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date: 20 February 2020

(p. 423) Index

(p. 423) Index

A
Aafaqi, R., 70, 318t, 320
Abele, A. E., 199, 243
Ability, 90
Abstract resource, 56
Abusive supervision, 160
Ackerman, P. L., 403
Actual network, 294
Adams, G. L., 342
Adams, J. S., 68, 267
Adaptive performance, 159, 165–166
Adaptor employees, 177
Aditya, R., 353
Affect, 62, 62t, 132, 190
Affective Events Theory (AET), 210–211
Affective revolution, 210
Affect scale, 354
Affiliation
definition of, 58
demographics as proxy for, 59
as resource, 55–65 (See also Resource exchange perspective)
Affiliative extra-role behavior, 159, 162–164
Age, 397–408
demographics of, 397
on leader–team member relationship, 398–399
lifespan development theories on, 402t, 403–405
on LMX exchange and outcomes, 398–401
on motivation, 402t, 403
on performance ratings, 398
on personality, 401–403, 402t
relative, and career timetables, 402t, 407–408
selection optimization and compensation theory and, 403–404
socioemotional selectivity theory and, 404–405
stereotyping and, 402t, 405–408
Age, leader, 399–401
Aggregate climate, 312
Aggression, workplace, 195–196
Agreeableness
consensus and, 129
on creativity, 177
of followers, 124
of leaders, 120–121
Aguinis, H., 244
Ahmad, U. N. U., 313t, 314
Ahmed, I., 313t, 314
Alden-Anderson, R., 200
Allen, D., 319t, 324
Alon, P., 73, 126
Alters, 294
Ambady, N., 221
Amor, I., 73, 126
Anand, S., 168, 215–216, 264, 286t, 288, 352, 418
Anderson, S. E., 143, 162–163
Andrews, M. C., 195, 196
Ang, A., 326S.
Anger, 217
Angerer, P., 194
Ang, S., 61, 70, 164
Ansari, M. A., 70, 318t, 320
Antecedents, of LMX, 6, 68, 87–114. See also specific topics and antecedents
attributes in, leader and member, 90, 91t
attributes in, leader and member similarity of, 90, 92t–94t, 107–108
attributes in, of relationship, 95t–97t, 108–110
contextual characteristics in, 105t–106t, 112
emotional intelligence in, 214–215
high and low LMX relationships in, 87
implications and future directions in, 112–113
international research on, 354–371, 356t–370t
justice in, 69–74
leader actions and behaviors in, 98t–100t, 110–112
LMX differentiation in, 265f
LMX quality in, 415–417
LMX relationship development over time in, 88–89, 88f
member actions and behaviors in, 101t–104t
meta-analysis of, 88
newcomer–supervisor LMX in, 228–231, 228f
organizational climate in, 317–323, 318t–320t
organizational culture in, 313–314
resources as, 57–59
Appraisal
primary, 212
secondary, 212–213
Appraisal Theory of Emotion, 212–213
Armenakis, A., 35, 132
Aronson, J., 388
Aryee, S., 58, 59–60, 111, 142, 313t, 314, 328
Ashforth, B. E., 150
Ashkanasy, N. M., 209–222, 320t, 324
Asim, A. I., 319t, 323
Astrove, S. L., 7, 417
Athanasiadou, M., 122
Attachment style
consensus and, 129
of follower, 125
of leader, 122–123
in leader–follower interaction, 126–128, 128f
self-evaluations and, 129
Attitudes. See also specific types
behavior from, 140
job, 16
work (See Work attitudes)
Attitudinal similarity, 21
Attributes. See also specific types
leader, 90, 91t
member, 90, 91t
Attribute similarity, leader and member, 90, 92t–94t, 107–108
attitudinal, 21
demographic, 90, 92t–93t, 107
perceived, 93t, 107
personality, 94t, 107–108
Attributes of relationship, 95t–97t, 108–110
expectation in, 95t, 108
liking in, 95t–96t, 108–109
trust in, 96t–97t, 109–110
Atwater, L., 63, 197
Average leadership style approach, 12, 29
Axtell, C. M., 38
Aycan, Z., 354
B
Badgett, M. V. L., 389
Bagger, J., 201
Bai, Y., 268
Bakker, A. B., 191, 197
Bal, A. C., 400
Balanced reciprocity, 231
Balance theories, 231, 270, 415
Ballinger, G. A., 251, 419
Bal, M., 400
Bal, P. M., 193, 197
Baltes, P. B., 403–404
Barbuto, J. E., 110
Barksdale, K., 35
Barrett, L. F., 217
(p. 424) Barsade, S. G., 210, 211, 212
Bartels, L. K., 387
Basu, R., 162
Bauer, T. N., 3, 58–59, 71, 89, 107, 110, 111, 150, 161, 163, 168, 196, 210, 220, 229, 234–236, 251–253, 256, 267, 268, 272, 288, 319t, 324–325, 356t, 358t, 359t, 367t, 368t, 390, 417
Baugh, S. G., 399
Becker, J. A. H., 197
Bedeian, A. G., 107
Beeri, I., 165
Belau, L., 407
Bell, M. P., 382, 385
Bell, S. T., 407
Benenuto, M., 217
Benevolence, 354
Bennett, N., 60, 71, 160
Benson, G. S., 166, 234
Berger, E., 355, 359t
Berger, J., 384–385
Bernas, K. H., 200
Bernerth, J. B., 35, 121, 124–125, 129, 132
Bertolino, M., 405
Bettencourt, L. A., 164
Beutell, N. J., 191
Bhal, K. T., 70, 163, 165
Bhattacharya, C., 341, 343
Bialosiewicz, S., 267
Bian, Y. J., 33
Bidirectional perspective, 56
Bies, R., 58
Big Five personality traits, 17–18
consensus and, 129
of followers, 124–125, 126f
of leaders, 120–122, 123f
“Black box,” LMX, 7, 140, 142–143, 143f, 415
Blackwell, L. V., 389
Blau, P. M., 36, 56
Bleiken, L. M., 399
Boehm, S., 406
Boies, K., 271
Bolino, M. C., 144, 168, 199, 267, 337
Bommer, W. H., 72, 415
Bond, M. H., 354
Borghatti, S. P., 293
Botero, I. C., 164
Bowler, W. M., 121
Brands, R. A., 303, 307
Brass, D. J., 293
Brazil, D. M., 107
Breland, J. W., 252–253
Brewer, M. B., 384
Brief, A. P., 210
Briggs, A. L., 407
Brockner, J., 72–73
Bronkhorst, B. A. C., 200–201
Brotheridge, C. M., 218
Brouer, R., 198, 415
Brower, H. H., 109
Bruce, R. A., 165, 318t, 321
Brunetto, Y., 200
Bryant, A., 419
Buch, R., 35, 132
Budhwar, P. S., 58, 59–60
Burlacu, G., 7
Burnout, 191, 197–198
Burris, E. R., 164
Burton, J. P., 74, 161, 163, 167
Burt, R. S., 231, 233, 234, 294
Byrne, Z. S., 198, 203, 245, 252, 253, 337
C
Cai, Z. Y., 315
Camerman, J., 73
Campbell, S. M., 403
Cao, A. X., 416
Career mobility and success, 7, 241–258
career motivation theory on, 248t
career success typologies in, 242–244, 244t, 245f
conservation of resources theory on, 31, 248t, 256
dyadic-exchange theory on, 248t
extrinsic and objective career outcomes in, 244–245, 246t–250t, 250–252
extrinsic and subjective career outcomes in, 252–254
future research on, 255–257
gender role orientation theory on, 248t
gender role theory on, 248t
guanxi and, 249t, 253
impression management social information processing theory on, 247t
intrinsic and objective career outcomes in, 254
intrinsic and subjective career outcomes in, 254–255
job embeddedness theory on, 247t, 248t, 249t, 251–252, 255–256
LMX “leader as substitute” theory on, 247t, 248t, 253
role-making theory on, 248t
social capital theory on, 246t, 247t, 252–253, 256
social categorization theory on, 249t
social exchange theory on, 241–242, 248t, 249t, 250t, 251
social network perspective on, 250t
social support theory on, 248t
tournament theory on, 242, 244–245, 250t, 252, 253, 255
Career motivation theory, 248t
Career success
definition of, 242
intrinsic vs. extrinsic, 242–243, 244t, 245f
objective vs. subjective, 243–244, 244t, 245f
typologies of, 242–244, 244t, 245f
Career timetable, relative age and, 402t, 407–408
Carioppo, J., 211
Carley, K., 307
Carlson, D. S., 253
Carmeli, A., 63, 197
Carmichael, J. S., 389
Carmona-Lavado, A., 318t, 320
Cashman, J., 29–30, 88–89, 295–296, 295f
Castro, S. L., 398
Centrality, 38
Chang, C.-H., 168, 195–196
Change-oriented extra-role behavior, 159, 164–165
Chan, S. C. H., 198
Chattopadhyay, P., 355, 357t
