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date: 04 June 2020

Abstract and Keywords

In regulating people’s individual behavior in the interests of the group, morality permits group members to reap considerable benefits, but sometimes at the expense of nonmembers. Thus, morality involves an inherent tension between hypo-egoism at the level of the individual and hyper-egoism at the group level. This chapter describes and contrasts the hypo-egoic and hyper-egoic aspects of morality, their varied manifestations, and their development. The model of moral motives provides an expanded view of morality by describing the role of proscriptive and prescriptive morality in regulating self-interested behavior at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and group levels. An examination of the hypo-egoic features of morality argues for a global morality that blurs distinctions between ingroup and outgroup, thereby promoting greater impartiality. Such a global morality requires people to forego their natural egoicism and intuitive moral judgments in favor of increased reliance on rational thought in making moral decisions about outgroup members.

Keywords: altruism, evolutionary psychology, ingroup favoritism, moral foundations theory, morality, prosocial, behavior, universalism

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