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date: 22 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Over the history of leader–member exchange (LMX) research, dating from 1972, many measures have been used to assess the construct, ranging from the initial two-item negotiating latitude scale to the LMX-7 and the multidimensional (LMX-MDM) scales, which are those most frequently used today. In more recent years, additional measures have been introduced as replacements or supplements to the two prominent LMX measures. The purpose of our essay is to present an overview of LMX measures as well as scales that are relevant to LMX research. As a service to researchers, the complete text of all items from past versions of LMX and related scales are presented in Appendix 1, and items for the current standard measures (LMX-MDM and LMX-7) are provided in Appendix 2.

Keywords: Leader–member exchange (LMX), vertical dyad linkage (VDL), measurement, scale development, social exchange, relative LMX (RLMX), social comparison, leader–member exchange social comparison (LMXSC)

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