Chaudhry, A., 33, 70
Cheema, L. J., 319t, 323
Chelladurai, P., 110
Chen, G., 161, 236, 313t, 314, 319t, 324
Chen, K. W., 150–151
Chen, T., 353, 356t
Chen, Y., 33–34, 353–354
Chen, Z., 161
Chen, Z. G., 319t, 325
Chen, Z. X., 58, 59–60, 62–63, 111, 142, 160, 162, 328
Chiu, R. K., 71, 163, 319t, 324
Chongsen, Y., 214
Chow, I. H. S., 163, 319t, 324
Chow, I. H. W., 71
Christensen, T. C., 217
Chrobot-Mason, D., 389–390
Chuang, A., 60–61
Chung, H.-Y., 253
Citations, article
by frequency count, 4, 5f
most cited, 10, 11–12, 11f
most cited, 30 highest, 12, 13t–15t
most cited, “Big 4,” 11, 11f
most cited, by year, 12, 15f
by year, 4, 4f
Citizenship, on performance, 164
Clegg, C. W., 140
Cleveland, J. N., 389
Climate
aggregate, 312
diversity, 391–392, 406
safety, on performance, 164
Climate, justice, 72
procedural, on performance, 164, 165
Climate, leadership, on performance, 161
Climate, organizational, 311–312, 317–328
age diversity on, 402t, 405–406
as antecedent of LMX quality, 323
constructs of, 312
definition of, 312
empirical studies on, 317, 318t–320t
future research on, 326–327
history of, 317
LMX quality as antecedent of, 317–323
LMX quality as antecedent of, high-level, 318t–320t, 321–323
(p. 425) LMX quality as antecedent of, individual-level, 317–321, 318t–319t
LMX quality–organizational culture integration with, 327–328, 327f
as moderator, 323–325
studies on, and their limitations, 325–326
Climate, psychological, 194, 312
Climate, work, 105t–106t, 112
Climbers, 243
Cogliser, S., 146, 168–169, 317, 318t, 321, 392, 398
Cognitive networks, 294–308
accuracy and, 307
activated, 303
definition of, 294
LMX mental representations as, 302–303
LMXSC and, 305–306, 305f
PLMXD and, 303–304
RLMX and, 304–305, 305f, 306f
Cohen-Charash, Y., 68–69, 73
Colella, A., 388
Collectivism-oriented Human Resource Management, 315
Collins, M. H., 408
Colquitt, J. A., 69, 73–74, 77, 78
Commitment, organizational
components of, 141
vs. identification, 150
on performance, 163
on work attitude, 150–151
work attitudes in, 141–142
Communication frequency
on agreement, 108, 143f
on outcomes, 63
on performance, 162
Compensation, 403–404
Competence
emotional, 217
employee, 143, 269
empowerment and, 195, 254
experts on, 243
of future work, newly formed dyads on, 108
leader and member, 31, 69, 90, 91t, 382, 413
leader’s trust in, cultivating, 113
manager view of, 109
negative views of, stereotypes, 381, 385–388, 391
newcomer, 235
in promotion focus, 199
in trust, 36-37
in well-being, 195
Concrete resource, 56
Confirmatory factor analysis, 31
Congruence
age, on leader–team member relationship, 160
on performance outcomes, 168–169
proactive personality, 160
Conlon, E. J., 72, 204
Conscientiousness
consensus and, 129
of followers, 124
of leaders, 121
leader traits in, 129–130
Consensus, 128–129
Consequences, 7, 68
Conservation of resources theory (COR), 55
on career mobility and success, 248t, 256
Contagion, emotional, 218
Contempt, 217
Context, on creativity, 178
Contextual characteristics, 105t–106t, 112
on performance, 162
span of supervision in, 105t, 112
work climate in, 105t–106t, 112
Contextual schools of leadership, 18–20
Contribution, 9–10, 62, 132, 190
Côte, S., 212
Coworker exchange (CWX)
definition of, 18
on performance, 162
quality of, 320–321
on work attitudes, 146
workgroup on, 18
Crain, E. C., 90
Crant, J. M., 125, 164
Creative performance, 165
Creativity, 7, 165, 175–185
agreeableness on, 177
context on, 178
embeddedness of LMX on, 182–183
employee identity on, 180–181
employee motivation on, 180
employee self-efficacy on, 178–179
employee sensesmaking on, 179–180
enabling of, 176–177
freedom on, 178
future of, 184
leader–leader exchange on, 182–183
LMX as destructive for, 183–184
LMX as natural catalyst for, 175–177
for LMX development, 181–182
LMX differentiation on, 183
mediating mechanisms of, 178–181, 179f
motivation on, 176
practical implications of, 184–185
when LMX matters most in, 177–178
Cropanzano, R., 56, 72, 76–78, 161, 210, 213, 337, 338, 417
Crosby, F., 144, 267
Culbertson, S. S., 200, 201
Cultural values, corporate social responsibility in, 345–346
Culture, national, 18–19
Culture, organizational, 311–317
as antecedent of LMX quality, 313–314
constructs of, 311–312
definition of, 311
empirical studies on, 312, 313t
future research on, 315–316
integrating LMX quality and organizational climate with, 327–328, 327f
LMX quality as moderator of, 314–315
as moderator, 314
origins and basic idea of, 312
studies on, 315
Culture strength, 317
D
Dadhich, A., 165
Dansereau, F., 11, 12, 29–30, 89, 112, 119–120, 159
Dark triad, 129–132
followers in, 131
leaders in, 130–131
similarity in, 131–132
toxic triangle in, 132, 132f
Dasborough, M. T., 145, 151, 210–211, 213, 214, 216, 320t, 324
Davidovitz, R., 122–123, 125, 128
Davis, D. D., 200
Davis, K. E., 127
Davis McCauley, K., 128
Day, D. V., 4–5, 9–12, 13t, 16–18, 20, 22–24, 31, 90, 128, 141, 146, 168, 194, 233, 251, 296, 416, 418
Day, N. E., 390
DeConnick, J. B., 251
De Dreu, C., 212
de Gilder, D., 403
Degoey, P., 77
de Lange, A. H., 404–405
de la Rosa-Navarro, M. D., 318t, 320
Delegation, 98t, 110
Deluga, R. J., 111–112, 160
DelVecchio, S. K., 90, 110
Demands, job, on job stress, 196
Demerouti, E., 191
Demographics, leader-member similarity of, 90, 92t–93t, 107
Density, 38
Desmette, D., 407
Detachment, psychological, on performance, 164
Deviation LMX, 30
Diefendorff, J. M., 217–218
Diener, E., 191
Dienesch, R. M., 6, 30, 36, 38, 61–62, 88–89, 112, 132, 190, 294, 296, 312, 352, 414
Differentiation, LMX, 263–268, 312
as antecedent of justice, 70–71
antecedents of, 265f
on creativity, 183
definition of, 312, 336
drivers of, 287
four configurations of, 301
group level, 268–269, 268t
moderating effects of, 266f
organizational justice theory in, 267–268, 268f
(p. 426) perceived, 145
psychological experience of, variations, 301–302
relative deprivation theory in, 267
research on, 3, 17, 68
social comparison theory in, 264, 267
social networks and, 301–306
work groups and well-being in, 199
Differentiation research, LMX, 268–289
criticisms of, 273, 287–289
group level, 271–273
individual level, 269–270
meso level, 270–271
overview of, 268–269
summary of, 273, 274t–286t
Dihn, J., 139–140
Dikkers, J. S. E., 404–405
Dikstein, E., 355, 359t
Dimou, N., 122
Disabled employees, 388–389
Discrete emotions, 216–217
Disgust, 217
Dissimilarity. See also Diversity; Stereotypes
dyadic, stereotypes and, 390
impact of, demography on, 391
Diversity, 381–392
future research on, 390–392
LMX development and, 382–383
LMX outcomes and, 384
Status Characteristics Theory on, 384–385
stereotypes in, 384–390 (See also Stereotypes)
on supervisor–subordinate interactions, 381–382
as variety, 382
in workforce, 381
Diversity climate, 391–392, 406
Dockery, T. M., 58, 90, 111
Doherty, M. L., 317, 318t, 319t, 322, 326
Dries, N., 243
Duchon, D., 162, 318t, 321
Dulebohn, J. H., 61, 68, 70, 141, 164, 253, 326, 342, 384, 391, 392, 415, 417
Duncan, P., 313t, 314
Dunegan, K. J., 162, 318t, 321
Dyadic dispersion LMX, 273
Dyadic-exchange theory, 248t
Dyadic theory, 3, 9
on work attitude, 146–147, 147f
