Abstract and Keywords
This chapter provides a critical and integrative review of leader–member exchange (LMX) as a predictor of four similar but different performance outcomes: task performance, affiliative extra-role behavior, change-oriented extra-role behavior, and adaptive performance. Looking to the past, the authors review this existing literature with a particular emphasis on identifying both mechanisms and boundaries to these relationships. This review suggests that high-quality LMX relationships are generally beneficial to performance whereas low-quality LMX relationships are generally detrimental to performance. Looking to the future, the authors propose that researchers can contribute to the LMX-to-performance literature by focusing on the boundaries of this relationship. Specifically, the authors recommend examining both the conditions under which high LMX may harm performance, as well as the conditions under which low LMX may not harm performance. The authors further consider the topics of supervisor-employee LMX congruence, time, and individual differences in altering the LMX-to-performance relationship.
Keywords: leader-member exchange, performance, task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, extra-role behavior, affiliative behavior, change-oriented behavior, voice, contextual performance, adaptive performance
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