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date: 14 August 2020

(p. 503) Index

(p. 503) Index

Note: Tables, figures, and notes are indicated by t, f, and n.

A
abuse
sexual, 269
academic achievement
intelligence and, 252
accentuation hypothesis, 211
acetylcholine
in molecular genetic studies of externalizing spectrum, 155
Achenbach System for Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), 81–82
DSM–defined externalizing disorders and syndromes from, 81–82
Achenbach, T.M., 90, 487
acquired neuropsychological variation, 251–255
biological basis for, 253–255
described, 252
developmental immaturity and, 254
EFs in, 252
fetal programming vulnerability, 254
hemizygotic male and, 253
intelligence in, 252
mesolimbic DA system and, 254–255
placental vulnerability, 254
sex differences and, 251–255
vulnerability in, 252–254
X-linked gene mutation vulnerability, 253–254
activity
defined, 171
activity level
biological basis for, 249
defined, 172
sex differences effects on, 248–249
vulnerability in, 248
actor–partner independence model (APIM), 305–308, 306f, 307f
in coercive joining, 307–308, 307f
in deviancy training, 306, 306f, 307f
Adams, E., 352
“adaptational failures,” 94
Add Heath database, 317
addict(s)
“functional,” 54
addiction
categorization of, 6–7
common liability for, 53
addiction cycle
stages in, 46
ADHD Rating Scale, 406
“ADHD symptoms expression”
PKU showing, 226
adolescence
deviant peer clustering in, 304
low IQ and EF deficits in, 385f, 388
adolescent(s)
BPD among, 68–69
externalizing psychopathology among, 68–69
SIJ among, 68–69
Adolescent Depression Antidepressants and Psychotherapy Trial (ADAPT), 63–64
adolescent-limited offenders, 334
adolescent problem behavior
APIM in, 305–308, 306f, 307f
friendship and, 303–312
implications of, 308–310
interventions for, 309–310
adoption studies
ADHD–related, 110
behavioral genetic, 109
affective decision-making, 205
in impulse control, 207–208
affective-motivational processing
PFC in, 42
affectivity
negative, 171
age–crime curve, 309
aggression
attribution biases and, 351–353
causes of, 176
human, 241
MAOA gene and, 410
physical, 352–353
post-TBI, 410–411
reactive, 352
sex differences and, 241
subtypes of, 352
Agnew, R., 329
Akil, H., 50–51
alcohol abstinence
during pregnancy, 431
Alcohol Beverage Labeling Act, 430
alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS), 7
alcohol exposure
ADHD related to, 418–420, 419f, 421t, 424t, 425t
ASPD related to, 424t, 425t, 428
ODD and CD related to, 424–428, 424t, 425t
SUDs related to, 424t, 425t, 429
alcoholism. see also substance use disorders (SUDs)
defined, 6
Alexander, G.E., 446
Alexander, M., 336
Alink, L.R., 275
Allen, J.L., 366, 367
allostasis, 274–276
defined, 492
g-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
in genome-wide linkage studies of individual loci related to externalizing disorders, 128
in molecular genetic studies of externalizing spectrum, 154
amygdala
high-risk behaviors effects on, 495–496
analytic strategies
in molecular genetic studies, 136–137
Anderson, S.W., 43
Angold, A., 443, 444
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
anatomical location of, 203f
in disinhibitory psychopathology, 47
in impulsivity, 201–219. see also impulsivity
normative development of, 210
in regulating emotional behavior, 43
antipsychotic agents
in externalizing disorders management post-TBI, 412
antisocial behavior (ASB)
alternative pathways to, 366–367
behavioral genetic studies of, 113–115
coercive process in development of, 287–288
CU traits and, 362
individual-level theories of, 313–314
LCP, 239
MAOA gene effects on, 68
neurobiological system processes as mediators in effects of SIL parenting interventions on, 293–294
public housing and, 315
with and without significant levels of CU traits, 363–366
antisocial development
coercive family processes and, 290–291
antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)
alcohol exposure and, 424t, 425t, 428
attribution biases and, 353
behavioral genetic studies of, 112–113
characteristics of, 112–113
comorbidity with, 14, 64, 463
criteria for, 8, 12
current state of the science, 12
developmental considerations, 14
DP related to, 91
DSM on, 7–8, 12
environmental toxins and, 424t, 425t, 428
future directions in, 16
historical context of, 7–8
low IQ and EF deficits and, 380
modification to diagnostic criteria for, 15
post-TBI, 411
research agenda, 16
SIJ, BPD, and externalizing disorders linked with, 14, 64
teratogen exposure and, 424t, 425t, 428
tobacco exposure and, 424t, 425t, 428
trait impulsivity in, 190–191
Antshel, K.M., 225–226
anxiety
trait. see trait anxiety
Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (A-DISC), 453
approach
defined, 172
approach–avoidance–conflict
BIS in describing, 221–222, 222f
personality and, 221–222, 222f
Arsenio, W.F., 349, 352
artifactual comorbidity, 462
assortative mating
in behavioral genetics, 109
attention
selective, 209–210, 376
sustained, 376
attention deficit disorder (ADD), 4
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
adoption studies of, 110
age as factor in, 21
age of onset of, 21
alcohol exposure and, 418–420, 419f, 421t, 424t, 425t
attribution biases and, 349–350
Australian Twin Study of, 445
behavioral genetic studies of, 110–111
biological risk factors for, 27–28
BIS in, 225–227
“bottom-up” system of reward/motivation processing in, 23
CBT for, 453–454
CD with, 227–228
child maltreatment and, 272
cigarette byproducts exposure and, 419f, 420, 421t, 424t, 425t
“combined” subtypes of, 20, 47, 225–227
combined-type, 227
comorbidity with, 26, 29–30, 112, 463. see also specific disorders, e.g., conduct disorder (CD)
compared with other externalizing disorders, 19–37
criteria for, 4, 8–9
CU traits and, 362
current state of the science, 8–9, 30–31
deficits underlying, 22
defined, 8
described, 19, 110
developmental factors in, 13, 94–95
developmental progression of, 29–30
diagnosis of, 4, 8, 14, 20–21, 30
disinhibitory liability related to, 53
DP related to, 91
DSM-5 on, 377
DSM on, 4, 8–9
environmental toxins and, 423–424, 424t, 425t
family studies of, 110
FFFS–BAS conflict in, 227
frontal brain in, 47
functional imaging in, 25–26
future directions in, 15, 31
genetic susceptibility to, 21–22, 26–28
genetics of, 110
GxE correlation in, 28–29
heritable factors for, 21–22, 26–27
historical context of, 4, 20
hyperactive-impulsive, 47, 225–227
illicit drug exposure and, 419f, 421t, 422–423, 424t, 425t
inattentive, 225–227
introduction, 19–22
lead exposure and, 421t, 423, 424t, 425t
low effortful control and, 176–177
low IQ and EF deficits in, 377
marijuana exposure and, 419f, 421t, 422–423, 424t, 425t
narrow-band syndromes with, 444
neurobiology of, 24–26
neurology of, 231–233, 232t
pharmaceutical agents and, 419f, 420–422, 421t
PKU and, 225–227
“predominantly hyperactive/impulsive,” 20
“predominantly inattentive,” 20
presentation of, 20
prevalence of, 21, 418
psychosocial risk factors for, 28
research agenda, 15, 30–31
restless legs syndrome associated with, 49
retinoid and, 424
risk factors for, 21–22, 26–29
SIJ, BPD, and externalizing disorders linked with, 64
sleep disturbances related to, 49
socialization skills and, 29
structural imaging of, 24–25
subtypes of, 20, 47, 225–227
symptoms of, 4, 8–9, 20, 418
teratogen exposure and, 418–424, 419f, 421t, 424t, 425t
tobacco exposure and, 419f, 420, 421t, 424t, 425t
“top-down” system of executive functions and cognitive processes in, 22–23
trait impulsivity in, 189–190, 246–247
treatment of, 31
twin studies of, 110
types of, 225–227
underlying models of, 22–23
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) post-TBI, 406–408
behavioral studies, 406–407
cognitive studies, 407
neurobiology of, 407–408
prevalence of, 406
risk factors for, 407
attention/persistence
defined, 172
attribution bias(es)
ADHD and, 349–350
aggression and, 351–353
ASPD and, 353
CD and, 351–353
culture and, 356
current state of the science, 353–354
developmental considerations, 354–355
emotions and, 355–356
externalizing behaviors and, 347–359
(p. 505) future directions in, 355–356
historical context of, 347–349
introduction, 347
links to traditional externalizing disorders, 349–353
ODD and, 350–351
psychopathy and, 353
research agenda, 355–356
from SIP model, 347–349
Australian Twin Study of ADHD, 445
autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity/reactivity
comorbidity related to, 471
B
Bachorowski, J., 351
Bailey, C., 352
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J., 178, 296
Bargh, J.A., 348
Barglow, P., 63
Barker, E.D., 382
Barkley, R.A., 22, 46–47
Barnett, D., 268–269, 272
Baron-Cohen, S., 251, 255
Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, 48, 205
Basten, M.M., 451
Bates, J.E., 171, 355
Bayley Scales of Infant Development–Second Edition (BSID-II)
Behavior Rating Scale from, 423
Mental Development Index from, 423
Beach, S.R.H., 140, 274
Beauchaine, T.P., 21, 47, 53, 91, 210–211, 242, 297, 349, 445, 452, 485
Bechara, A., 43
behavior(s)
adolescent problem. see adolescent problem behavior
coercive, 287
externalizing. see externalizing behavior(s)
high-risk, 495–496
Behavior Rating Scale
from BSID-II, 423
behavioral approach system (BAS), 220, 222, 222f
BIS and, 225
elements of, 222–224, 223f
personality predisposition and, 224–225
behavioral genetic studies, 105–124
ADHD–related, 110–111
adoption studies, 109
ASB–related, 113–115
ASPD–related, 112–113
assortative mating in, 109
CD–related, 111–112
classical research designs in, 107–109
