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date: 14 August 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently diagnosed in over 10 percent of youth in the United States. It is a complex syndrome, conferring lasting and often severe impairment across the life span. When accompanied by high levels of impulsivity, ADHD is often a precursor to other forms of externalizing pathology, including oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Multiple models have suggested that ADHD represents deficits in inhibition/executive function and motivation/delay aversion. Neurobiological findings suggest significant differences from controls in structure and function of numerous brain regions and pathways in people with ADHD. The authors present ADHD within a developmental psychopathology framework, wherein highly heritable vulnerabilities transact with environmental factors to produce multiple developmental pathways leading to both ADHD and other externalizing behaviors over the life course. Girls with ADHD appear to be at high risk for later self-harm, revealing outcomes moderated by sex. We conclude with discussion of future research directions.

Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental psychopathology, externalizing disorders, comorbidity, neurobiology, gene-environment interplay

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