancement, 54, 80–82, 86, 228–30
self-esteem, 82, 84, 86–87, 97, 193, 195–96, 226, 227, 245–46, 279
self-evaluation, 98, 102, 110, 135
self-focus, 79, 81, 97, 104, 244, 259
self-image, 80, 83, 86, 88, 228, 273–75, 277–79, 305
self-improvement, 196
self-interest, 117, 177–79
selfish gene, 214, 223
selfishness, 176, 177, 209
self-kindness, 194
self-knowledge, 6
self-preoccupation, 8, 9
self-presentation, 260–61
self-preservation, 272–73
self-reference, 110–11, 111t, 134
self-reflection, 47–48, 134
self-regulation, 53–54, 63, 64, 68, 69, 72, 73, 99, 140, 208, 209, 276
self-relevant thought, 49, 100
self-restraint, 180
self-sacrifice, 168, 233
self-serving bias, 69, 80, 81–82, 86
self-talk, 49, 53, 58
self-transcendence, 53, 56, 142–43
self-view, 6, 8, 9, 305
self-worth, 227–28, 229, 244
sense of self, 43
sensory deprivation, 292–93
sentient being oneness, 18, 19, 20, 22
sentiment, 170
serial shifting, 45n.17
shame, 260, 264
shared fate oneness, 19, 20, 22
sharing, 67, 68, 70, 71–72, 74
Singer, P., 184–85
situational humility, 248
Skinner, B.F., 100
social anxiety disorder (SAD), 96, 97
social approval, 304
social behavior. See prosocial behavior
social comparisons, 80–81
social connections, 154–55
social dominance, 260–61, 264
social evaluation, 151–52, 304
(p. 318) social exclusion, 152
social inclusiveness, 153–55
social intuitionism, 183
social justice morality, 180–81
social life, 147–55
social malleability, 208
social order morality, 180, 181
social safety net, 67
species preservation, 272, 273–74
species-specific defense reactions, 64
Spencer, Herbert, 189
spirituality, 121–22, 291
spontaneity, 44n.10
spousal care, 230
strategic automatization, 54
stress, 64, 69, 71, 192, 292
successive consciousnesses, 37
suffering
of animals, 28n.15
and attachment anxiety, 232
Buddhist approach to, 19–20, 21, 23
in Chinese philosophy, 25
compassion for, 189–90, 193, 235
of others, 164
universality of, 22
surrender, 261, 265
symbolic self, 71
sympathetic joy, 20
sympathy, 163, 182
synchronic oneness, 27n.1
T
Taylor, Charles, 17
teenagers. See adolescence
temperance, 180, 261, 264–65
territoriality, 70
terror management theory (TMT), 152–53
theme-thematic field-margin structure, 40–41
therapists, 103–4
Theravada Buddhism, 27n.2
Thich Nhat Hanh, 89
threatened egotism, 258
Tien, David W., 28n.17
time-consciousness, 34, 37
tonglen, 192
torture, 182
trait mindfulness, 52
traits, 190–91, 277
transcendence, 35–36, 39, 42, 44n.2, 44n.6, 56, 286–87, 291, 302
Transcendence of the Ego, The (Sartre), 31, 34, 37, 38, 39, 43
transgression, 259–65
tribal morality, 181–83
true ego, 289
true self, 86
U
Unger, P., 184–85
uniqueness, 83
unity, 287–88, 289, 290
See also oneness
unrealized conversation, 287
V
value assumption, 170
value extension, 170
values, 70–71, 102
Varieties of Religious Experience, The (James), 285, 287, 289
vengefulness, 259–62
ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), 117, 119
vertical transcendence, 286
violence, 212, 215, 217, 260
W
Wang Bi, 24
Wang Yangming, 25–26, 27
welfare of others, 166–67
well-being, 189, 190, 194–95, 211, 235, 273, 279, 303
Wilson, E.O., 177
working models, 225
worldview, 152–53
Z
zero-sum beliefs, 275–76, 278
Zhang Zai, 25
Zhou Dunyi, 25
Zhu Xi, 25