controversies related to, 117–118
current state of the science, 115–116
developmental considerations, 116–117
EEA in, 109–110
of externalizing problems and disorders, 105–124
family studies, 107–108, 108f
future directions in, 119
generalizability in, 110
historical context of, 106–107
introduction, 105–106
links to traditional externalizing disorders, 110–115
methodological issues in, 109–110
ODD–related, 111
RDoC approach to, 119
research agenda, 118–119
SUDs–related, 113
twin studies, 108, 109
behavioral genetics
classical research designs in, 107–109
of externalizing spectrum disorders, 149
of trait impulsivity, 186
behavioral inhibition/fear
defined, 171
behavioral inhibition system (BIS), 220–238
in ADHD, 225–227
approach–avoidance conflict in, 221–222, 222f
in CD, 227–228
components of, 223, 223f
concept of, 220–221
described, 220
elements of, 222–224, 223f
externalizing disorders and, 225
function of, 221
introduction, 220
neurobiology of, 222–224, 223f
personality and clinical comorbidity, 224–225
in psychopathy, 228–231, 229f
role of, 222, 222f
behavioral inhibition system (BIS) theory, 221–222, 222f
behavioral neuroscience
coercion theory and, 289–290
behavioral teratology
defined, 416
research in, 417
Bell, R.Q., 97
Berg, T., 276
Bernat, E.M., 54
Bernburg, J.G., 328
Berridge, K.C., 42, 44–46
Berthold, A., 240
Besíc, N., 366
Bevilacqua, L., 138, 139, 273–274
bias(es)
attribution, 347–359. see also attribution bias(es)
positive illusory, 350
self-serving, 350
Bijleveld, C.C.J.H., 326
binge/intoxication stage
in addiction cycle, 46
bioinformatics
in molecular genetic studies, 137
biological vulnerabilities
to externalizing spectrum disorders, 103–263
biomarkers
in externalizing disorders management post-TBI, 411–412
biospecimens
in externalizing disorders management post-TBI, 411–412
Blair, J., 230
Blair, K., 230
Blair, R.J.R., 364, 367
Blakemore, J., 249
b-blockers
in externalizing disorders management post-TBI, 412
blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response
low, 207
Boden, J.M., 50
borderline
defined, 62
borderline personality
described, 62
borderline personality disorder (BPD), 454–455
ASPD with, 64
behavioral genetics and family studies in, 65–66
biological vulnerabilities to, 62, 65–66
comorbidity patterns of, 61–62
controversies related to, 69–70
current state of the science, 64–68
DA and, 66
defined, 62
developmental considerations for, 64, 68–69
developmental precursors to, 62–63
developmental trajectories for, 68
environmental risk factors for, 62, 66–68
externalizing spectrum of, 61–78
5-HT in, 66
fMRI studies in, 71n
future directions in, 71
historical context of, 62–63
introduction, 61–62
links to traditional externalizing disorders, 63–64
presentation of, 62–63
prevalence of, 62
research agenda, 70–71
SIJ with, 61–78
stigmatizing nature of, 69
SUDs with, 64
trait impulsivity and, 64
underlying structure of, 69
(p. 506) borderline personality disorder (BPD) labeling, 69
Bornstein, M.H., 452
Bosch, J.D., 352
bottom-up dysfunctions, 202–203
“bottom-up” system of reward/motivation processing
in ADHD, 23
Boulerice, B., 382
brain
environmental “programming” of, 93
frontal, 47
brain circuit(s)
for reward and incentive salience, 44–46
brain circuitry
for inhibitory control, 41–44
brain injury
impulsivity related to, 203–204
brain lesions
impulsivity related to, 203–204
brain systems
social experience related to, 291–292
Brennan, J., 448
Brewer-Smyth, K., 275
Briggs-Cowan, M.J., 448
Brislin, S.J., 364
Brooks-Gunn, J., 314, 317, 319
Brotman, L.M., 296
Brown, P.J., 98
Bruce, J., 295
Buckholtz, J.W., 48, 191
Buist, K.L., 451
Bukowski, W.M., 451
Burgess, A.W., 275
Burke, J.D., 68
Burnette, M.L., 273
Burnette, S., 364
Burt, A., 179
Burt, S.A., 112, 115
Buss, A.H., 171, 175
Buss, D., 256n
Butler, G., 368
Byrd, A.L., 140–141
C
Caldwell, M., 370
California Three Strikes and You’re Out Law, 325, 331
callous-unemotional (CU) traits, 50, 251
ADHD and, 362
ASB with and without, 362–366
assessment advances needed for, 369
cognitive and affective correlates of, 364
COMT polymorphisms and, 363
controversies related to, 367–369
current state of the science, 363–366
developmental considerations, 366–367
external disorders related to, 360–374
externalizing behaviors related to, 362
future directions in, 367–370
genetic and biological correlates with, 363–364
historical context of, 361–362
introduction, 360–361
research agenda, 367–370
social correlates of, 365–366
in those without conduct problems, 368–369
treatment advances needed for, 369–370
“calls for action,” 270
Cambridge Fetal Testosterone Project, 251
Cambridge Gamble and Risk Tasks, 205
Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD), 318, 333–334, 334f
cAMP response element-binding protein (CERB) gene
child maltreatment and, 274
candidate gene studies
of individual loci related to externalizing disorders, 128–129
career criminality, 242
Caron, C., 462
Carter, A.S., 448
Casey, B.J., 53, 54
Caspi, A., 68, 135, 174, 242, 245, 247, 273, 492
Castellanos, F.X., 24
Castellanos-Ryan, N., 207, 213
CAT-PD (Computerized Adaptive Test for Personality Disorder), 83
catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, 153–154
catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphisms
CU traits and, 363
categorical diagnosis
defined, 79
Catton, T., 444
Cauffman, E., 335
cell adhesion proteins
GWA studies of, 157
Cernkovich, S.A., 332
Chan, R.C.K., 46
chemical(s)
ADHD related to, 27
Chess, S., 171, 175
Child and Adolescent Disposition Scale, 472
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, 111
Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), 81, 424, 453
on CD, 111–112
externalizing spectrum defined by, 81–82
Child Development, 90
Child Development Project, 351–352, 355
child maltreatment. see also maltreatment
ADHD and, 272
CERB gene and, 274
conceptualization of, 268–269
current state of the science, 273–276
defined, 268
developmental considerations, 276–278
experience of, 267
externalizing behaviors related to, 269–272
future research agenda, 278–279
gender moderated effects of, 276
GxE correlation in, 273–274
historical context of, 267–272
HPA axis and, 273
introduction, 267
links to traditional externalizing disorders, 272–273
medical-diagnostic approach to, 268
neuroendocrine functioning related to, 274–276
ODD and, 273
PFC in, 271
research on, 267–268
subtypes of, 269
SUDs and, 272
vulnerability to externalizing spectrum disorders related to, 267–285
Children’s Orientation and Amnesia Test (COAT), 404
chromosome(s)
in sex differences, 243
Cicchetti, D., 268–269, 272, 273, 275
cigarette byproducts exposure
ADHD related to, 419f, 420, 421t, 424t, 425t
ASPD related to, 424t, 425t, 428
ODD and CD related to, 424t, 425t, 426
SUDs related to, 424t, 425t, 429
Clark, L., 207
classical strain theory, 329
Clear, T.R., 324
clinical authority
in psychiatric diagnostic development, 79
Cloninger, C.R., 133, 134, 172–173
closed head injury, 405
coercion
construct of, 287
defined, 287
peer interaction dynamic, 303
as social process, 287
coercion theory, 286, 288–289, 468, 494
behavioral neuroscience and, 289–290
development and intervention, 288–289
SIL parenting interventions and neuroscience integrated with, 298–299
coercive behaviors
described, 287
coercive family processes
antisocial development and, 290–291
ASB development related to, 287–288
in externalizing behaviors, 286–302
integrating neuroscience into parenting and family intervention research, 292–293, 293f
introduction, 286–287
LHPA stress regulatory systems in, 290, 296–297
mesocortical DA prefrontal systems in, 294–295
mesolimbic DA motivational system in, 290, 297–298
neurobiological systems and, 290–291
coercive joining
described, 303, 307–308
as dynamic mediator, 307–308, 307f
coercive social processes
family intervention and, 288
cognition
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
for ADHD, 453–454
cognitive coping
in externalizing disorders management post-TBI, 412
cognitive deficits
in adolescents, 385f, 388
in children, 385f, 386–388
controversies related to, 388–390
developmental considerations, 383–388, 385f
in early adulthood, 385f, 388
future directions in, 390–391
infant manifestations of, 384–385, 385f
in males, 389
in preschoolers, 385f, 386
research agenda, 390–391
cognitive flexibility
defined, 376
cognitive vulnerabilities
to externalizing disorders, 345–400
Cohen, J.D., 42, 43, 352, 377
Collaborative Study of Nicotine Dependence (COGEND), 155
Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), 128, 155
Collective Clemency Bill, 331–332
commission errors, 205
comorbidity(ies)
ADHD and, 463
aim of studies on, 461–462
among externalizing disorders, 461–481
among internalizing and externalizing disorders, 443–460
ANS anxiety/reactivity and, 471
artifactual, 462
ASPD and, 463
assessment of, 464, 465f
background, 443–444
categorical vs. dimensional approaches to, 444
CD and, 463
controversies related to, 474
current state of the science, 466–467
defined, 461
developmental considerations, 473–474
dispositional traits and, 471–473
environmental effects on, 466–469
in externalizing behaviors, 486
future research directions in, 454–455
genetics and, 466–469
GxE correlates in, 467–469
heterotypic, 463, 486, 489–496, 489f, 491f
historical context of, 462–463
homotypic, 462–463, 486–489
HPA axis in, 448
introduction, 461–462
LHPA axis activity/reactivity and, 471
low IQ and EF deficits related to, 381
neural circuit approaches to, 445–446