Dyads. See also Vertical dyad linkage (VDL) theory; specific topics
extending domain beyond, 299–300
in networks, relationship quality and, 296–299, 297f, 298f
relationship duration on performance of, 162
similarity/dissimilarity in, stereotypes and, 390
Dysvik, A., 35, 132
E
Eagly, A. H., 386
Economic exchange measure, 35, 48–49
Economic LMX (ELMX), 35
Edwards, J. R., 287, 326–327
Ee, F. E., 71
Effort, member, 101t, 111
Egan, T. D., 302
Ego, 294
Einarsen, S., 218
Ekman, P., 216, 217
El Akremi, A., 73
Elderly worker stereotypes, 385–386, 402t, 405–408
Elfenbein, H. A., 221
Elicker, J. D., 164
Ellemers, N., 403
Ely, R. J., 391
Embeddedness, job, 151, 233
on career mobility and success, 247t–249t, 251–252, 255–256
on creativity, 182–183
on newcomer adjustment, 233
on performance, 161, 163
Embeddedness, organizational, on work attitudes, 151
Emery, C., 301, 418
Emotional contagion, 218
Emotional Contagion Theory, 211–212
Emotional intelligence, 213–216
Emotional intelligence, LMX and
as antecedent to LMX, 214–215
fundamentals of, 213–214
future research on, 220–221
on job performance, 214
outcomes on, 215
Emotional labor, 217–219
leaders’ use of, 220
leading with, 215
Emotional regulation, 22, 150
Emotion in organizations, 209–213
Affective Events Theory in, 210–211
Appraisal Theory of Emotion in, 212–213
Emotional Contagion Theory in, 211–212
Emotion in organizations, LMX and, 213–222
discrete emotions in, 216–217
emotional intelligence in, 213–216
emotional labor in, 217–219
future research on, 219–221
history of research on, 209–210
theory/measurement/analysis misaligment in, 221–222
Emotions interface, 7
Emotions, negative, 217
Empathy, 38
Employees. See also specific topics
extraversion of, on performance, 161
growth need strength of, on performance, 161
identity of, on creativity, 180–181
justice perceptions of, in social responsibility, 344–345
motivations of, on creativity, 180
self-efficacy of, on creativity, 178–179
sensemaking in, on creativity, 179–180
socialization of, 7
Empowerment
on competence, 195, 254
on performance, 160–161
psychological, 254
on role stressors, 195
Enabling, in creativity, 176–177
Enders, J., 142, 161, 167
Engle, E. M., 90
Ensher, E., 123
Epitropaki, O., 90, 107, 142–144, 270–271, 355, 366t, 369t, 399, 415
Eplion, D., 125
Equity theory, Adams, 68
Erez, A., 211
Eudaimonic perspective, 191
Evolution, construct, 10–17
in 1970s, 12, 15
in 1980s, 15–16
in 1990s, 16
in 2000-present, 16–17
by article citations, by year, 4, 4f
by article citations, frequency count, 4, 5f
by articles most cited, 10, 11–12, 11f
by articles most cited, 30 highest, 12, 13t–15t
by articles most cited, “Big 4,” 11, 11f
by articles most cited, by year, 12, 15f
by scholarly impact, 11
“Exchange” in LMX, locating, 299–300
Expatriate adjustment, newcomer, 233–234
Expectation
in newcomer adjustment, 229–230
in relationships, 95t, 108
Experience sample method, for emotions, 221
Experts, 243
Exploratory measures
leader–member guanxi, 33–34
LMX-24, 33, 47
supervisor–subordinate guanxi, 47–48
Extra-role behavior
affiliative, 159, 162–164
change-oriented, 159, 164–165
Extraversion
consensus and, 129
employee, on performance, 161
of followers, 124
of leaders, 121
(p. 427) Extrinsic and objective career outcomes, 244–245, 246t–250t, 250–252
Extrinsic and subjective career outcomes, 252–254
F
Fagenson-Eland, E. A., 399
Fairhurst, G. T., 391
Fairness heuristic theory, 74
Fang, Y. Q., 313t, 315
Farh, J., 33, 355, 357t
Farr-Wharton, R., 200
Feild, H. S., 132
Fein, E. C., 319t, 323
Feldman, D. ., 404, 405, 408
Felt obligations, on performance, 164–165
Female stereotypes, 386–387
Ferris, G. R., 108–109, 111, 160, 342, 398, 415
Festinger, L., 264
Field, J. S., 35
Finkelstein, L., 405
Fischer, A., 212
Fisher, C, D, 221
Fiske, S. T., 386, 387
Fisk, G. M., 218
Fletcher, T. D., 200
Foa, E. B., 56, 58, 62, 144
Foa, U. G., 56, 58, 62, 144
Foley, C., 195
Folkman, S., 212
Follower Machiavellianism, 131
Follower narcissism, 131
Follower personality, 124–126, 126f
attachment style in, 125
Big Five in, 124–125
consensus in, 128–129
self-evaluations and proactivity in, 125–126
Follower psychopathy, 131
Ford, J. M., 31, 271, 288, 319t, 322–323
Formal mentor-member exchange (FMMX), 373
Fraley, R. C., 131
Freedom, on creativity, 178
Frese, M., 192, 400
Freund, A. M., 403–404
Friedman, M., 347, 348
Friesen, J. P., 218
Frijda, N. H., 212
Future research, on LMX, 22–24, 413–420. See also specific topics
on antecedents of LMX quality, 415–417
balance theories in, 415
bridging theory–practice gap in, 419–420
on dark side to high-quality relations, 419
implicit leadership theories in, 415
on LMX at team level, 418–419
on outcomes of LMX quality, 417–418
relationship science in, 415
role theory in, 413–415
social exchange theory in, 413–415
summary of, 414f
G
Gaddis, B., 131, 211
Galatea effect, 229
Gardner, W. L., 128, 168–169, 219
Gavin, M. B., 212, 221
Gellert, E. J., 399
Gender role orientation theory, 248t
Gender role theory, 248t
Generalized reciprocity, 230–231
Generativity, leader, age on, 400
George, J. M., 213, 214, 216
Germano, L. M., 200
Gerras, S. J., 60, 320t, 324
Gerstner, C. R., 10, 17, 31, 141, 146, 168, 194, 233, 251, 418
Ghosh, S., 264, 418
Gielnik, M. M., 399–400
Giles, W. F., 35, 132
Glaser, J., 194
Glasø, L., 218
GLBT employee stereotypes, 389–390
Glibkowski, B. C., 33, 70
Gobdel, B. C., 160
Goffman, E., 388
Goldberg, C. B., 381, 386, 390
Golden, T. D., 145–146, 161, 200
Goldman, B. M., 58, 60, 160, 338
Gong, Y., 355, 357t
González-Romá, V., 194, 268, 273, 287, 312, 317, 318t, 319t, 320–322, 325–327
Goods, as resource, 55–65. See also Resource exchange perspective
Goodwin, V. L., 121, 300–301, 306
Gooty, J., 144–145, 146, 210–212, 221, 273
Gouldner, A. W., 57–58, 143–144
Gramzow, R. H., 388
Grandey, A. A., 218
Granovetter, M., 231, 293–294, 306–307
Graves, L. M., 197
Graves, S. B., 339, 340, 340t
“Great man” perspective, 17–18
Greenhaus, J. H., 191, 252
Green, S. G., 58–59, 89, 107, 110, 111, 143, 146, 162, 196, 229, 234–236, 270, 390
Greguras, G. J., 31
Griffin, M. A., 158
Griffith, K. H., 390
Grijalva, E., 131
Gross, J., 217
Group Affective Tone, 219
Group level of analysis, on work attitude, 146, 147f
Group level personality, and consensus
in follower personality, 128–129
leader traits predicting, 129–130
Group stereotypes, 384–385
Guanxi, 33–34, 47–48, 249t, 253, 353–354, 371
leader–member, 33–34
supervisor–subordinate, 47–48
Guenzi, P., 165
Gurunathan, L., 73
H
Hackett, R. D., 60, 62–63, 121–123, 125, 128, 160, 194, 201
Hadži, O., 313t, 316
Haerem, T., 35, 132
Halbesleben, J. R. B., 197
Hall-Merenda, K. E., 160
Hall, R. J., 164
Han, G., 252
Hanges, P. J., 140
Han, H. G., 268
Hansbrough, Keller, 125
Harms, P. D., 131
Harris, K., 55, 125, 198, 202, 204, 251, 253
Harrison, D. A., 229, 234, 302, 382, 385, 398–399, 401
Harris, R., 125
Harris, T. B., 270, 271, 302, 304–305
Haslam, S. A., 403
Hatfield, E., 211
Hebl, M., 390
Heider, F., 270, 415
Heilman, Madeline, 386
Help-seeking behavior, costs of, 162–163
Henderson, D. J., 70, 270, 302, 304, 337
Henning, T., 400
Henriques, 73P. L.
