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date: 03 August 2020

Subject Index

Subject Index

AAE (African American English). See African American English (AAE)
Abugidas writing systems, 19
ACE model, of dyslexia, 367–368
Achievement gap, black-white, 438–439. See also African American English (AAE)
Acquired dyslexia, 149–164
associations in, 155
central, 151
connectionist triangle model, 154–155
dissociations in, 152
dual-route cascade model, 152–154
future directions, 161
overview, 5, 149–150
peripheral, 150–151
phonological coding in, 189
subword pathway impairments, 157–160
surface, 30
whole and subword pathway interaction, 160–161
whole-word pathway impairments, 155–157
Activation models in lexical representation, 100
ACT-R based parser, 206
Addition-letter neighbors, 79
Addressed phonology, 186
Adolescent literacy, 463–478
challenges in, 463–466
comprehension strategy instruction, 466–467
content and literacy learning integrated
history, 468–469
literature and interpretive practices, 470–471
overview, 467–468
purpose and engagement, 473–474
science, 469–470
discussion in, 471–473
African American English (AAE), 431–446
American dialects, 431–433
children and
black-white achievement gap, 438–439
dialect shifting-reading achievement hypothesis, 439–440
feature production variability, 433–438
overview, 433
current educational context, 441
future research, 441–443
overview, 431
Allophones, 15
Alphabetic orthographies
English literacy foundations, 330–332
literacy foundations in alphabetic orthographies other than English, 332–334
literacy skills in, 334–335
overview, 328–330
Alphabetic principle, 415, 448–449
Alphabets, 18–19, 21
Alphasyllabaries, 19, 337–339
Alzheimer’s disease, dyslexia and, 158
Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, 38
American dialects, 431–433. See also African American English (AAE)
American English spelling system, 448, 451–452
Analogizing, as word reading method, 295–296
Anaphoric inferences, in discourse comprehension, 219–220
Arabic, letter order sensitivity in, 91–93
Arousal effect, of words, 35
Assembled phonology, 186
Assessment-to-Instruction (A2i) technology, 424–425
Associations in acquired dyslexia, 155
Attentional dyslexia, 150
AUSTRAL model
graded effects of transparency in, 108
irregularly inflected words in, 107
lexical quality and, 134
obligatory decomposition in, 103–104
overview, 102–103
Automatic spreading activation, 37
Backpropagation learning mechanism, 30
Backward causal bridging inferences, 221
Ballistic movements, eye movements as, 44
Behavioral approach, 4
Benchmark School, 296
Bidialectalism, 432, 441
Bilingual interactive activation model (BIA+), 169–171
Bilinguals
children as, 174–178
as English language learners (ELLs), 416, 420–421, 426
L2 (second language) literacy acquisition in, 174
(p. 497)
overview, 165
semantic information integration in, 255
sentence processing, 171–174
word neighborhood in, 83
word recognition, 166–171
bilingual interactive activation model, 169–171
fMRI studies, 169
priming studies, 167–168
in sentence contexts, 168–169
single word studies, 166–167
Bimodal interactive activation model, 381
Black-white achievement gap, 438–439. See also African American English (AAE)
BLP (British Lexicon Project), 38
Body-object interaction, 34
Boundary paradigm, 237, 246, 251, 256, 286
Boundary paradigm, gaze-contingent, 48–49, 190–192
Bound morphemes, 104–105, 114–115
Braille, 83
Brain, reading influence on, 383
Brain bases of dyslexia, 366
British Lexicon Project (BLP), 38
Cambridge University effect, 91
CA (contrastive analysis) methods, 442–443
Case Against B.F. Skinner, The (Chomsky), 4
Category congruence effects, 140
Category verification, 28
CCSS (Common Core State Standards), 417, 420, 426–427, 441, 464
Central acquired dyslexia, 151
Children, bilingual, 174–178
Children, home literacy experiences of, 397–414
future directions, 410–411
model for
early literacy, 403–404
grade school literacy links to, 404–405
oral language development, 402–403
overview, 398–399
parent-reported teaching, 400–401
phoneme awareness, 404
overview, 397–398
parent teaching impact study
methodology, 406–407
overview, 405–406
results, 407–410
(p. 498) Children, reading comprehension of, 344–360. See also African American English (AAE); Reading instruction in primary grades (US)