neural mechanisms of, 445–448
neurobiological correlates of, 469–470
neuroendocrine mechanisms of, 448–449
ODD and, 463
pure disorders vs., 451–452
research agenda, 474–475
reward insensitivity and, 470
sex differences and, 445
socialization and, 449–452
structural models of, 465f
treatment-related, 452–454
true, 462
weak inhibitory control and, 470–471
compulsion(s), 224
computed tomography (CT)
in head injury assessment, 404
Computerized Adaptive Test for Personality Disorder (CAT-PD), 83
conduct disorder (CD)
ADHD with, 227–228
alcohol exposure and, 424–428, 424t, 425t
attribution biases and, 351–353
behavioral genetic studies of, 111–112
BIS in, 227–228
causal model for, 360–374
characteristics of, 111
cigarette byproducts exposure and, 424t, 425t, 426
comorbidity with, 112, 463
current state of the science, 11
DA dysfunction in, 228
defined, 360
developmental considerations, 13–14
DP related to, 91
DSM-5 on, 360
DSM-II on, 361–362
DSM on, 5–6, 11
environmental toxins exposure and, 424t, 425t, 428
FFFS–BAS conflict in, 227
future directions in, 15–16
historical context of, 5–6
illicit drug exposure and, 424t, 425t, 427
introduction, 360–361
lead exposure and, 424t, 425t, 428
low effortful control and, 176–177
low IQ and EF deficits in, 377–378
marijuana exposure and, 424t, 425t, 427
modification to diagnostic criteria for, 14
neurobiology of, 409
neurology of, 231–233, 232t
pharmaceutical agents exposure and, 424t, 425t, 426–427
post-TBI, 408–409
research agenda, 15–16
risk factors for, 360–361
SIJ, BPD, and externalizing disorders linked with, 64
symptoms of, 5–6, 11
temperament resulting in, 175
teratogen exposure and, 424–428, 424t, 425t
tobacco exposure and, 424t, 425t, 426
trait impulsivity in, 190
congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), 249
contagion
described, 303
as peer interaction dynamic, 303
(p. 508) contemporary post-DSM-5/RDoC landscape
controversies in, 85–86
continuity(ies)
in externalizing behaviors, 486
Continuous Performance Task, 447
control
culture of, 325
effortful, 171, 176–177, 247–248. see also effortful control
impulse, 207–213, 229. see also impulse control
inference, 209–210
inhibitory, 41–44, 46, 376
low effortful, 176–177
reactive, 172
sex differences effects on, 246
weak inhibitory, 470–471
coping
cognitive, 412
copy number variants (CNVs), 126
in molecular genetic studies, 137–138
Corr, P.J., 229
Costello, J., 444
Coy, K., 351
Crick, N.R., 349
criminal and antisocial behavior (ASB)
neighborhood risk and, 313–322. see also antisocial behavior (ASB); criminal behavior
criminal behavior
incarceration as learning environment for, 327
individual-level theories of, 313–314
neighborhood risk and, 313–322
public housing and, 315
criminality
career, 242
criminological strain theory, 329
Crockenberg, S.C., 178
cross-disorder approaches
in phenotyping strategies, 131–132
Cross-Disorders Working Group
of PGC, 131–132
Crowell, S.E., 67
Cullen, F.T., 328, 332
Cullerton-Sen, C., 276
culture
in attribution biases, 356
culture of control, 325
custodial vs. non-custodial sentences, 330
cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, 156
cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, 139
D
Dadds, M.R., 366, 367, 369, 447, 448, 455
Dahl, E.E., 447
Dalley, J.W., 208
Damasio, H., 43
Darwin, C., 240
data reduction methods
in phenotyping strategies, 134
Davidson, R.J., 43
Davies, P.T., 273
Daw, N.D., 45
de Moor, M.H.M., 133
de Werth, C., 309
Deater-Deckard, K., 97
Décary, A., 208
default mode network (DMN), 25
defensive distance, 221–222, 222f
defiance theory
incarceration and, 328
DeKlyen(s) M., 351
Dekovic, M., 451
delay discounting, 205, 208
delinquency
defined, 378
incarceration and development of, 323–343. see also incarceration
low IQ and EF deficits in, 378–379
DeMello, L., 355
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
MTO program of, 318–319
deterrence
general, 323
incarceration as, 326–327
specific, 323
development
atypical, 94–95
causal processes in, 174
continuities in, 95–96
discontinuities in, 95–96
“greatest mismatch” in, 333
normal, 93–95
Development and Psychopathology, 90
developmental differentiation
temperamental characteristics related to, 170
developmental immaturity
acquired neuropsychological variation and, 254
developmental psychopathology (DP)
atypical development and, 93–95
characterization of, 91
concepts of, 92–93
described, 90–91
equifinality and, 92
introduction, 90–92
multifinality and, 92
multiple levels of analysis in, 96–97
normal development and, 93–95
perspective on externalizing behavior dimensions and externalizing disorders, 90–102. see also specific disorders
principles of, 93–99
protective factors against, 98–99
reciprocal, transactional models of, 97–98
resilience to, 98–99
risk factors for, 93, 98–99
deviancy training, 328
described, 303–304
as dynamic mediator, 306, 306f, 307f
in prisons, 327
deviant peer clustering
in early adolescence, 304
gang involvement related to, 304–305, 307–308
sexual promiscuity related to, 304
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). see also specific editions
on DBDs, 3–18. see also specific disorders and disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs)
on diagnostic hierarchies, 486
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2nd. ed. (DSM-II)
on CD, 361–362
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV)
DSM-5 vs., 85
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5)
on ADHD, 377
on CD, 360
DSM-IV vs., 85
on impulsivity, 201
on ND-PAE, 417
Personality Inventory for. see Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5)
on teratogen exposure, 429–430
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)–defined externalizing disorders and syndromes
from ASEBA tradition in, 81–82
diagnostic hierarchies
DSM on, 486
Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC), 111
Dick, D.M., 134, 135
diet
ADHD related to, 27–28
“difficult” temperament, 171, 175
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)
in head injury assessment, 404
(p. 509) Dinovitzer, R., 330
Disability Rating Scale, 404
Dishion, T.J., 304, 327
“disinhibition vs. constraint/conscientiousness”
sex differences effects on, 246
disinhibitory liability(ies)
alternative addictive and aggressive expressions of, 49–52
P300 (P3b) amplitude reduction and, 48–49, 53–54
research agenda, 52–53
SUD–related, 46–54
unresolved questions related to, 52–53
disinhibitory psychopathology
brain regions involved in, 47–52
dispositional liability(ies)
for SUDs, 39–40
trait disinhibition vs., 51
dispositional traits
comorbidity related to, 471–473
dispositional vulnerability
to SUDs, 39–40
disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). see also specific disorders, e.g., conduct disorder (CD)
controversies related to, 14–15
criteria for, 9–10
current state of the science, 8–12
described, 112, 408
developmental considerations, 12–14
differential diagnosis of, 10
DSM on, 3–18
future directions in, 15–16
historical context of, 3–8
introduction, 3
post-TBI, 408–409
research agenda, 15–16
symptoms of, 10
types of, 3
disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), 431–432
current state of the science, 9–10
developmental considerations, 13
future directions in, 15
modification to diagnostic criteria for, 14
research agenda, 15
Dmitrieva, J., 335
Dodge, K.A., 97, 349, 351, 354, 355
Donzella, B., 448
dopamine (DA)
in molecular genetic studies of externalizing spectrum, 150–152
in SIJ, BPD, and externalizing psychopathology, 66
dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene
in candidate gene studies of individual loci related to externalizing disorders, 128
dopaminergic (DA) dysfunction
CD and, 228
dopaminergic (DA) projections
in trait impulsivity, 186–187
Dosier, M., 297
Douglas, V.I., 22
Drabick, D., 105
Drago, F., 331–332
drug(s)
ADHD related to, 419f, 420–422, 421t
classes of, 6
ODD and CD related to, 424t, 425t, 426–427
drug dependence
defined, 6
drug metabolism genes
in molecular genetic studies of externalizing spectrum, 156
Duncan, G.J., 315
Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development study, 242
E
early adolescence
deviant peer clustering in, 304
early adulthood
low IQ and EF deficits during, 385f, 388
early brain lesions
impulsivity related to, 203–204
“easy” temperament, 171
Eaton, N.R., 445
Edmiston, E.E., 277
effortful control
biological effects of, 248
defined, 171
sex differences effects on, 247–248
vulnerability for, 247
Elia, J., 138
Elizur, Y., 370
Ellingson, J.M., 96
Ellis, B., 449
Else-Quest, N.M., 174, 248
emotion(s)
SIP and, 349
emotion dysregulation
future directions in, 355–356
operant reinforcement and, 494
emotional maltreatment (EM), 269
emotional vulnerabilities
to externalizing disorders, 345–400
emotionality
defined, 171
negative, 175–176
ODD resulting from, 175
positive, 172
Emotionality-Activity Sociability (EAS) model, 171
Empathizing Systemizing theory of sex differences, 251
empathy
biological basis for, 251
sex differences effects on, 250–251
vulnerability for, 250–251
endophenotypes/intermediate phenotypes, 132–133
environment
comorbidity related to, 466–469
criminal learning, 327
externalizing disorders related to, 488–489
as risk factor for psychopathology, 93
in SIJ, BPD, and externalizing psychopathology, 62, 66–68
temperament effects of, 173
environmental level chemical and toxins
ADHD related to, 27
environmental “programming” of brain
as risk factor for psychopathology, 93
environmental toxins