Herrera, R., 313t, 314
Hertel, G., 406
Heyden-Gahir, H. A., 404
High distributive justice climate, 72
High LMX relationships, 39, 71, 87. See also Differentiation, LMX
antecedents of, 87–114 (See also Antecedents, of LMX)
on career mobility and success, 241–258 (See also Career mobility and success)
challenging task assignment in, 263, 287
on climate perception, 319t, 322
in coworkers, 270
creativity in, 176–184 (See also Creativity)
dark side to, 419
definition of, 194
detrimental personality in, 163
diversity and turnover in, 282t
diversity on, ethnic, 387
favorable effects of, 283t, 284t
future research on, 165–167, 169
at group level, 271–273, 274t
(p. 428) on individual vs. group, 269
international studies of, 372
job satisfaction and organizational commitment in, 147
on leader–member exchange, 67, 68
leader positive emotion on, 216
as moderator, 316
in resource allocation, 267
resource exchange process on, 415
social exchange theory on, 161
trust in, leader, 268
High procedural justice climate, 72
Hiller, N. J., 353, 372
Hinojosa, A. S., 128
Hochschild, A. R., 217
Hochwarter , W., 198, 203
Ho, D., 389
Hoel, W., 304
Hoes, M., 269
Hoever, I. J., 177, 184
Hoffman, B. J., 403
Hofmann, D. A., 60, 164, 320t, 324
Hogg, M. A., 148–149, 415
Holes, structural, 231
Hollensbe, E. C., 76
Holmvall, C. M., 214, 215
Hooper, D. T., 34, 145, 199, 301–302
Hornung, S., 194
House, R., 353
Howell, J. M., 160, 271
Hsiung, H.-H., 71, 165, 319t, 324
Huang, X., 146, 160, 198, 215
Huan, X., 270
Hubristic pride, 217
Hu, D.-C., 253
Huffman, A. H., 200
Hui, C., 162
Hu, J., 270, 302, 304
Hu, K., 352, 356t, 357t, 361t
Human Resources Management policies, 311
Humphrey, R. H., 216–220
Hung, D. K. M., 70, 318t, 320
Hussain, N. M., 319t, 323
I
Identification, organizational, 150–151
Identity. See also Social identity theory (SIT)
on creativity, 180–181
leader relational, on performance, 162, 163
moral, in social responsibility, 345
social relations on, 180
Ilies, R., 164, 169
Implicit leadership theories (ILTs), 21, 90, 148, 355, 407, 415
Impression management social information processing theory, 247t
Individualized leadership, 119–120
Individual-level personality
follower, 124–126
leader, 120–124
Individually targeted citizenship, on performance, 164
Influence behaviors, member, 102t–104t, 111–112
Influencers, 243
Information, as resource, 55–65. See also Resource exchange perspective
Information Processing school, 21–22
In-group, 87, 149, 190. See also High LMX relationships
Inhibitory-remedial pattern, 177, 178
Initial interactions and behaviors, 98t, 110
Initial offer, 190
Innovator employees, 177
Interactional justice, 160
on performance, 163
Intergroup leadership, on work attitudes, 149
International LMX research, 351–373
antecedents in, 354–371, 356t–370t
definitions in, 352–353
future research on, 372–373
measurement in, 353–354
outcomes in, 371–372
theoretical background on, 352
Interpersonal justice, in creativity, 181
Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), 37-38, 52
Intrinsic and objective career outcomes, 254
Intrinsic and subjective career outcomes, 254–255
Ishaq, M. I., 319t, 323
Islam, T., 313t, 314
Iweins, C., 407
Izsak, R., 122
J
Jablin, F. M., 269, 288, 343
Jackson, S. E., 191
James, William, 212
Jansen, P. G., 404–405
Janssen, O., 143, 160
Jaworski, R. A. A., 233–234
Jian, G., 194
Jiang, J. W., 196, 198
Job attitudes, 16
Job demands, on job stress, 196
Job demands-resource model, 55
Job embeddedness. See Embeddedness, job
Job performance. See Performance
Job satisfaction, 140–141. See also Work attitudes
Job stress. See Stress, job
Johnson, J. W., 158
Johnson, O. E., 271
Johnson, R. E., 161–162, 163, 168
Johnson, T., 74
Jones, D. A., 77, 78, 344
Jones, K. S., 346
Joo, B., 253, 313t, 314
Jordan, P. J., 213–214, 219
Joseph, D. A., 33
Judge, T. A., 140, 160
Justice, 67–81
on creativity, 181
future research on, 78–79
history of, 67
integration with LMX in, current knowledge, 78–79
integration with LMX in, model, 74–78, 75f
interactional, 160
LMX and, 68
LMX–justice relationship in, 69–74 (See also LMX–justice relationship)
next steps in, 79–81
organizational, 68, 339–340, 340t
on performance, 163
procedural, 68
Justice climate, 72
Justice perceptions, 68–69
employee, in corporate social responsibility, 344–345
in social exchange theory, 74
K
Kacmar, K. M., 195, 196, 198, 202, 204, 253, 419
Kafetsios, K., 122
Kahn, R. L., 88, 90, 209
Kamdar, D., 124, 163, 168
Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., 140
Kanfer, R., 319t, 324, 403–405
Karoly, P., 36
Karriker, J. H., 162
Katz, D., 209
Kauppila, O.-P., 195
Kearney, E., 399
Kelly, J. R., 211, 212
Kenny, D. A., 146–147
Kent, A., 110
Khan, S. R., 313t, 314
Kilduff, M., 303
Kim, T.-Y., 346
Kimura, T., 142
Kim, W., 70
King, E. B., 405
Kinicki, A. J., 196, 203
Kirkman, B., 270, 319t, 324
Kirkpatrick, L. A., 127
Klein, K. J., 302, 382
Klein, K. M., 401
Klimoski, R. J., 236
Kooij, D. T., 403, 404–405
Korschun, D., 341
Kozlowski, S. W. J., 317, 318t, 319t, 322, 326
Krackhardt, D., 38, 231, 294, 303, 307
Kraimer, M. L., 63, 73, 162, 163, 165, 233–234, 243, 247t, 248t, 250t, 253, 255, 256
Kramer, R. M., 384
Kulik, C. T., 399
(p. 429) Kun, T., 214
Kunze, F., 406
Kuvaas, B., 132
Kuvaas, V., 35
Kwan, H. K., 164
L
Labianca, G., 293
Labor, emotional, 215, 217–219
Lack-of-fit theory, 386–387
Lam, C. K., 146, 160, 270
Lam, L. W., 150–151
Lam, S. S. K., 245, 251
Lam, W., 161, 198, 319t, 325
Lance, C. E., 403
Lankau, M. J., 194, 197, 399, 419
Lapierre, L. M., 201
Larkin, J. C., 387–388
Laschinger, H. K. S., 63
Latitude, 98t, 110
Lau, H., 389
Lavelle, J. J., 72–73
Law, K. S., 60, 62–63, 160, 162, 196, 253, 353, 362t, 366t, 368t, 369t
Lawler, E. J., 209
Law-Penrose, J. C., 415
Lawrence, B. S., 386, 407, 408
Lawrence, E. R., 419
Lawrence, S. A., 146, 270
Lawthom, R., 140
Lazarus, R. S., 212
Leader actions and behaviors, 98t–100t, 110–112
delegation/latitude, 98t, 110
initial, 98t, 110
leadership, 98t–100t, 110–111
performance, 100t, 111
“Leader as substitute” theory, LMX, 247t, 248t, 253
Leader attributes, 90, 91t. See also specific types
on performance, 161–162
Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ), 29
Leader downward influence, on performance, 163
Leader-follow dyad, 9–10
Leader–follower relationship
age on, 400
personality interaction in, 126–128
personality similarity in, 18
Leader–leader exchange (LLX), on creativity, 182–183
Leader Machiavellianism, 130
Leader–member agreement, 33
Leader–member exchange (LMX). See also LMX; specific topics
as antecedent of justice, 69–70
concept of, 189–190, 263–264
definitions of, 68, 352–353
development of, 382–383
four-dimensional, 13t, 31, 62, 62t, 132, 190, 372
measurement of (See Measurement)
as moderator of justice–outcome variables relationship, 74
outcomes of, 384
relationship development over time in, 88–89, 88f
as resource, 61–62, 62t
role development in, 382–383
Leader–member exchange (LMX) scale, 44. See also LMX entries
12-item, 30
13-item, 30–31
supervisor version, 31–32
Leader–member exchange (LMX) theory, 3–7
articles on, 10–11
consequences of, 7, 68
emerging issues in, 7
focus of, 3
history of, 29–30
importance of, 3
meta-analyses on, 9