cohesive devices, 351–352
comprehensive monitoring, 352–353
conclusions, 355–356
development of, 345–346
inference and integration, 350–351
story structure, 353–355
successful text comprehension, 344–345
syntactic skills, 348
vocabulary knowledge, 346–348
working memory and memory updating, 349–350
Children, word reading by, 293–310. See also Spelling development
analogizing, 295–296
context role in learning, 304–306
decoding, 294–295
future directions, 308
from memory by sight, 297–299
overview, 293–294
phase theory of development, 300–304
prediction, 296–297
vocabulary building, 306–307
Chinese Lexicon Project, 38
Chinese logography, 336–337. See also Words in Chinese reading
Code-focused reading instruction, 417–419, 425, 452, 455
Code switching, in AAE, 437
Cognitive neuroscience, 5
Cognitive processing, direct control of eye movements by, 53–54
Cognitive psychology, 4–5
Cognitive revolution, 4–5
Coherence
global, 218, 225–227
lexical, 140
Cohesive devices, in reading comprehension, 351–352
Coltheart’s N, 77, 79
Common Core State Standards (CCSS), 417, 420, 426–427, 441, 464
Competition model, 172
Competitors, words as. See Neighborhood effects
Composite face effect, 385
Compositional processing. See Polymorphemic words, processing of
Compound word studies. See Polymorphemic words, processing of
Comprehension-age match studies, 346
Comprehension monitoring, 352–353
Computational modeling. See also E-Z Reader model
of biliteracy, 176
of lexical decision, 31
of phonological dyslexia, 159
TL (transposed letter) effects reproduced by, 90
of word recognition, 26–28, 34, 171
Concept-oriented reading comprehension (CORI), 421–422, 473
Connectionist triangle model, 154–155, 159–160
Consistency of words, 34
Consolidated alphabetic phase, in phase theory of development, 304
Consonant and vowel status, 82–83, 89
Constraint-based approach to sentence comprehension, 206–207
Construction-integration model of discourse comprehension, 219
Constructionist framework model of discourse comprehension, 218
Constructivist approach to spelling development, 315–318
Content and literacy learning integrated
history, 468–469
literature and interpretive practices, 470–471
overview, 467–468
purpose and engagement, 473–474
science, 469–470
Context
in adolescent instruction, 465
in learning to read words, 304–306
in visual word recognition, 35–37
Contrastive analysis (CA) methods, 442–443
CORI (concept-oriented reading instruction), 421–422
Cross-language activation, 168–169
Cross-language differences, 72
Cross-linguistic studies
of dyslexia, 365–366
of onset entropy, 329
of predictors of reading and spelling, 332–333
Cross-modal priming, 92
Crowd-sourcing tools, 38
Cultural modeling approach, 471–472
DDMs (dialect density measures), 435
Decoding
dyslexia as difficulty in, 362
in reading comprehension, 419
as word reading method, 294–295
Deep alphabetic orthography, 21, 448
Deep dyslexia, 151, 160–161
Deletion-letter neighbors, 79–80
Derivational transparency, 109–110
Derived word identification, 114–115, 123
Developmental dyslexia, 5. See also Dyslexia
Diacritical marks, 15
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 363
Dialect density measures (DDMs), 435
Dialects, American, 431–433. See also African American English (AAE)
Dialect shifting, in AAE, 437
Dialect shifting-reading achievement hypothesis, 439–440
Digraphs, 15, 20
Direct control of eye movements, 53
Disappearing text paradigm, 53–54, 271–272
Disciplinary literacies, 465
Discourse comprehension, 217–231. See also Children, reading comprehension of
assumptions in, 217–218
challenges in, 227–229
models of
elaborative inferences, 222–225
global coherence, 225–227
necessary inferences, 219–222
overview, 218–219
Discourse structure, 465
Discussion, role of, 471–473
Dissociations in acquired dyslexia, 152, 157
Distributed lexical representations, 145
Distributional analysis methods, 267–271
Double articulation, of language, 13
Double center-embedded sentences, 203
DRC (dual-route cascaded) model. See Dual-route cascaded (DRC) model
DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), 363
Dual foundation model, 327, 330–331
Dual-route cascaded (DRC) model
dyslexia and, 152–154, 156, 159
individual differences and, 129–130
of word recognition, 29–30, 33, 103