ADHD related to, 423–424, 424t, 425t
ASPD related to, 424t, 425t, 428
ODD and CD related to, 424t, 425t, 428
epigenesis
defined, 492
epigenetic markers, 139
epigenetics
defined, 139
in molecular genetic studies, 139–140
epigenome-wide association (EWA) studies, 140
epistasis
defined, 107
Equal Environmental Assumption (EEA)
in behavioral genetics, 109–110
equifinality
DP and, 92
(p. 510) Erickson, N.L., 445, 486
Erkanli, A., 444
error-related negativity (ERN)
defined, 47
Evans, S.W., 349
Everitt, B.J., 208
executive function(s) (EF)
acquired neuropsychological variation and, 252
hot vs. cool, 389–390
executive function (EF) deficits
ADHD and, 377
in adolescents, 385f, 388
ASPD and, 380
CD and, 377–378
in children, 385f, 386–388
comorbidity among externalizing disorders related to, 381
controversies related to, 388–390
current state of the science, 380–383
delinquency and, 378–379
developmental considerations, 383–388, 385f
dimensional approach to, 381–383
in early adulthood, 385f, 388
externalizing behaviors related to, 375–400
future directions in, 390–391
historical context of, 375–377
impulsivity and, 383
infant manifestations of, 384–385, 385f
introduction, 375
links to traditional externalizing disorders, 377–380
in males, 389
in preschoolers, 385f, 386
psychopathy and, 380
research agenda, 390–391
SUDs and, 379–380
externalizing behavior(s). see also specific types and disorders
attribution biases and, 347–359
biological vulnerabilities to, 242–244, 244f
coercive family processes in development of, 286–302. see also coercive family processes
comorbidities and continuities in, 486
CU traits and, 362
dimensional approach to, 381–383
DP perspective on dimensions of, 90–102. see also developmental psychopathology (DP)
early findings relating maltreatment to, 269–272
EF deficits and, 375–400. see also executive function (EF) deficits
expression of, 239–263
low IQ and, 375–400. see also low intelligence (IQ)
models of, 1–102
neural mechanisms of low trait anxiety and risk for, 220–238. see also behavioral inhibition system (BIS)
prevalence of, 239–263
sex differences as factor in, 239–263. see also sex differences
socialization mechanisms of, 265–343
temperament and, 170–183. see also temperament
teratogen exposure and, 416–439. see also teratogen(s); teratogen exposure
externalizing behavior dimensions
developmental continuities and discontinuities and, 95–96
DP perspective on, 90–102. see also developmental psychopathology (DP)
externalizing disorders. see also specific disorders, e.g., conduct disorder (CD)
attribution biases links to, 349–353
BAS and, 225
behavioral genetic studies of, 105–124. see also behavioral genetic studies
biological vulnerabilities to, 103–263, 242–244, 244f
BIS and, 225
child maltreatment and, 267–285
cognitive vulnerabilities to, 345–400
comorbidity among, 443–481
DP perspective on, 90–102. see also developmental psychopathology (DP)
emotional vulnerabilities to, 345–400
environmental effects on, 488–489
FFFS and, 225
genetic studies of, 105–124
impulsivity and, 205–207
molecular genetic studies of individual loci related to, 127–130
neural dysfunction in, 446–448
neurology of, 231–233, 232t
ontogenic process perspective on, 185
sex differences in, 242
teratogen exposure and, 418–429. see also specific disorders
treatment of, 411–412
externalizing disorders post-TBI, 405–409
ADHD, 406–408
aggression, 410–411
ASPD, 411
DBDs, 408–409
ODD, 408
personality change–related, 409–411
treatment of, 411–412
externalizing outcomes
externalizing phenomena
direct comparison of discrete and dimensional models of, 82
externalizing psychopathology
behavioral genetics and family studies in, 65–66
biological vulnerabilities to, 65–66
controversies related to, 69–70
DA and, 66
developmental considerations for, 68–69
environmental risk factors for, 66–68
5-HT in, 66
fMRI studies in, 71n
future directions in, 71
intent structure of, 487
research agenda, 70–71
SIJ and BPD and, 61–78
externalizing spectrum
behavioral genetic studies of, 105–124. see also behavioral genetic studies
defined, 105
molecular genetic studies of, 125–169. see also molecular genetic studies
Externalizing Spectrum Inventory (ESI), 40, 41f
development of, 82–83
externalizing spectrum model
perspective on disinhibitory liability and its alternative phenotypic expressions, 46–52
of SUDs, 40–41, 40f
externalizing spectrum of personality and psychopathology, 79–89
CAT-PD for, 83
controversies in contemporary post-DSM-5/RDoC landscape related to, 85–86
current state of the science, 82
developmental considerations for, 84–85
etiologic coherence of, 82–83
future directions in, 86–87
historical context of, 80–81
(p. 511) introduction, 79–80
research agenda, 86–87
F
factor analytic methods
in externalizing comorbidity assessment, 464, 465f
Fahim, C., 409
failure to provide (FTP), 269
family intervention research
integrating neuroscience into, 292–293, 293f
family issues
ADHD related to, 28
in SIJ, BPD, and externalizing psychopathology, 66–68
family processes
family relationships
as factor in deviant peer clustering, 304
family socialization
comorbidity and, 449–451
family studies
ADHD–related, 110
behavioral genetic, 107–108, 108f
Farmer, R.F., 473
Farrington, D.P., 315, 319, 330, 332–333, 335, 336
Fassbender, C., 209
FAST TRACK interventions, 279
fear/trait anxiety. see also trait anxiety
biological basis for, 250
sex differences effects on, 249–250
vulnerability for, 250
fearfulness
low, 176
Feldman, R.S., 277
Fergusson, D.M., 50
fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), 418
fetal programming
acquired neuropsychological variation and, 254
fetus
teratogen exposure in, 416–417
FFFS–BAS conflict
in ADHD, 227
in CD, 227
in psychopathy, 229–231
fight–flight–freeze system (FFFS), 221–222, 222f
BIS and, 225
elements of, 222–224, 223f
personality predisposition and, 224–225
Finger, E.C., 190
First, M.B., 445
Fisher, P.A., 295–297
Five Factor Model of personality, 133
5-HT receptor genes, 153
5-HT transporter (5HTT) gene, 152–153
Flagel, S.B., 50–51, 53
flight to deviant peers, 304
Flory, J.D., 66
Foley, M., 177
Forbes, R.E., 447
Ford, J.D., 448
Ford, T., 368
foster care as usual (FCAU), 295
Fox, N., 295
Frankenhuis, W.E., 309
Frick, P.J., 351, 362, 368, 369
friendship(s)
adolescent problem behavior and, 303–312. see also adolescent problem behavior
From Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime, 333
frontal brain
in ADHD, 47
“functional” addicts, 54
Functional Independence Measure (FIM), 404
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
in head injury assessment, 404
in impulse control, 211
in impulsivity studies, 211
in SIJ, BPD, and externalizing psychopathology, 71n
G
Gage, P., 43, 203–204, 213
Galambos, N., 451
Galbiati, R., 331–332
Galloway-Long, H.S., 368
Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT), 404
gang(s)
deviant peer clustering related to, 304–305, 307–308
in prisons, 327
Gao, Y., 176
Garcia, S.P., 453
Garland, D., 325
Gatzke-Kopp, L.M., 190, 253–255
Gautreaux Program, 318
Gauvain, M., 386
Geary, D., 251
Gelhorn, H., 112
gender differences. see also sex differences
child maltreatment–related, 276
sex differences vs., 256n
gene- and pathway-based analysis
in molecular genetic studies, 136–137
Gene Ontology Project, 136
gene–environment (GxE) correlation
in ADHD, 28–29
in child maltreatment, 273–274
in comorbidity, 467–469
described, 245–246
MAOA gene and, 245, 247
in molecular genetic studies, 135–136
as risk factor for psychopathology, 93
in SIJ, BPD, and externalizing psychopathology, 66–67
temperament effects of, 173, 177–179, 245
general deterrence
defined, 323
generalizability
in behavioral genetics, 110
genetic studies
of externalizing spectrum disorders, 105–124. see also behavioral genetic studies
genetics
comorbidity related to, 466–469
in impulsivity, 490, 492
genome-wide association (GWA) studies, 127
cell adhesion proteins in, 157
genes and gene systems identified by, 156–158
of individual loci related to externalizing disorders, 129–130
voltage-gated potassium channel genes in, 157
genome-wide linkage studies
of individual loci related to externalizing disorders, 127–128
genomic interrogation technologies
in molecular genetic studies, 137–140
genomic similarity methods, 130
Gerald, 240
Gerring, J.P., 408, 409
Giancola, P.R., 382, 389
Gibson, C.L., 317
Gilbert, F., 364
Giordano, P.C., 332
Gizer, I.R., 96
Gjone, H., 177–178
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), 404
Glueck study, 332
glutamate
in molecular genetic studies of externalizing spectrum, 154–155
Go No-Go Task, 206, 208, 294
(p. 512) Godinet, M.T., 276
Goffman E., 325
Gold, J., 352
Goldsmith, H., 248
Golub, A., 354
Gomez, A., 355
Gomez, R., 355
Good Behavior Game, 309
Goodman, R., 368
Gordon, K., 297
Gottdiener, W.H., 99
Gottfredson, M., 314
Gottlieb, G., 98
on behavioral teratology, 416
Gottschalk, M., 324
Goy, 240
Grace, A.A., 446
Graham, S., 354
Granic, I., 294
Gray, J.A., 220–221
“greatest mismatch in development,” 333
Green, D.P., 331
Grogan-Kaylor, A., 273
Groves, W.B., 315
Guerra, N.G., 351, 353
Gunnar, M., 275, 448
H
Hagan, J., 330
Hallquist, M.N., 70
Hampton, A., 105
Hamsphere, M.L., 130
Haney, C., 324
Happe, F.G.E., 364
Harden, P.W., 382
Harlaar, N., 46
Harrington-Cleveland, H., 317
Hart, J., 275
Haslam, N., 99
Hawes, D.J., 369, 448, 450, 452, 463
head injury
closed, 405
effects of, 403
externalizing behavior related to, 403–415. see also traumatic brain injury (TBI)
future directions in, 412–413