research progress in, 3
unique features of, 10
from vertical dyad linkage theory, 15–16, 29–30
Leader–member guanxi (LMG), 33–34, 353–354
Leader–member similarity
demographic, 90, 92t–93t, 107
perceived, 93t, 107
personality, 18, 94t, 107–108
Leader–member social exchange (LMSX), 35–36, 50
Leader narcissism, 131
Leader performance, 100t, 111
Leader personality, 120–124, 123f
attachment style in, 122–123
Big Five in, 120–122
predicting consensus in LMX from, 129–130
self-evaluations and proactivity in, 123–124
Leader psychopathy, 131
Leader relational identity, on performance, 162, 163
Leadership behaviors, 98t–100t, 110–111
Leadership climate, on performance, 161
Leader’s point of view, 119–120
Le Blanc, P. M., 268, 273, 287
Lee, J., 69
Lee, M. J., 70
Legacy beliefs, 400
Lehman, D. W., 251, 419
LePine, J. A., 169
Levels of analysis
definition of, 144
in work attitudes, 144–147
Lewin, K., 317
Lewis, K., 58, 60, 160
Li, A. N., 201, 301, 418
Liang, J., 125, 164
Liao, H., 301, 418
Liao, P.-Y., 201, 253, 272, 288
Life satisfaction, on work attitude, 150
Lifespan development theories, 402t, 403–405
Li, J., 313t, 315
Likert, R., 295
Liking, in relationships, 95t–96t, 108–109
Li, N., 125, 164
Lind, E. A., 77, 78, 88–89
Linking pin, 295
Linz, A., 199
Lippit, R., 317
Litwin, G. H., 317
Liu, J., 164, 272
Liu, Z. Q., 313t, 315
LMX-7, 31, 44–45, 53–54, 378–379
international, 372
supervisor version, 32, 44–45, 53–54
LMX-8, 45
LMX-24, 33, 47
LMX differentiation. See Differentiation, LMX
LMX–justice relationship, 69–74
justice as antecedent of LMX, 71–74
justice as moderator of LMX–outcome variables in, 71
LMX as antecedent of justice, 69–70
LMX as moderator of justice–outcome variables in, 71–74
LMX differentiations as antecedent of justice, 70–71
LMX “leader as substitute” theory, 247t, 248t, 253
LMX relational separation (LMXRS), 270, 271, 301–302
cognitive networks and, 305–306, 305f
definition of, 301
LMX social comparison (LMXSC), 34–35, 48, 264, 270, 301–302
Lock, E. A., 140
Loi, R., 55, 150–151, 272, 355, 358t, 360t
Lord, R. G., 21, 90
Louvet, E., 388–389
Low LMX relationships, 87
avoidance in, 128, 129
benefits and resources in, 251
climate perception in, 319t, 321, 322
creativity in, 183, 185
dissimilarity in, 143
distributive injustice in, 20
group level, 272, 280t, 282t
highly balanced, attitudes and, 146
(p. 430) leader–member exchange in, 69
member turnover in, 250t, 251, 252
organizational justice theory on, 268
of partner, in job insecurity, 417
performance goals and career satisfaction in, 253
performance in (See Performance)
relative deprivation theory on, 144, 199, 267
RLMX on, 304–305
task challenge in, 175, 264
team level, 219
team life cycle and, 287
as transactional, 242
unfairness in, 268–269
unfairness in, on coworker exchanges, 19
Loyalty, 62, 62t, 132, 190
Luciano, M. M., 197
Lukasik, M. A., 407
Lusky, L., 319t, 323
Lynch, P., 35
Lyons, B. J., 195–196
M
MacCurtain, S., 212
Machiavellianism
follower, 131
leader and follower, 131–132
Mael, F. A., 150
Major, B., 388
Major, D. A., 143, 145, 200, 201, 255, 313t, 314, 316
Ma, L., 70–71, 273, 287
Mallory, D. B., 338, 339
Manager adjustment, new, 234
Manogran, P., 72
Mansfield, L., 150
Mao, Y., 164
Martin, R., 34, 90, 107, 139, 141–145, 147, 148, 150, 199, 267, 270–271, 301–302, 328, 355, 366t, 369t, 399, 415
Maslach, C., 191
Maslyn, J. M., 31, 36, 62, 62t, 110, 132, 296, 352, 354, 356t–362t, 364t–367t
Masterson, S. S., 58, 60, 67, 69, 71–72, 75–80, 143, 160, 162
Mastery orientation, 160
Matta, F. K., 419
Matthews, R. A., 195
Mayer, D. M., 251, 253, 271, 400
Mayer, J. D., 213–214
Mayer, R. C., 37
McAllister, D. J., 37
McKay, P. F., 385, 391, 406
Means efficacy, on job stress, 196
Measurement, 31–39. See also specific types
exploratory measures, 33–34
future research on, 23–24, 38–39
of leader–follower relationship, 34–39 (See also Relationship measures, leader–follower)
leader–member agreement, 33
LMX-7, international, 372
LMX-7, supervisor version, 32, 46–47, 54
LMX-MDM, 30, 45, 53, 62–63, 378
LMX-MDM, international, 353, 372
LMX-MDM, supervisor, 32, 46–47, 62, 62t
overview of, 31
supervisor versions in, 31–32
vertical dyad linkage in, 30–31
Mediator, LMX as, 142–143
Mehra, A., 293
Member actions and behaviors, 101t–104t
effort, 101t, 111
influence, 102t–104t, 111–112
performance, 101t–102t, 111
Member attributes, 90, 91t. See also specific types
Member effort, 101t, 111
Member influence behaviors, 102t–104t, 111–112
Member performance, 101t–102t, 111
Mentoring, 373
Meyer, I. H., 390
Miao, Q., 160
Miklos, S. M., 401
Mikulincer, M., 122
Miller, C. T., 388
Mischel, W., 322
Mischenko, D., 4–5, 416
Misumi, J., 354
Mitchell, M. S., 56, 251, 255
Mitchell, T. R., 151
Moag, J. S., 58
Mobility, career. See Career mobility and success
Moderators
climate, 323–325
emotional intelligence, 215
justice, 71
of justice–outcome relationship, 74
LMX differentiation, 266f
LMX quality, 314–315
organizational culture, 314
on organizational culture, 314–315
for performance, new, 166
for work, 142–143
Money, as resource, 55–65. See also Resource exchange perspective
Moral identity, corporate social responsibility in, 345
Moral intensity, on performance, 165
Morgeson, F. P., 60, 146, 168, 169, 320t, 324
Morrison, E. W., 233
Morrison, T. G., 387
Morrow, P. C., 252
Mossholder, K. W., 37
Motivation
age on, 402t, 403
in creativity, 176, 180
Mowday, R. T., 141
Muldoon, J., 195
Multidimensionality
of LMX, 61
in resource exchange, 57
Multidimensional LMX (LMX-MDM), 31, 45, 53, 378
empirical research with, 62–63
international, 353, 372
supervisor version (SLMX-MDM), 32, 46–47, 62, 62t
Multiple networks, 307
Murphy, S. M., 72, 123
N
Nachreiner, F., 191
Nadisic, T., 346
Nahrgang, J. D., 87–90, 100t, 102t, 109, 111–114, 121, 124, 146, 168, 169, 392, 415, 417
Naidoo, L. J., 272
Nan, X., 198
Narcissism
follower, 131
leader, 131
leader and follower, 132
National culture, 18–19
Nawaz, M. M., 319t, 323
Neal, A., 158
Nedeljkovi, M., 313t, 316
Negative affect, 217
on performance, 162
Negative feedback-seeking, on performance, 161
Negative reciprocity, 231
Negative traits, 120, 129–132, 132f. See also Dark triad
Negotiating latitude, 30, 42-43
Negotiating latitude/VDL scale, 30
Neider, L. L., 143
Neocharismatic approaches, 20–21
Networks
actual, 294
cognitive, 294–308 (See also Cognitive networks)
multiple, 307
structure of, on newcomer adjustment, 230–231
task interdependency alignment with, 299
Networks, social
analysis and measures of, 3, 38–39, 250t
on career mobility and success, 250t
on newcomer adjustment, 233
Neuroticism
consensus and, 129
of followers, 124
of leaders, 121
Newcombe, M. J., 213, 216, 217
Newcomer adjustment, 227–238
(p. 431) antecedents of LMX in, 228–231, 228f
dynamic processes in, 234–236, 235f
embeddedness in, 233
expatriate adjustment in, 233–234
expectation in, 229–230
future research directions in, 234–237
LMX on, 231–233
network structure on, 230–231
new manager adjustment in, 234
organizational context in, 236–237
organizational socialization in, 227–228
overview of LMX in, 227–228, 228f
role development in, 231–232
similarity in, 229
social aspect of, 227
social exchange in, 232–233