Dual-route race model of compound word processing, 120
Dutch Lexicon Project, 38
Dynamic response to intervention (RTI) model, 418
Dyslexia, 361–376. See also Acquired dyslexia
brain bases of, 366
cross-linguistic findings on, 365–366
definition of, 362–363
developmental, 5
environmental influences, 372
etiological mechanisms applicable to, 366–372
future directions, 372–373
neuropsychology of, 363–365
overview, 361–362
Early literacy
home literacy experiences and, 398, 403–404
(p. 499)
illiterates late literates, 378
parent teaching impact on, 405–410
interventions compared, 410
methodology of studies, 406–407
overview, 405–406
by reading to and tutoring child, 407–410
by reading to child, 407
Test of Preschool Early Literacy, 458
Elaborative inferences, in discourse comprehension, 222–225
Electromyographic (EMG) recording, 197
Elementary and Secondary Education Act: No Child Left Behind, 456
ELLs (English language learners), 416, 420–421, 426. See also Bilinguals
ELP (English Lexicon Project), 38–39
Emergentist approaches, 145
Emotional valence of words, 35
Endophenotypes, 364
English language learners (ELLs), 416, 420–421, 426. See also Bilinguals
English Lexicon Project (ELP), 38–39, 135
English literacy foundations, 330–332. See also African American English (AAE)
Environmental influences, dyslexia and, 372
Eradicationist approaches to dialects, 441
ERP (event-related potential) method, 203, 205, 208–209, 212, 380
Errors, slip-of-the-ear, 382
Etiology of dyslexia
ACE model, 367–368
description of, 362
gene-environment interplay, 368
heritability, 369–372
molecular genetics, 368–369
overview, 366–367
Event-indexing model of discourse comprehension, 218
Event-related potential (ERP) method, 203, 205, 208–209, 212, 380
Expectancy, in priming, 37
Explicit comprehension instruction, 422
Eye movements during reading, 44–59. See also E-Z Reader model; Polymorphemic words, processing of
Chinese experiments on, 235
control of, 50–54
fixations and saccades, 45
gaze-contingent display change paradigms, 47–50
Hebrew word recognition experiments, 92–93
letter transpositions and, 89
orthographic differences, 46–47
overview, 44–45
phonological encoding of words and, 189–194
regressive, 213
silent versus oral reading, 45
techniques for tracking, 5
tongue-twisters, 196
viewing distance effects, 45–46
word plausibility and, 204
Eye-voice span, 45
E-Z Reader model, 277–290. See also Eye movements during reading
advantages of, 54
assumptions of, 278–283
Chinese readers, extension to, 238
overview, 277–278
reading skill development, 283–285
sentence processing and, 212
time course of lexical processing application, 285–288
word processing time and, 191
Facilitatory phonological priming effects, 168
Familiarity check, in lexical processing, 278, 280, 282
Feature production variability, in AAE, 433–438
Ferreiro’s universal hypotheses, 315–316
First-constituent frequency, 116–118
First-fixation duration, 115–116, 190, 212, 235, 246
First-pass time, 235
Fixation duration, direct lexical and nonlexical control of, 261–276
empirical case for relevance to reading, 266–272
eye-movement control, 262–264
future directions, 272–273
overview, 261–262
timing constraints and models of, 265–266
Fixations. See also E-Z Reader model; Saccades
Chinese reading experiments on, 235
duration of, 50–52
first-fixation duration, 115–116, 190, 212, 235, 246
Fixations, integrating information across, 245–260
information from single, 4
modulating factors, 257–258
overview, 245–247
pattern and timing of, 44–45
perceptual span variations in, 48
preferred viewing location (PVL) in, 240–241
in refixations, 247–249
in target word processing, 190
variations in, 45
visual information intake during, 115–116
from word n + 1
morphological codes, 253–254
orthographic codes, 249–251
phonological codes, 251–253
semantic information, 254–256
from word n + 2, 256–257
Fluency, 449
fMRI studies
of metaphonological performance, 380
of occipital responsiveness, 386–387
of online sentence processing, 203
of word recognition by bilinguals, 166–167, 169, 173
Forced-choice letter recognition, 28
Form Priming Project, 38
Foveal load, 257
Free-association task, 34
Free morphemes, 115
French Lexicon Project, 38
Frequency of word appearance, 32–33. See also Word frequency effect.