historical context of, 403–405
imaging of, 404–405
introduction, 403
mild, 407
Heimer, L., 445–446
Helland, E., 331, 332
hemizygotic male
acquired neuropsychological variation and, 253
Hemmens, C., 336
heritability
of temperament, 173
heterotypic comorbidity, 463, 486, 489–496, 489f, 491f
HEXACO model, 83
Hibbard, M.R., 411
Hicks, B.M., 48, 52–53, 65, 445
high-risk behaviors
mesolimbic, mesocortical, and amygdalar dysfunctions related to, 495–496
Hines, M., 249
Hinshaw, S.P., 91, 96, 242, 485
hippocampus
in regulating emotional behavior, 43
Hirschfeld, P., 315
Hirschi, T., 314
Hissel, S.C.E.M., 326
homotypic comorbidity, 462–463, 486–489
hormone(s)
neurohypophysial, 155–156
Horwood, L.J., 50
Hounsfield, G.N., 404
Hudley, C., 354
Hughes, J., 243
human aggression
defined, 241
Hutchison, K.E., 46
Hyde, J., 248
Hyman, S.E., 42
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
child maltreatment and, 273
comorbidity related to, 448
I
Iacono, W.G., 52–53, 464
illicit drug exposure
ADHD related to, 419f, 421t, 422–423, 424t, 425t
ODD and CD related to, 424t, 425t, 427
SUDs related to, 424t, 425t, 429
illicit drug use
dispositional liability for, 39
immaturity
developmental, 254
imprisonment. see also incarceration
aims of, 323
effects of, 325
impulse control
affective decision-making in, 207–208
controversies related to, 211–212
developmental models of problems with, 210–211
fMRI in, 211
motor/response inhibition in, 208–209
in psychopathy, 229
selective attention/inference control and working memory in, 209–210
temporal/delay discounting in, 208
TMS studies in, 213
impulsivity
ACC mechanisms of, 201–219
brain injury and, 203–204
brain neuroimaging technologies advances, 204
conceptualization changes related to, 204–205
as continuously distributed, highly heritable trait, 490, 492
control of, 207–212, 229. see also impulse control
controversies related to, 211–212
current state of the science, 207–210
defined, 185, 201–202
described, 202
developmental considerations, 210–211
DSM-5 on, 201
early brain lesions and, 203–204
fMRI in, 211
future directions in, 212–213, 212f
genetic studies of, 133–134
historical context of, 203–205
ICD-10-CM on, 201
imaging findings, 206–207
introduction, 201–203, 203f
links to traditional externalizing disorders, 205–207
longitudinal studies on, 213
low IQ and EF deficits and, 383
measurement changes, 204–205
neuropsychological case studies, 203–204
“nonplanning,” 202
performance/behavioral findings, 206
PFC mechanisms of, 201–219
reasons for, 202
research agenda, 212–213, 212f
self-report questionnaire assessing, 205
temporal/delay discounting and, 205
through mesolimbic DA dysfunction, 492–493
TMS studies on, 208, 213
unified, integrative approach to, 212–213, 212f
Impulsivity, Venturesomeness, and Empathy (IVE) scale, 205
inactivation
defined, 253–254
“incapacitative effect,” 323
incarceration. see also imprisonment
aims of, 323
controversies related to, 335–336
(p. 513) as criminal learning environment, 327
current state of the science, 330–333
custodial vs. non-custodial sentences, 330
defiance theory, 328
delinquency development related to, 323–343
as deterrent, 326–327
developmental considerations, 333–335, 334f
deviancy training during, 327
effects of, 324
experience of, 325–326
future directions in, 336–337
gang life during, 327
historical context of, 324–325
increase in, 323
intergenerational transmission related to, 329–330
introduction, 323–324
labeling theory, 327–328
no effect of, 329–330
offending effects of, 323–343
parental, 328–330. see also parental incarceration
as rehabilitation, 327
reintegrative shaming theory, 328
reoffending and, 330–333
research agenda, 336–337
theoretical framework, 326–330
incentive salience
brain circuits in, 44–46
incentive sensitization model, 45
individual-level factors
in neighborhood-level theories of ASB and criminal behavior, 315–316
individual-level theories of ASB and criminal behavior
integrated with neighborhood-level theories, 317–318
infancy
cognitive and EF deficit development in, 384–385, 385f
Infant Behavior Record (IBR), 172
inference control
in impulse control, 209–210
inhibition
response, 205
inhibitory control
brain circuitry for, 41–44
defined, 376
reward/incentive circuitry and, 46
Insel, T., 80, 239
insensitivity
reward, 470
Institute of Medicine, 255–256
integrated cognitive antisocial potential (ICAP) theory, 319–320
intelligence (IQ). see also cognition
academic achievement and, 252
acquired neuropsychological variation and, 252
defined, 252
described, 252
performance, 376, 377
verbal, 376, 377
internalizing disorders
comorbidity among, 443–460. see also comorbidity(ies)
neural dysfunction in, 446–448
International Classification of Diseases, version 10 (ICD-10)
on comorbidity, 443
on impulsivity, 201
Iowa Adoptee Study, 274
Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), 205, 389
irritability/frustration
defined, 171
temperament effects of, 175–176
Irwin, J., 325
Israel, A.C., 444
J
Jablensky, A., 444
Jaffee, S.R., 93
Jencks, C., 314
Jennett, B., 403–404
Jennings, W.G., 318
Jensen, P., 453
John Hopkins University, 309
Johns, A., 463
Jones, A.P., 364
Jones, K., 351
Jones, S., 317, 319
Jonson, C.L., 328, 332
Journal of Neurotrauma Neurobehavioral Guidelines Working Group, 412
Joyce, P.R., 68
K
Kagan, J., 171
Kahn, R.E., 362
Karoly, H.C., 46
Katz, L.F., 319
Keiley, M.K., 451
Kendler, K.S., 51, 136, 224–225
Kernberg, P.F., 62
Kert, M., 366
Khalife, N., 254
KIAA0010 SNPs, 137
Killias, M., 336
Klebanov, P.K., 314
Klein, D.N., 445, 486
Kling, J.R., 319
Kochanska, G., 367
Koops, W., 352
Kramer, M.D., 51, 445
Krohn, M.D., 328
Krueger, R.F., 40, 49–51, 65, 82, 186, 212, 444
Kruer, 445
Kruttschnitt, C., 326
Kupersmidt, J.B., 315
Kvaale, E.P., 99
Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), 136
L
labeling
of children with incarcerated parents, 329
labeling theory
incarceration-related, 327–328
Lahey, B.B., 255, 472
Lanctôt, N-. 332
Lansford, J.E., 273, 354, 355
Larson, C.L., 43
Laub, J.H., 332
Laurenceau, J.P., 297
law-abidingness
intelligence and, 252
lead
ADHD related to, 27
lead exposure
ADHD related to, 421t, 423, 424t, 425t
ODD and CD related to, 424t, 425t, 428
learning
social interaction, 288–299. see also social interaction learning (SIL)
LeDoux, J.E., 41
Lee, E.J., 451
Leerkes, E.M., 178
Lemerise, E.A., 349
Lenzenweger, M.F., 70
Leventhal, T., 317, 319
Levine, S., 297
Levy, F., 445–447, 463
Lewis, D.O., 411
Lewis, E., 297
Lewis, M.D., 294
Lieberman, J., 80
Liebling, A., 325
life-course persistent (LCP) antisocial behavior (ASB), 239
sex differences and, 241–242
life-course persistent offenders, 334
“liking,” 44
Lilienfeld, S.O., 46, 444
limbic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis activity/reactivity
comorbidity related to, 471
limbic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) system
coercive family processes and, 290
stress regulatory system, 296–297
(p. 514) Lindheim, O., 297
Lindstrom, P., 315
Linehan, M.M., 64, 67
Linehan’s biosocial theory, 64
Loeber, R., 316, 333, 335
Loeffler, C.E., 331
“looking for trouble,” 53
Lösel, F., 336
low intelligence (IQ)
ADHD and, 377
in adolescents, 385f, 388
ASPD and, 380
CD and, 377–378
in children, 385f, 386–388
comorbidity among externalizing disorders related to, 381
controversies related to, 388–390
current state of the science, 380–383
delinquency and, 378–379
developmental considerations, 383–388, 385f
dimensional approach to, 381–383
in early adulthood, 385f, 388
externalizing behaviors related to, 375–400
future directions in, 390–391
historical context of, 375–377
impulsivity and, 383
introduction, 375
links to traditional externalizing disorders, 377–380
in males, 389
in preschoolers, 385f, 386
psychopathy and, 380
research agenda, 390–391
SUDs and, 379–380
low trait anxiety
Ludwig, J., 315
Luntz, B.K., 273
Luo, X., 156
Luthar, S.S., 98
Lykken, D.T., 229–230
Lynam, D.R., 185, 314, 316
M
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
in head injury assessment, 404
resting state functional connectivity. see resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs_fcMRI)
Maikovich-Fong, A.K., 93
maladaptive parenting
ADHD related to, 28
Malone, P.S., 355
maltreatment. see also child maltreatment
child, 267–285. see also child maltreatment
conceptualization of, 268–269
described, 267
emotional, 269
experience of, 267
MLE, 269
PFC in, 271
as risk factor for psychopathology, 93
subtypes of, 269
Manly, J.T., 269
Manni, M., 297
Manuck, S.B., 140–141
marijuana exposure
ADHD related to, 419f, 421t, 422–423, 424t, 425t
ODD and CD related to, 424t, 425t, 427
SUDs related to, 424t, 425t, 429
Markon, E., 444
Martel, M.M., 244, 247, 253–255, 449
Maruna, S., 325
matching law, 305
Matthys, W., 228
“maturational gap,” 211
Mauritius, 176
Max, J.E., 406–409
Mayer, S.E., 314
McCartney, K., 450
McClure, E.B., 272
McClure, S.M., 45
McCrory, E.J., 277, 448
McDermott, J.M., 295
McGue, M., 52–53, 130–131
McMahon, R.J., 362
McNulty, T., 21, 47, 53, 91, 349
Meehl, P., 82
Meffert, H.A., 364
Meier, M., 247
memory
working, 209–210, 376
Mental Development Index
from BSID-II, 423
mercury
ADHD related to, 27
Mersky, J.P., 276
mesocortical dopamine (DA) system(s)
coercive family processes and, 290–291, 294–295
prefrontal, 294–295
in self-regulation, 185
vmPFC system, 290–291
mesocortical dopamine (DA) system dysfunction
high-risk behaviors and, 495–496
mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system(s), 47–48
acquired neuropsychological variation and, 254–255