social network in, 233
supervisor socialization tacts in, 230
task aspect of, 227
team context in, 236
New Leadership school, 20–21
New manager adjustment, 234
Newman, D., 131
Ngo, H. Y., 355, 360t
Ng, T. W. H., 243, 404, 405, 408
Nickell, S., 140
Niessen, C., 199
Nikoli, M., 313t, 316
Nishii, L. H., 251, 253, 271, 400
Nodes, 294
Nonwhites stereotypes, 387
Nordstrom, C. R., 387
Novak, M. A., 142
O
Obese employee stereotypes, 387–388
Obligations, felt, on performance, 164–165
O’Connor, W., 387
O’Hair, H. D., 197
Ok, C., 70
Older worker stereotypes, 385–386, 402t, 405–408
One-With-Many (OWM) model, 147
Openness
consensus and, 129
of followers, 124–125
of leaders, 121
Optimization, 403–404
O’Reilly, C. A., 302, 398
Oren, L., 73, 126
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), 176
affective commitment in, 339
as affiliative extra-role behavior, 162
beginnings of, 16–17, 70 (See also specific contexts)
Bhal’s model on, 70
corporate social responsibility and, 339, 345
creativity and, 176
ELMX and, 35
in high-quality LMX, 337
in horizontal-individualistic contexts, 164
international research on, 356t, 358t–361t, 365t–367t, 369t
job embeddedness in, 163
leader relationship identity and, 163
LMX-MDM on, 63
LMX on, 21, 58, 69, 77, 159, 160, 384
negative affectivity on, 162
in older employees, 404
organizational commitment on, 141
outcome favorability in, 163
in performance, 157
procedural justice climate and, 164, 323
relative LMX on, 34
RLMX and, 270, 302
SLMX-MDM on, 32
Organizational climate. See Climate, organizational
Organizational culture. See Culture, organizational
Organizational identification, 150–151
Organizational justice, 68
corporate social responsibility as, 339–340, 340t
Organizational justice theory, 267–268, 268f
Organizational level, 19–20
Organizationally targeted citizenship, on performance, 164
Organizational politics
on job stress, 195
perceptions of, on performance, 165
Organizational socialization, 194, 227–228
Organizational support, on performance, 161–162
Othman, R., 71
Outcome favorability
definition of, 328
on performance, 163
Outcomes. See also specific topics
emotional intellignence on, 215
of LMX, resources as, 59–61
research on, 139 (See also specific types)
Out-group, 87, 149, 190. See also Low LMX relationships
Ozer, M., 142
P
Palachy, O., 319t, 323
Pan, W., 71, 163, 319t, 324
Paparoidamis, N. G., 165
Parasocial LMX, 342
Parasuram, S., 252
Parker, S. K., 38, 158
Park, H. S., 418
Particularistic resource, 56
Paternalism, 354
Patterson, M., 140
Pattie, M., 166, 234
Peiró, J. M., 194, 317, 318t, 320, 321, 325
Pelled, L. H., 107
Pellegrini, E. K., 109–110, 354, 358t, 364t, 418
Pelletier, E. K., 419
Perceived LMX differentiation (PLMXD), 145, 301–302
cognitive networks and, 303–304
definition of, 301
Perceived LMX variability, 34–35, 48–49
Perceived organizational support (POS), 14, 18–19, 21, 38
work attitudes in, 142
work climate in, 112
Perceived similarity, leader-member, 93t, 107
Perceived supervisor support (PSS), 36–37, 51
Performance, 7, 157–170
adaptive, 159, 165–166
affiliative extra-role behavior in, 159, 162–164
age on ratings of, 398
change-oriented extra-role behavior in, 159, 164–165
contextual factors on, 162
creative, 165
definition of, 158–159, 158f
emotional intelligence on, 214, 215
employee characteristics on, 161
empowerment on, 160–161
future research on, 166–169, 167f
importance of, 157
individual differences on high LMX in, 158
leader, 100t, 111
leader characteristics on, 161–162
LMX congruence on outcomes in, 168–169
LMX in, 158f
member, 101t–102t, 111
mitigating negative effects of low LMX in, 168
moderators for, new, 166
multiple mediators on, 161
negative feedback-seeking on, 161
negative relation to, conditions for, 166–168
supervisor liking on, 160
systematic reviews of, prior, 157
task, 158–162 (See also Task performance)
time and, 169
Perry, E. L., 399, 407–408
Perry, J. T., 111–112
Personality, leader and follower, 119–133. See also specific levels
age on, 401–403, 402t
future directions in, 129–132
group level in, 128–130
individualized leadership in, 119–120
individual level in, 120–126 (p. 432)
interaction rather than similarity in, 130
leader-member similarity of, 94t, 107–108
leader’s point of view in, 119–120
negative traits in, 120, 129–132, 132f (See also Dark triad)
on performance, 163
relationship level in, 126–128
similarity in, 126
Personal resource, 56
Perspective taking, 38, 53
Peterson, M., 354
Pettigrew, T. F., 267, 384
Phillips, A. S., 107
Piccolo, R. F., 74
Pillai, R., 69–70
Pines, H. A., 387–388
Pippin, G. M., 267
Point of view, leader’s, 119–120
Politics, organizational
on job stress, 195
perceptions of, on performance, 165
Popper, M., 122
Porter, L. W., 141
Positional resource, 56
Positive attributions, making, 38
Potter, R. E., 163
Powell, G. N., 191
Pratt, M. G., 150
Price, K. H., 385
Pride, 217
hubristic, 217
Proactive personality congruence, 160
Proactivity
in follower personality, 125–126
in leader personality, 123–124
Procedural justice, 68
on performance, 163
Procedural justice climate
perceptions of, on performance, 165
on performance, 164
Process models, future research on, 23
Project Oxygen, 419
Psychological climate, 194, 312
Psychological detachment, on performance, 164
Psychopathy
follower, 131
leader, 131
leader and follower, 132
Pulakos, E. D., 159, 165, 166
Pundt, A., 418
Pygmalion effect, 229
Q
Quality, LMX
future research on, 415–419
moderators of, 314–315
organizational climate in, 317–323, 318t–320t (See also Climate, organizational)
Quinn, R. E., 316
Qu, Q., 70–71
Qu, W., 273, 287
R
Raja, R., 210, 221
Ramsay, S., 200
Randolph-Seng, B., 128
Ranft, A. L., 342
Rapson, R. L., 211
Ready, K. J., 253
Reciprocity, 36, 230–231
balanced, 231
generalized, 230–231
measures of, 36, 50
negative, 231
norm/principle of, 57–58, 60
Ree, M., 313t, 314
Relational identity, creativity and, 181
Relational leadership theory
evolution of, 9
individual and group level (See Differentiation, LMX)
Relational perspective, 10, 17–22
contextual schools of leadership in, 18–20
future LMX research on, 415
Information Processing school in, 21–22
New Leadership school in, 20–21
trait theories of leadership in, 17–18
Relationship attributes, 95t–97t, 108–110
expectation, 95t, 108
Relationship duration, dyadic, on performance, 162
Relationship level personality
leader–follower personality interaction in, 126–128
similarity in, 126
Relationship measures, leader–follower, 34–39
Interpersonal Reactivity Index, 37–38, 52
leader–member social exchange, 35–36, 49
LMX social comparison, 34–35
perceived LMX variability, 34–35, 48–49
perceived supervisor support, 36–37, 51
perspective taking, 38, 53
reciprocity, 35–36, 50
relative LMX, 34
social and economic exchange, 35
social LMX and economic LMX, 35
social network analysis and measures, 38
test of negative social exchange, 36, 50–51
Relationship quality, dyadic networks and, 296–299, 297f, 298f
Relationships, workplace, 189
Relative deprivation theory
in LMX differentiation, 267
on work attitudes, 144
Relative LMX (RLMX), 21, 30, 34, 145, 301–302
cognitive networks and, 304–305, 305f, 306f
contingency approach to, 270–271
definition of, 145, 264, 301, 302