Full alphabetic phase, in phase theory of development, 303–304
Fuzzy letter-position coding, 91
Garden path model, 203, 206–207
Gaze-contingent display-change paradigm, 47–50, 286
Gaze duration
in bilinguals, 172
in compound word reading, 120–121
first-constituent frequency effect in, 115–116
information integration across, 246
in target word processing, 190
Genetic factors, 131. See also Acquired dyslexia; Dyslexia
Genre sensitivity, 439
Gibsonian ecological approach, 94
Global coherence, in discourse comprehension, 218, 225–227
Glottographic systems, 12–13
Go-past time, 116, 125
Grade school reading instruction (US). See Reading instruction in primary grades (US)
Grammar, 12, 348, 437
Grapheme-phoneme relations, 293–296, 298–299
Graphophonemic consistency, 328
Graphophonemic mapping, 299
Graphotactic irregularities, 14
Guided repeated oral reading, 450
Handbook overview, 6–9
Hangul writing system, in Korean, 337–338
Head Start, 405
Hebrew, letter order sensitivity in, 91–93
Hemianopic alexia, 150
Heterophones, 194–195
Hierarchical interactive activation (IA) architecture, 133
Higher-level functions, reading influence on, 387–388
History, integrated with literacy learning, 468–469
Hyphens, at morpheme boundaries, 121
IA (interactive-activation) model. See Interactive-activation (IA) model
IDEAS (In-Depth Expanded Applications of Science) program, 470
IES Practice Guide, 419–420
Illiterates, 378–379
Imageability of words, 34
Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten through 3rd Grade (IES Practice Guide), 419
Inconsistency-detection paradigm, 353
Incrementality in sentence processing, 204–206
In-Depth Expanded Applications of Science (IDEAS) program, 470
Individual differences, 129–148
in dyslexia, 157
lexical quality and
components of, 136–137
importance of, 131–133
orthographic precision and, 133–135, 145
overview, 135–136
sentence comprehension and, 145
in masked morphological priming, 140–142
in masked orthographic priming, 137–140
in masked semantic priming, 142–143
overview, 129–131
in parafoveal processing, 143
symbolic versus distributed lexical representations, 145
in visual word recognition, 39, 144
Individualized reading instruction, 424–428
Individualized Student Instruction in Reading (ISI-R), 424–426
Inferences in discourse comprehension
anaphoric, 219–221
backward causal bridging, 221
of children, 350–351
elaborative, 222–225
necessary, 219–222
nondiscriminatory between memory- and strategy-based models, 228
predictive, 224
Inflected word identification, 115, 123–125
Inner structure, of writing systems, 10
Institute for Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, 417, 455
Institute for Education Sciences Practice Guide for RTI, 417, 419–420
Integration, in reading comprehension of children, 350–351
Intelligent tutoring system (ITSS), 422
Interactive-activation (IA) model
AUSTRAL model and, 102
bilingual, 169–171
of letter perception, 27–28, 80
lexical quality hypothesis and, 133, 138
in lexical representation, 100–101
Interlingual homographs, 166–167
Interpretive practices, integrated with literacy learning, 470–471
Intonation, in language, 16
IQ, literacy effects on, 388
IQ-discrepancy definitions of dyslexia, 363
Irregularly inflected words, 106–107
ISI-R (Individualized Student Instruction in Reading), 424–426
ITSS (intelligent tutoring system), 422
Kannada writing system, in South Asia, 338–339
Key word method of teaching reading, 296
Landing position effects, 51
Landscape model of discourse comprehension, 219
Language
behavioral approach to studying, 4
writing does not represent all aspects of spoken, 15–17
writing lags changes in spoken, 17–18