coercive family processes and, 290, 297–298
motivational system, 297–298
in reward processing and reward-related behavior, 44
in self-regulation, 185
mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system dysfunction
externalizing vulnerability related to, 487–488
high-risk behaviors and, 495–496
impulsivity conferred through, 492–493
Metcalfe, J., 389, 390
methadone treatment, 423
methylmercury (MeHg)
ADHD related to, 423
methylphenidate
in externalizing disorders management post-TBI, 412
in normalizing effects on abnormalities in P3 response associated with ADHD, 49
midbrain neural mechanisms
of trait impulsivity, 184–200. see also trait impulsivity
mild head injury
defined, 407
Miller, E.K., 42, 43
Milner, P., 188
Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTES), 65, 131
Minnesota Twin Registry, 445
minor allele frequency (MAF), 126
Mischel, W., 316
Mitchell, D., 230
Mitchell, W., 389, 390
Miyake, A., 390
Moffitt, T.E., 95, 114, 210, 240, 242, 244, 334, 366, 378
molecular genetic studies
acetylcholine in, 155
of aggregate genetic variability for externalizing disorders, 130–131
analytic strategies, 136–137
approaches to studying externalizing spectrum, 125–148
background, 126–127
bioinformatics in, 137
candidate gene studies, 128–129
CNVs in, 137–138
current directions in, 131–140
DA in, 150–152
drug metabolism genes in, 156
epigenetics in, 139–140
of externalizing spectrum, 149–169
5-HT, 152–153
GABA in, 154
gene- and pathway-based analysis in, 136–137
genes and gene systems identified by GWA studies, 156–158
genome-wide linkage studies, 127–128
(p. 515) genomic interrogration technologies, 137–140
genomic regions identified in linkage studies, 158
glutamate in, 154–155
GWA studies, 129–130
GxE interaction in, 135–136
of individual loci related to externalizing disorders, 127–130
introduction, 125, 149–150
monoamine degradation in, 153–154
monoamine(s) in, 150–154
neurohypophysial hormones in, 155–156
next-generation sequencing and rate variants in, 138–139
phenotyping strategies, 131–135. see also phenotyping strategies
SNPs in, 150
Monahan, K.C., 335
monoamine(s)
in molecular genetic studies of externalizing spectrum, 150–154
monoamine degradation
in molecular genetic studies of externalizing spectrum, 153–154
monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene
aggression and, 410
ASB related to, 68
GxE correlation related to, 245, 247
in molecular genetic studies of externalizing spectrum, 153
VNTR polymorphism in, 273
Monshouwer, H.J., 352
Montague, P.R., 42, 45
mood, emotion, and behavior dysregulation
prefrontal brain dysfunction and, 494–495
Moore, G.A., 365
moral/legal/educational (MLE) maltreatment, 269
moral socialization
factors in, 176
Moran, P., 368
Morgan, A.B., 46
mosaicism
defined, 253
motor/response inhibition
in impulse control, 208–209
Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration (MTO) program, 318–319
Multi-dimensional Therapeutic Foster Care (MTFC)
SIL, 295
Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)
Tellegen’s, 39
multifinality
DP and, 92
Munoz, L.C., 366
Murray-Close, D., 275
Murray, J., 330, 332–333
Musser, E.D., 368
myelin-basic protein (MBP)
in externalizing disorders management post-TBI, 411
Myers, J., 51, 224–225
N
Nagin, D.S., 331
narrow-band syndromes
with ADHD, 444
National Center for Biotechnology Information database of genetic variation, 126
National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), 445
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 426
National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 431
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 80, 239
RDoC project of, 80, 119, 127, 133, 255, 443, 445, 447, 474
National Institutes of Health, 255
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 317
National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 317
Neale, M.C., 224–225
need principle, 332
negative affectivity
defined, 171
negative emotionality
temperament effects of, 175–176
negative reactivity
temperament effects of, 175
negative valence and arousal/regulation abnormalities, 119
negativity
error-related, 47
neglect
physical, 269
neighborhood-level theories of ASB and criminal behavior, 314–318
individual-level factors, 315–316
integrated with individual-level theories, 317–318
neighborhood risk
future research directions in, 319–320
in higher SES neighborhoods, 316
introduction, 313–318
in low-SES neighborhoods, 315–316
policy implications, 318–319
in public housing units, 315
NEO-PI-R, 83
neural dysfunction
externalizing and internalizing disorders and, 446–448
neural systems
in self-regulation, 185
neurobiological correlates of comorbidity, 469–470
neurobiological systems
coercive family processes and, 290–291
neurocognitive measures
in phenotyping strategies, 134–135
neurodevelopmental disorder due to prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE), 417
neuroendocrine functioning
child maltreatment effects of, 274–276
neurohypophysial hormones
in molecular genetic studies of externalizing spectrum, 155–156
Neuropsychiatric Rating Schedule, 409
neuropsychological variation
Neville, H.J., 295
“new Jim Crow,” 336
Newman, J.P., 230, 351
next-generation sequencing
in molecular genetic studies, 138–139
nicotine
ADHD related to, 419f, 420, 421t, 424t, 425t
Nicotine Addiction Genetics study, 155
Nigg, J.T., 53, 54, 176, 244, 245, 250, 368, 449
NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Mapping Consortium, 139
(p. 516) NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA study), 453
“nonplanning” impulsivity, 202
nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), 63
age-related, 68
developmental considerations for, 68–69
studies of, 63
Norm Topic Code, 305
Norris, A.L., 445, 486
O
O’Connor, T.G., 493
Odgers, C., 242
offender(s)
adolescent-limited, 334
life-course persistent, 334
types of, 334
offending
incarceration and, 323–343. see also incarceration
Offer, D., 63
Ogilvie, J.M., 46
Ohlin, L.E., 315
Olds, J., 188
ontogenic process perspective
on externalizing spectrum disorders, 185
ontogenic processes model of externalizing psychopathology, 485–501
comorbidities and continuities in externalizing behavior, 486
developmental theory and externalizing continuities, 485–486
emotion dysregulation related to operant reinforcement, 494
future directions in, 496
heterotypic comorbidity and, 486, 489–496, 489f, 491f
heterotypic continuity and, 489–496, 489f, 491f
high-risk behaviors exacerbating mesolimbic, mesocortical, and amygdalar dysfunction, 495–496
homotypic comorbidity and, 486–489
impulsivity, 490–493
introduction, 485
mood, emotion, and behavior dysregulation, 494–495
prefrontal brain dysfunction effects, 494–495
prenatal adversity–related vulnerability, 492
severe externalizing behavior occurring through bidirectional transactions between individual vulnerabilities and environments across time, 493
operant reinforcement
emotion dysregulation related to, 494
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
alcohol exposure and, 424–428, 424t, 425t
attribution biases and, 350–351
behavioral genetic studies of, 111
characteristics of, 111
child maltreatment and, 273
cigarette byproducts exposure and, 424t, 425t, 426
comorbidity with, 64, 112, 463
criteria for, 4, 10–11
current state of the science, 10–11
developmental considerations, 13
DP related to, 91
DSM on, 4–5
emotionality and, 175
environmental toxins exposure and, 424t, 425t, 428
future directions in, 15
historical context of, 4–5
illicit drug exposure and, 424t, 425t, 427
lead exposure and, 424t, 425t, 428
low effortful control and, 176–177
marijuana exposure and, 424t, 425t, 427
modification to diagnostic criteria for, 14
pharmaceutical agents exposure and, 424t, 425t, 426–427
post-TBI, 408
research agenda, 15
SIJ, BPD, and externalizing disorders linked with, 64
symptoms of, 5, 10–11
temperament resulting in, 175
teratogen exposure and, 424–428, 424t, 425t
tobacco exposure and, 424t, 425t, 426
Orban, L., 354
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), 228
orbitomedial PFC
function of, 43
O’Reilly, R.C., 43
Ormel, J., 82
Orobio de Castro, B., 352
Ostrov, J., 352
Otis, M.D., 273
Otto, J., 96
Ouellet-Morin, I., 275
Overt Aggression Scale, 410
Owen, B., 325
oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene, 155
P
P300 (P3b) amplitude reduction
disinhibitory liability related to, 48–49
Pang, K., 242
Pardini, M., 410
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy, 412
Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms, 453
parental incarceration, 328–330
current state of the science, 332–333
outcomes for children during and after, 328–330
positive effects of, 330
undesirable effects of, 329
parent–child conflict
in ADHD–ODD–CD comorbidity, 112
parenting style
ADHD related to, 28
integrating neuroscience into, 292–293, 293f
in SIJ, BPD, and externalizing psychopathology, 67–69, 71
Patrick, C.J., 48, 50, 51, 54, 464
Patterson, G.R., 210, 366, 449–452
Patton, J.H., 185
peer(s)
developmental perspective on, 303–305
peer interaction dynamics, 303
peer socialization
comorbidity and, 449–451
Peloso, E., 297
penitentiaries, 324
Perez, S.M., 386
performance IQ (PIQ), 376, 377
personality(ies)
approach–avoidance–conflict in, 221–222, 222f
borderline, 62
hierarchical structure of, 83
molecular genetic studies of, 125–148
RST of, 221
TBI effects on, 409–411
Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), 83
personality measures