divergence approach to, 270
operationalization of, 270
performance and citizen behaviors in, 270
on work attitudes, 145
Research, LMX. See also Citations, article; specific topics
progress of, 3
Research, LMX, future, 22–24, 413–420. See also Future research, on LMX
Resource exchange perspective, 6, 55–65
bidirectional perspective in, 56
history of, 55–56
key theoretical pieces in, 56–57
literature on, 57, 57t
LMX as resource itself in, 61–62, 62t
multidimensionality and LMX measurement in, 57
positional and personal resources in, 56
research on, 62–65
resource outcomes from exchanges with members in, 56–57
resources as antecedents of LMX in, 57–59
resources as outcomes of LMX in, 59–61
social exchange in, 56
Resources, 56. See also specific types
Resource theory of social exchange, 144
Respect, professional, 62, 62t, 132, 190
Rhoades, L., 37
Richards, D. A., 122, 125, 128
Riketta, M., 140
Riordan, C. M., 399
Roch, S. G., 72
Rockstuhl, T., 61, 142, 164, 326, 351–353, 371
Rodell, J. B., 77, 78
Role Episode Model, 61, 88–90, 88f, 231–232, 413
on career mobility and success, 248t
in diversity, 382–383
in newcomer adjustment, 231–232
role expectations in, 108
stereotypes in, 384–390 (See also Stereotypes)
Role identity, creativity and, 180–181
Role making, 15, 89, 179, 182, 383
Role perceptions, on performance, 163, 165
Role receiver, 88, 88f
Role routinization, 89, 182, 383
Role stressors
(p. 433) empowerment on, 195
LMX and, 194–195
Role taking, 88f, 89, 182, 382–383
Role theory. See Role Episode Model
Rosen, B., 319t, 324
Rosenbaum, J. E., 242, 244, 252, 255
Rosen, C. C., 74
Rosing, K., 400
Rotundo, M., 158
Rousseau, D. M., 168, 194, 202
Ruehlman, L. S., 36
Runciman, W. G., 267
Rupp, D. E., 72, 336, 338–340, 340t, 343–346
Russell, J. A., 216
Ryan, K., 405
Ryff, C. D., 191
S
Saavedra, R., 212
Sablynski, C. J., 161, 163, 167
Sackett, P. R., 158
Safety climate, on performance, 164
Sahlins, M., 230–231
Salovey, P., 213–214
Salvaggio, A. N., 140
Satisfaction, life, on work attitude, 150
Schaffer, B. S., 399
Schaffer, M. A., 163
Schalk, R., 399
Schaubroeck, J., 245, 251
Schaufeli, W. B., 191
Scheibe, S., 398, 401
Scherer, L. R., 212
Schiemann, W., 30
Schneider, B., 140
Schoenrade, P., 390
Schoorman, F. D., 251, 419
Schriesheim, C. A., 143, 168–169, 245, 256, 317, 318t, 320, 321, 398
Schyns, B., 120–123, 125, 128–130, 132, 271, 415
Scott, S. G., 165, 318t, 321
Sears, B., 389
Sears, G. J., 121, 123, 125, 194, 214, 215, 288
Seeking help, costs of, 162–163
Seers, A., 145, 271, 319t, 322–323
Seibert, S. E., 242, 243, 248t, 256
Sekiguchi, T., 161, 163, 167
Selection optimization and compensation theory, 403–404
Self-determination, in well-being, 197
Self-efficacy, employee, in creativity, 178–179
Self-evaluations
attachment styles and, 129
of follower, 125–126
of leader, 123–124
Self-realizers, 243
Sen, S., 74, 341
Sensemaking, employee, in creativity, 179–180
Seo, J. J., 415, 417
Services, as resource, 56–65, 62t. See also Resource exchange perspective
Settoon, R. P., 60, 71, 160, 162
Shacklock, K., 200
Shaffer, M. A., 234
Shanock, L. R., 37, 72
Shao, R., 344, 345, 346
Shared leadership, 9–10
Shared leadership capacity, 9–10
Shared realty theory, 273
Sharoni, G., 73, 126
Shaver, P. R., 122
Shen, C., 60–61
Sherman, K. E., 251
Sherony, K. M., 146, 270
Shi, J., 123, 142, 229
Shi, J. Q., 160
Shi, N. L., 71
Shi, S.P., 313t, 315
Shivers, S. L., 143
Shore, L. M., 35, 58, 60, 61, 70, 72, 142, 160, 164, 326, 386, 399, 408, 413–415
Sias, P. M., 269, 288, 343
Similarity
attitudinal, 21
dyadic, stereotypes and, 390
interaction vs., 129
leader-follower personality, 18
leader-member attributes, 90, 92t–94t, 107–108 (See also Attribute similarity, leader and member)
in newcomer adjustment, 229
in relationship level personality, 126
Similarity attraction paradigm, 214–215, 390
Simmelian ties, 231
Sin, H. P., 33, 146, 168, 204
Skarlicki, D. P., 77, 78, 346
Sleebos, E., 150
Sluss, D. M., 110, 230
Smith, D. B., 140, 267
Smith, P. B., 354
Snavely, B. K., 391
Snyder, L. A., 389
Social capital theory, 246t, 247t, 252–253, 256
Social categorization theory, 249t
Social comparison theory, 264, 267
Social/economic exchange, 35, 48–49
Social/economic LMX, 49–50
Social exchange, 56
definition of, 56
in newcomer adjustment, 232–233
Social exchange measure, 35, 48–49
Social exchange theory, 61, 413–415
on career mobility and success, 241–242, 248t, 249t, 250t, 251
justice as antecedent of LMX in, 72–74
justice perceptions and outcome variables in, 74
on newcomer adjustment, 232
on work attitudes, 143–144
Social identity theory (SIT), 22, 390
principles of, 148
on work attitudes, 148–149
Socialization
organizational, 194, 227–228
supervisor tactics for, on newcomer adjustment, 230
Social LMX (SLMX), 35
Social networks
analysis and measures of, 3, 38–39, 250t
in newcomer adjustment, 233
Social networks, LMX differentiation, 301–306
mental representations of, as cognitive networks, 302–303
psychological experience of, variations, 301–302
Social responsibility, corporate, 3
background on, 336–337
boundary conditions in, 343–346
cultural values in, 345–346
employee awareness of, 343
employee justice perceptions in, 344–345
employee participation in, 344
historical foundations of, 338–339
importance of, 335–336
individual differences in, 345–346
leadership as driver of, 341–342
LMX and, 336–338
moral identity in, 345
new era of, 339
as organizational justice, 339–340, 340t
perceptions of, shifting focus of, 340–341
strengthening LMX and reducing differentiation in, 342–343
theoretical model of, 336, 336f
trickling down of culture of, 341–342
Social structure, informal. See Structure, informal
Social support theory, 248t
Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST), 404–405
Soetjipto, B. W., 63, 163
Sommerkamp, P., 60, 142
Son, J., 353, 356t
Sonnentag, S., 73, 191, 192, 197, 202, 418
Span of supervision, 105t, 112
Sparr, J. L., 73, 234–235
Sparrowe, R. T., 32, 38–39, 60, 63, 142, 145, 163, 167, 230–231, 253, 256, 294–296, 299–301, 418
Spataro, S. E., 210
Spector, P.E., 68–69, 73
(p. 434) Spurk, D., 199
Srikanth, P. B., 73
Status, as resource, 55–65. See also Resource exchange perspective
Status Characteristics Theory (SCT), 384
Staudigl, L. F., 125
Stauffer, J., 72
Steele, C. M., 385
Steers, R. M., 141
Steiner, D. D., 58, 90, 111, 370t
Stereotypes, 384–390
of disabled employees, 388–389
distancing by threatened stereotype in, 388
dyadic similarity/dissimilarity and, 390
of GLBT employees, 389–390
of groups, 384–385
of nonwhites, 387
of obese, 387–388
of older workers, 385–386, 402t, 405–408
of women, 386–387
of younger workers, 405
Sterns, H. L., 401
Stewart, M. M., 271
Stilwel, D., 58, 169, 398
Stinglhamber, F., 407
Stone,D. L., 388
Stress, job, 7, 189–204. See also specific stressors
core concepts of, 190
on creativity, 177
future practice in, 204
future research in, 202–204
stressors in, 190–191
well-being in, 191, 197–199 (See also Well-being)
work–family interface in, 191, 200–202 (See also Work–family interface)
workplace relationships and, 189
Stress, job, LMX and, 192–196, 193f
concept of LMX in, 189–190
direct relationship in, 192–193, 193f
job demands in, 196