in phenotyping strategies, 133–134
personality predisposition
BIS and, 224–225
FFFS and, 224–225
pesticides
ADHD related to, 27
Petit, G.S., 355
pharmaceutical agents
ADHD related to, 419f, 420–422, 421t
(p. 517) classes of, 6
ODD and CD related to, 424t, 425t, 426–427
phenotype(s)
endophenotypes/intermediate, 132–133
phenotyping strategies
behavioral measures, 134–1351
cross-disorder approaches, 131–132
data reduction methods, 134
endophenotypes/intermediate phenotypes, 132–133
in molecular genetic studies, 131–135
neurocognitive and behavioral measures, 134–135
personality measures, 133–134
phenylketonuria (PKU)
ADHD and, 225–227
externalizing behavior related to, 94
Phoenix, 240
physical aggression, 352–353
sex differences and, 241
physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R)
in externalizing disorders management post-TBI, 413
physical neglect (PN), 269
Pihl, R.O., 382
Pilkonis, P.A., 70
Pinker, S., 241
Piquero, A.R., 317
Pittsburgh Youth Study, 316, 333, 382
Pittsburgh Youth Survey data, 316
placental vulnerability
acquired neuropsychological variation and, 254
play
sex differences effects on, 248–249
pleasure/hedonism pathway, 50
Plomin, R., 171, 175
polychlorinated biophenyls (PCBs)
ADHD related to, 423
polythetic diagnosis
defined, 79
Ponzi, C., 53
positive emotionality
defined, 172
positive illusory bias (PIB)
in ADHD, 350
positron emission tomography (PET)
in head injury assessment, 404
posttraumatic aggression directed against others, 411
Pratt, T.C., 317, 319
predation/antagonism pathway, 50
“prediction error,” 44–45
prefrontal brain dysfunction
mood, emotion, and behavior dysregulation related to, 494–495
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
in affective-motivational processing, 42
anatomical location of, 203f
in child maltreatment, 271
cognitive control model of, 42–43
described, 42
in disinhibitory psychopathology, 47–48
5-HT associated with, 209–210
in impulsivity, 201–219. see also impulsivity
normative development of, 210
orbitomedial, 43
in trait impulsivity, 187
pregnancy
alcohol abstinence during, 431
teratogen exposure during, 416–439. see also teratogen exposure
prenatal adversity
vulnerability conferred through allostatic and epigenetic processes related to, 492
preoccupation/anticipation stage
in addiction cycle, 46
preschooler(s)
low IQ and EF deficits in, 385f, 386
Prescott, C.A., 51, 224–225
Price, J.M., 351
primary psychopathy
described, 229
prison(s)
aims of, 323
deviancy training in, 327
gangs in, 327
prisoner(s)
incarceration effects on, 324
Project Northland Chicago (PNC), 318
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), 317
promiscuity
deviant peer clustering and, 304
Propper, C.B., 365
protein(s)
cell adhesion, 157
“PsV sign,” 376
Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire, 445
Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC)
Cross-Disorders Working Group of, 131–132
psychological treatments
in externalizing disorders management post-TBI, 412
psychopath(s)
“successful,” 54
Psychopathic Personality Inventory
impulsive-antisociality dimension of, 48
psychopathology
disinhibitory, 47–52
hierarchical structure of, 83
intent structure of, 487
molecular genetic studies of, 125–148
temperament and, 174–175
temperament effects of, 177
psychopathy
ASPD and, 112–113
attribution biases and, 353
BIS in, 228–231, 229f
characteristics of, 228
described, 228
FFFS–BAS conflict in, 229–231
impulse control in, 229
low IQ and EF deficits and, 380
neurology of, 231–233, 232t
primary, 229
secondary, 229
Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), 230
psychosocial treatment
in externalizing disorders management post-TBI, 412
public housing units
criminal behaviors and ASB risks associated with, 315
pure disorders
comorbidity vs., 451–452
Putnam, K.M., 43
Q
“quasi-inmates,” 324
Quay, H.C., 227, 240
R
Rancho Los Amigos Scale, 404
Rapee, R.M., 454
Raphael, S., 324
rare variants
in molecular genetic studies, 138–139
Ray, J.V., 362
reactive aggression, 352
(p. 518) reactive control
defined, 172
reactivity
defined, 171–172
negative, 175
Reagan, R., Pres., 325
rehabilitation
incarceration as, 327
reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST)
of personality, 221
reintegrative shaming theory, 328
reoffending
current state of the science, 330–333
incarceration and, 323–343. see also incarceration
Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)
in behavioral genetic studies, 119
of NIMH, 474
on teratogen exposure, 429–430
Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project
of NIMH, 80, 119, 127, 133, 255, 443, 445, 447
resilience
defined, 98
to DP, 98–99
response inhibition, 205
responsivity principle, 332
resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs_fcMRI), 24, 25
restless legs syndrome
ADHD and, 49
retinoid
ADHD related to, 424
Revised Child Manifest Anxiety Scale, 453
reward
brain circuits in, 44–46
reward/incentive circuitry
inhibitory control and, 46
reward insensitivity
comorbidity and, 470
Reynolds, A.J., 276
Rhee, S.H., 114
Richer, F., 208
Rieger, M., 208
Riggins-Caspers, K.M., 178
risk principle, 332
Robbins, T.W., 208
Robins, L.N., 480
Robinson, T.E., 42, 45, 50–51
Rochester Youth Development Study, 276
Rochester Youth Survey, 328
Roelofs, J., 450
Rogeness, G.A., 272
Rogosch, F.A., 275
Rosario, M., 277
Rosenbaum, J.E., 318
Rothbart, M.K., 171, 256n
Rothbart model, 244
rough and tumble (R&T) play, 248–249
Rowe, R., 362
Rozen, S., 243
Rubia, K., 193, 447–448, 494
Rutter, M., 91, 242–244, 256n, 462
S
Sabley, M.H., 349
Sagvolden, T., 188
Salekin, R., 370
Salmon, K., 367
Salzinger, S., 277
Sampson, R.J., 315, 317, 319, 332
schema(s), 348
Schermerhorn, A.C., 178
Schneider, A.L., 330
Schultz, W., 45
Scott, E.S., 334
script(s), 348
secondary psychopathy
described, 229
Sekol, I., 332–333
selective attention
defined, 376
in impulse control, 209–210
self-control
causes of problems in, 360
sex differences effects on, 246
self-inflicted injury (SIJ)
age-related, 68
ASPD with, 64
behavioral genetics and family studies in, 65–66
biological vulnerabilities, 62, 65–66
BPD with, 61–78
comorbidity patterns of, 61–62
controversies related to, 69–70
current state of the science, 64–68
DA and, 66
described, 62–63
developmental considerations for, 68–69
diverse forms of, 63
environmental risk factors for, 62, 66–68
externalizing spectrum of, 61–78
5-HT in, 66
fMRI studies in, 71n
future directions in, 71
historical context of, 63
introduction, 61–62
links to traditional externalizing disorders, 63–64
research agenda, 70–71
SUDs with, 64
self-monitoring
in externalizing disorders management post-TBI, 412
self-regulation
defined, 184
neural systems in, 185
temperament and, 245
self-serving bias
in ADHD, 350
Semi-Parametric Group-Based Methodology (SPGM), 276–277
Sensation Seeking Scale, 205
sensitivity
sensory, 172
sensory sensitivity
defined, 172
septohippocampal system
in self-regulation, 185
Séquin, J.R., 382
serotonergic anxiolytics
personality effects of, 224
serotonin (5-HT)
in molecular genetic studies of externalizing spectrum, 152–153
PFC and, 209–210
in SIJ, BPD, and externalizing psychopathology, 66
Serpell, Z.N., 349
sex differences
acquired neuropsychological variation related to, 251–255. see also acquired neuropsychological variation; attribution bias(es)
activity level effects of, 248–249
in ADHD, 246–247
child maltreatment–related, 276
comorbidity and, 445
control effects of, 246
criteria for inferring that behavioral difference is linked to, 243–244, 244f
in effortful control, 247–248
empathy effects of, 250–251
in externalizing behavior, 239–263
fear/trait anxiety effects of, 249–250
gender differences vs., 256n
historical context of, 240
in human aggression, 241
introduction, 239
LCP ASB related to, 241–242
links to traditional external disorders, 242
low IQ and EF deficits related to, 389
neuropsychological variation related to, 244–246, 245f
(p. 519) in proximate effect, 244, 244f
research agenda, 255–256
temperament-related effects of, 174, 244–246, 245f
in trait impulsivity, 246–247
in violence, 241
X and Y chromosomes and, 243
sexual abuse (SA), 269
sexual promiscuity
deviant peer clustering and, 304
Shannon, T., 325–326
Shaw, P., 192
Sheese, B.E., 178
Sherman, L.W., 328
Shiner, R., 174
Short, F., Jr., 307
Shults, J., 275
Shum, D.H.K., 46
Silva, P., 242
Simcha-Fagan, O., 314–315
Simonoff, E., 111
Sinclair, S., 364
single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 126
KIAA0010, 137
in molecular genetic studies, 150
single nucleotide variant (SNV), 126
Sinopoli, K.J., 407
situational action theory, 320
Skeem, J., 370
Slaby, R.G., 351, 353
sleep disturbances
ADHD and, 49
“slow-to-warm-up” temperament, 171
Smith, C.A., 276
SNAP-IV rating scale, 453
Snodgrass, G.M., 331
Snyder, J., 304
sociability
defined, 171
social experience
brain systems and, 291–292
social-information processing (SIP) model
attribution biases from, 347–349
emotion and, 349
processes in, 348
social interaction learning (SIL), 288–299
Social Interaction Learning (SIL) Multi-dimensional Therapeutic Foster Care (MTFC), 295
social interaction learning (SIL) parenting, 288–299
effects on child ASB, 293–294
integrating neuroscience into, 292–293, 293f
social interaction learning (SIL) parenting interventions
coercion theory and, 298–299
social interaction learning (SIL) theory, 288
social strain
parental incarceration and, 329
socialization
ADHD–related behavior related to, 29
moral, 176
peer, 449–451
socialization mechanisms of externalizing behaviors, 265–343
socialization skills
ADHD related to, 29
Society of Criminology, 307
socioeconomic status (SES)
as factor in CD post-TBI, 409
as factor in criminal and ASB, 313–322. see also antisocial behavior (ASB); criminal behavior
as factor in deviant peer clustering, 304
sociopathy
in ASPD, 7–8
Somech, L.Y., 370
Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S., 23, 231
specific deterrence
defined, 323
“spectrum association,” 174
speech and language problems
ADHD related to, 28
Speltz, M.L., 351
Sroufe, L.A., 91, 485, 486
Stanford, M.S., 185
Stanislow, C.A., 70
Statrín, H., 366
Steinberg, E., 105
Steinberg, L., 334, 335
Stepp, S.D., 64, 67–69, 71
Stevenson, J., 177–178
Stewart, A.L., 46
stigmatization
of children with incarcerated parents, 329
Stohr, M.K., 336
Stone, E.C., 354
Stoolmiller, M., 297, 452
stop signal reaction time (SSRT), 226
Stop Signal Tasks, 206, 208, 233
strain
parental incarceration and, 329
STrengthening REporting of Genetic Association (STREGA) studies, 141
stress
parental incarceration–related, 329
Ströhle, A., 193
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II), 411
substance abuse and dependence. see substance use disorders (SUDs)
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 418
substance use disorders (SUDs)
alcohol exposure and, 424t, 425t, 429
behavioral genetic studies of, 113
brain areas involved in, 46–52
brain circuitry for inhibitory control and, 41–44
child maltreatment and, 272
classifications of, 7
commonalities vs. distinctions among externalizing outcomes of, 38
comorbidity with ASPD, 14
criteria for, 7, 11–12
current state of the science, 11–12
developmental considerations, 14
diagnostic criteria modification for, 14–15
disinhibitory liabilities and, 46–54. see also disinhibitory liability(ies)
dispositional liability for, 39–40
dispositional vulnerability for, 39–40
DP related to, 91
DSM on, 6–7, 11–12
ESI in, 40–41, 40f
as externalizing outcomes, 38–60
externalizing spectrum model of, 40–41, 40f
future directions in, 16
heritable factors for, 39
historical context of, 6–7
illicit drug exposure and, 424t, 425t, 429
interplay of inhibitory control and reward/incentive circuitry in, 46
low IQ and EF deficits in, 379–380
neurobiological systems relevant to train disinhibition and, 41–46. see also specific sites and systems
personality correlates in, 39
research agenda, 16, 52–53
SIJ, BPD, and externalizing disorders linked with, 64
teratogen exposure and, 424t, 425t, 428–429
trait impulsivity in, 191–192
unresolved questions related to, 52–53
Substance Use Profile Scale (SURPS), 205
“successful” psychopaths, 54
suicide, 63
Sukhodolsky, D.G., 354
Sullivan, C.J., 317, 319
surgency
defined, 171
Susser, K., 444
sustained attention
defined, 376
Sykes, G.M., 325
T
Tabarrok, A., 331, 332
Tallent, R., 355
Tannock, R., 453
Teasdale, G., 403–404
Tellegen, A., 39
temperament
components of, 171–172
defined, 171
“difficult,” 171, 175
“easy,” 171
elements of, 170–171
environmental influences on, 173
externalizing behavior related to, 170–183
future directions in, 179
general concepts in, 171–173, 173f
genetic influences on, 173–174
GxE influences on, 173, 177–179, 245
as how of behavior, 170
introduction, 170–171
low effortful control effects on, 176–177
low fearfulness effects on, 176
models of adult, 172–173
models of child, 171–172, 173f
negative emotionality effects on, 175–176
negative reactivity effects on, 175
pathways to externalizing behaviors associated with, 175–177
psychopathology effects on, 177
self-regulatory aspects of, 245
sex differences in, 174, 244–246, 245f
“slow-to-warm-up,” 171
structure of, 171–172, 173f
vulnerability to psychopathology, 174–175
temperamental traits, 244–246, 245f
defined, 170
temporal/delay discounting, 205
in impulse control, 208
teratogen(s)
cigarette byproducts, 419f, 420, 421t, 424t, 425t, 426, 428, 429
defined, 416
described, 416
environmental toxins, 423–424, 424t, 425t
fetal exposure to, 416–417
illicit drugs, 419f, 421t, 422–423, 424t, 425t, 427, 429
lead, 421t, 423, 424t, 425t, 428
marijuana, 419f, 421t, 422–423, 424t, 425t, 427, 429
pharmaceutical agents, 419f, 420–422, 421t, 424t, 425t, 426–427
Surgeon General warnings about, 416–417
tobacco, 419f, 420, 421t, 424t, 425t, 426, 428, 429
teratogen exposure
ADHD and, 418–424, 419f, 421t, 424t, 425t
ASPD and, 424t, 425t, 428
CD and, 424–428, 424t, 425t
controversies related to, 430–431
current state of the science, 429–430
developmental considerations, 430
externalizing behavior related to, 416–439
future directions in, 431–432
historical context of, 417
links between externalizing disorders and, 418–429. see also specific disorders
ODD and, 424–428, 424t, 425t
research agenda, 431–432
SUDs and, 424t, 425t, 428–429
Terracciano, A., 134
Teratology
behavioral, 416, 417
Thomas, A., 171, 175
Thornton, L.C., 362
Tier Social Stress Test, 275
tobacco exposure
ADHD related to, 419f, 420, 421t, 424t, 425t
ASPD related to, 424t, 425t, 428
ODD and CD related to, 424t, 425t, 426
SUDs related to, 424t, 425t, 429
Tonry, M., 315
top-down dysfunctions, 203
top-down inhibitory control
weak, 470–471
top-down processing
PFC in, 42
top-down system of executive functions and cognitive processes
in ADHD, 22–23
Topitzes, J., 276
toxin(s)
ADHD related to, 27
environmental, 423–424, 424t, 425t. see also environmental toxins
trait(s)
dispositional, 471–473
temperamental, 170, 244–246, 245f
trait anxiety
introduction, 220
sex differences effects on, 249–250
trait disinhibition
dispositional liability vs., 51
in SUDs, 41–46. see also specific sites and systems
trait impulsivity, 487
animal studies and translational models, 188
in ASPD, 190–191
behavioral genetics of, 186
biological basis of, 246–247
BPD and, 64
in CD, 190
controversies related to, 193–194
current state of the science, 187–189
DA projections in, 186–187
defined, 184–186
developmental considerations, 192–193
in externalizing spectrum disorders, 64
introduction, 184–185
links to traditional externalizing disorders, 189–192
midbrain neural mechanisms of, 184–200
neuroimaging studies of, 189
research agenda, 193–194
sex differences effects on, 246–247
in SUDs, 191–192
vulnerability for, 246
Tranel, D., 43
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies
in impulse control, 213
in impulsivity, 208, 213
“trapped in a maturity gap,” 334
traumatic brain injury (TBI)
aggression after, 410–411
ASPD after, 411
CD after, 408–409
DBDs after, 408–409
externalizing behavior related to, 403–415. see also head injury
externalizing disorders after, 405–409. see also externalizing disorders post-TBI
future directions in, 412–413
historical context of, 403–405
imaging of, 404–405
introduction, 403
ODD after, 408
personality change following, 409–411
prevalence of, 403
psychiatric sequelae of, 403
Tremblay, L.K., 447
Tremblay, R.E., 241, 382
Trickett, P.K., 275
(p. 521) Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, 205
true comorbidity, 462
Trull, T.J., 64
twin studies. see also specific studies
ADHD–related, 110
behavioral genetic, 108, 109
Twin Study of Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior (RFAB)
at USC, 111
U
University of Southern California (USC)
Twin Study of RFAB at, 111
UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, 205
U.S. Supreme Court, 334–335
US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
MTO program of, 318–319
US Surgeon General
on alcohol abstinence during pregnancy, 431
V
Vaidyanathan, U., 464
van Aken, M.A., 451
Van Der Werff, C., 331
van Gelder, J.-L., 319
Van Hulle, C., 248
van IJzendoorn, M.H., 178
Van Rybrock, G., 370
van Zalk, M., 366
Vance, A., 453
Vanyukov, M.M., 52, 53
variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms, 126
in MAOA gene, 273
Vazquez, D., 448
Vazsonyi, A.T., 317
Veerman, J.W., 352
ventral striatum (VS)
in trait impulsivity, 186–187
ventral tegmental area (VTA), 47
in trait impulsivity, 186–187
verbal IQ (VIQ), 376, 377
Vertova, P., 331–332
Viding, E., 363, 364
Vietnam Era Twin (VET) Registry, 113
Vineland testing, 407
violence
defined, 241
sex differences and, 241
Virginia Twin Registry (VTR), 113
Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD), 111
Volkow, N.D., 94–95
voltage-gated potassium channel genes
GWA studies of, 157
Vrieze, S.I., 473
vulnerability(ies)
for activity level effects, 248
biological, 103–263
cognitive, 345–400
defined, 247
for effortful control, 247
emotional, 345–400
empathy and, 250–251
fear/trait anxiety and, 250
prenatal adversity effects on, 492
for trait impulsivity, 246
“vulnerability association,” 174–175
W
Waisbren, S.E., 226
Waldman, I.D., 114, 255, 256, 444
Wallace, J.F., 230
Walton, K., 82
“wanting,” 44
Waschbusch, D.A., 364
Watson, S.J., 50–51
weak inhibitory control
comorbidity and, 470–471
Wechsler, D., 376, 377
Weiss, B., 444
Welsh, B.C., 336
Werboff
on behavioral teratology, 416
White, S.F., 364
Whiteside, S.P., 185
Widom, C.S., 273
Wiebe, R.P., 317
Wikström, P.-O., 316–319, 320
Wilcox, P., 319, 320
Willoughby, M.T., 98, 365
Winik, D., 331
withdrawal/negative affect stage
in addiction cycle, 46
Witkiewitz, K., 83
working memory
defined, 376
in impulse control, 209–210
Wright, A.G., 82
X
X chromosome
in sex differences, 243
X-linked gene mutations
acquired neuropsychological variation and, 253–254
Y
Y chromosome
in sex differences, 243
Yang, L., 136
Yeates, K.O., 406
Young, S.E., 47, 240
Z
Zachar, P., 444
Zahn-Waxler, C., 251
Zaremba, A., 451
Zenther, M., 171
Zisner, A., 210–211, 486
Zuo, L., 137