job stressors in, 193–194
leaders’ time-based stress in, 196
means efficacy in, 196
organizational politics in, 195
research findings on, 191–192, 192f
role stressors in, 194–195
workplace aggression in, 195–196
Stressors, job, 190–191
LMX and, 193–194
Stressors, role, 194–195
Stringer, R. A., Jr., 317
Strong ties, 231, 233, 293–295, 297, 299
Structural holes, 231
Structure, informal, 293–308
dyadic networks and relationship quality in, 296–299, 297f, 298f
“exchange” and domain extension beyond dyad in, 299–300
networks and task interdependency alignment in, 299
origins and history of, 294–295
overview of, 294
recent empirical research on, 300–301
refining LMX relationship in, 296
in Vertical Dyad Linkage, 295–296, 295f
Sturges, J., 243
Success, career mobility and. See Career mobility and success
Sufang, G., 214
Sun, J. J. M., 196
Sun, L.-Y., 71, 163, 319t, 324
Supervision. See also specific topics
abusive, 160
span of, 105t, 112
Supervisor liking, on performance, 160
Supervisor LMX (SLMX), 355, 371
Supervisor LMX-7 (SLMX-7), 34, 46–48
Supervisor perceived organizational support, on performance, 161–162
Supervisor socialization tacts, in newcomer adjustment, 230
Supervisor–subordinate guanxi (LMG), 49–50
Supervisor versions, measures
LMX, 31–32
LMX-7, 31, 44–45, 53–54
multidimensional LMX, 32, 46–47, 62, 62t
multidimensional LMX-7, 32, 46–47, 62, 62t
Synergistic diminishing gains, 177, 178
Sy, T., 212, 355
T
Taggar, S., 201
Tajfel, H., 390
Takeuchi, R., 143, 162
Target similarity framework, 340
Task challenge, on performance, 162
Task i-deals, 194–195
Task interdependencies, network alignment with, 299
Task performance, 158–162
Tayeb, M. H., 354
Taylor, D., 415
Taylor, M. S., 57t, 58, 60, 143, 160
Team-level LMX
age diversity on, 402, 406–407
emotion on, 219–220
evolution of LMX differentiation in, 287–288
future research on, 418–419
newcomer adjustment to, 236
Team member exchange (TMX), 272–273
definition of, 145
on work attitudes, 145–146
Tee, E. E., 216
Tekleab, A. G., 143, 252
Tepper, B. J., 164
Terek, E., 313t, 316
Test of negative social exchange (TENSE), 36, 50–51
Tetrick, L. E., 35, 72
Thomas, C. H., 197
Thomas, D. A., 390
Thomas, G., 127, 146–147, 149–150, 194, 415
Thomas, J. S., 212–213
Thompson, B. S., 110, 230, 318t, 321–322
Thornton, G. C., 389
Tierney, P., 163, 175–185, 318t, 321, 419
Ties, 294
Tie strength, 34, 38, 293–301, 306–307
definition and origin of, 293–294
dyadic networks and relationship quality in, 296–299, 297f, 298f
“exchange” and domain extension beyond dyad in, 299–300
future research on, 306–307
hierarchy-free conceptualization of, 306–307
multiple networks in, 307
networks and task interdependency alignment in, 299
origins and history of, 294–295
recent empirical research on, 300–301
refining LMX relationship in, 296
in Vertical Dyad Linkage, 295–296, 295f
Time-based stress, leaders’, on job stress, 196
Timmerman, T. A., 407
Token status, 391
To, M. L., 221
Tordera, N., 194, 318t, 319t, 320, 322, 324, 325–327
Tournament theory, 242, 244–245, 250t, 252, 253, 255
Toxic triangle, 132, 132f
Traditional leadership theory, 12
Trait theories of leadership, 17–18
Transformative leadership, 20–21, 160
Treadway, D. C., 342, 347
Triandis, H. C., 316
Troth, A., 212–214, 217, 218, 219, 221
Trust
definition of, 352
measures of, 36–37, 51–52
on performance, 163
in relationships, 96t–97t, 109–110
Truxillo, D. M., 7, 150, 402, 405
Tse, H. H. M., 216, 217, 219, 220, 221, 270, 304, 320t, 324, 418
Tse, H. M., 145, 146, 151, 209–213, 222
Tsui, H. H., 302, 398
Tummers, L. G., 200–201
Turner, J. C., 390
Turner, R. J., 242
Turnley, W. H., 144, 168, 199, 267, 337
Twenge, J. M., 403
Tziner, A., 73, 126, 319t, 323, 355, 359t
(p. 435) U
Uhl-Bien, M., 31–32, 36, 110, 162, 190, 210, 295, 299, 307, 352, 356t, 358t, 360t–364t, 366t, 368t, 369t, 372
Unsworth, K., 184
V
Vadera, A. K., 164–165
Values, corporate social responsibility and, 345–346
Van Breukelen, W., 269, 273
Vancouver, J. B., 235, 235f
Vandenberge, C., 73
van den Bos, K., 77, 78
Van Der Leeden, R., 269
Van Dyne, L., 124, 158–159, 163–165, 168, 169, 419
Van Knippenberg, D., 148–149, 150
Van Vianen, A. E. M., 60–61
Van Yperen, N. W., 160
Variance, 29
VDL/LMX, 30
Vecchio, R. P., 107, 160, 196, 203, 390, 408
Venkataramani, V., 59, 300–301, 306
Vertical dyad linkage (VDL) measures
negotiating latitude in, 30, 43
VDL/LMX in, 30
Vertical dyad linkage (VDL) theory, 3, 11, 12, 15
formulation of, initial, 294–295
history of, 29
LMX transition from, 15–16, 29–30
structure and tie strength in, 295–296, 295f
Vertical Exchange, 43
Vidyarthi, P. R., 33, 88, 144–146, 168, 215–216, 221, 264, 270, 273, 286t, 302, 305, 352, 358t, 418
Vigoda-Gador, E., 165
Villardo, A. J., 407
Visionary leadership, 20–21
Volmer, J., 199
Vukonjanski, J., 313t, 316
W
Waddock, S. A., 339, 340, 340t
Waismel-Manor, R., 355, 359t
Wakabayashi, M., 30
Walker, H. J., 132
Walker, J. J., 35
Wall, T. D., 140
Walter, F., 398, 401
Walter, J., 417
Walumbwa, F. O., 73, 161, 163, 165, 166, 196, 338
Wang, D., 60, 62–63, 110, 142, 160, 353, 366t, 368t
Wang, H., 60, 62–63, 160, 162, 353, 362t, 366t, 368t
Wang, M., 123, 160, 227–229, 232, 237, 401, 416
Wat, D., 163
Weak ties, 231, 293
Weigl, M., 194
Weiss, H. M., 210, 213, 243, 417
Well-being, 7, 191–192, 192f. See also Stress, job
LMX and, 197–199
Wesselius, W., 269
West, M., 140, 212
White, R. K., 317
Whittington, J. L., 121
Wilke, H. A. M., 77, 78
Wilk, P., 63
Williams, L. J., 162–163
Williams, M. L., 162
Wilson, K., 56–62, 64, 144, 204, 415
Within-group variance, 268
Witt, L. A., 146
Women, stereotypes of, 386–387
Wong, C. S., 353, 368t, 369t
Wong, K. F. E., 162
Work attitudes, 7, 139–151
“black box” of LMX and, 7, 140, 142–143, 143f, 415
cultural characteristics in, 142
direct relationships to, 140
dyad analysis of, 146–147, 147f
future research on, 150–151
group analysis of, 146, 147f
history of, 139–140
individual analysis of, 145–146, 147f
individual variables in, 142
intergroup leadership on, 149
job satisfaction and, 140–141
levels of analysis in, 144–147
LMX as mediator/moderator in, 142–143
organizational commitment on, 141–142
organizational embeddedness on, 151
organizational variables in, 142
relationship science on, 149–150
relative deprivation theory in, 144
research on, 139–142
resource theory of social exchange theory in, 144
social exchange theory in, 143–144
social identity theory on, 148–149
Work climate, 105t–106t, 112
Work–family interface, 200–202
enrichment in, 191
interference in, 191–192
job stress and, 191
LMX as predictor of work–family variables in, 200–201
on performance, 164
predicting LMX by work–family variables in, 201–202
research findings on, 191–192, 192f
Workgroup level, 19
Workplace aggression, 195–196
Wormley, W. M., 252
Wu, J., 416
X
Xanthopoulou, D., 197
Xiaqi, K., 214
Xin, K. R., 107
Xu, E., 160, 162
Y
Yagil, D., 73
Yammarino, F. J., 119–120, 146, 221, 273
Yang, J., 37
Yoder, R. J., 235, 235f
Younger worker stereotypes, 405
Yperen, N. W., 143
Yu, E., 353, 356t
Yun, S., 162
Yzerbyt, V., 407
Z
Zacher, H., 399–401, 403, 405, 408
Zhang, Z., 107–108, 123, 125, 126, 142, 160, 229
Zhong, J. A., 161, 319t, 325
Zhou, J., 177, 399
Zhou, L., 232, 416