writing representing spoken, 12–15
Language and cognition, reading influence on, 377–393
brain anatomical changes, 383
future directions, 389
on higher-level functions, 387–388
metaphonological performance in literates, 379–380
overview, 377–378
script directionality and speech listening, 378
short-term memory codes and performance, 382–383
speech representations, 378–379
spoken word recognition, 380–382, 383–384
on visual processing, 384–387
Late literates, 378–379
Left fusiform gyrus, reading acquisition effect on, 384–385
Length of words, 33, 78–79
Letter order, 88–98
Hebrew and Arabic reader sensitivity to, 92–93
masked priming, 69–73
modeling coding of, 90–91, 95–96
Semitic language orthographic processing, 91–92
slot code, 67–69
transposed-letter effects, 88–90
universal principles of, 94–95
writing systems modulate coding of, 93–94
Letter-position coding
modeling, 90–91, 95–96
transposed letter effects, 88–90
uncertainty in, 78
universal principles of, 94–95
Letter recognition, 27–28
Levenshtein distance, 34, 79
Lexical access, 280–281
Lexical consistency, 13
Lexical contrast, 15–16
Lexical decision task
morphological priming assessed by, 142
overview, 5
performance models of, 28, 30–32
in word recognition, 28
Lexical demarcation, 14
Lexical distinctiveness, 13–14
Lexical influences, on visual word recognition, 32–35
Lexical processing
eye movements and, 53
serial manner of, 278
time course of, 285–288
in visual word recognition, 28–32
Lexical quality
components of, 136–137
importance of, 131–133
lexical quality hypothesis, 130
orthographic precision and, 133–135, 145
overview, 135–136
sentence comprehension and, 145
Lexical restructuring hypothesis, 381
Lexical tuning hypothesis, 83
Linear symbols, in writing systems, 11
Linguistic prejudice, 432–433. See also African American English (AAE)
Linguistic-proficiency hypothesis, 284
Linguistics, 4, 22–23
Linguistic variables, 52–53
Literacy. See also Adolescent literacy; African American English (AAE); Children, home literacy experiences of; Early literacy; Teaching of reading
English literacy foundations, 330–332
literacy foundations in alphabetic orthographies other than English, 332–334
skills in, 334–335
Literature and interpretive practices, integrated with literacy learning, 470–471
Logogen model, 100
Logograms, 13
Logographic writing systems, 18
L2 (second language) literacy acquisition, 174–175
Malay Lexicon Project, 38
Masked priming
derivational transparency in, 109–110
(p. 501)
Hebrew word recognition experiments, 92
for letter order coding, 69–73
lexical competition role examined with, 80–83
morphological, 140–142
neighbor, 137–138
orthographic, 137–140
semantic, 142–143
Match scores, 70–71
Mathematical notation, 12
Meaning computation in reading polymorphemic words, 125–127
Meaning-focused reading instruction, 425
Mediated priming effect, 36–37
Memory
to activate anaphoric inferences, 220–221
in discourse comprehension, 218
executive functions and, 387–388
phonological coding and, 194–197
phonological working, 307
reading comprehension of children and, 349–350
reading influence on, 382–383
reading words from, 297–299
semantic, 35
in sentence processing, 209–211
short-term, 382–383
Memory-based models of discourse comprehension, 218–219, 222, 228
Mental models, in text comprehension, 344, 351
Metacognitive conversations, 467
Metaphonological performance in literates, 379–380
Mirror invariance, unlearning, 385–386
Missing heritability, 369–372
Moraic syllabaries, 20
Morphemes
in Chinese words, 233
Dell model representation of, 109
free, 115
frequency of, 116
hyphens at boundaries of, 121
logogens corresponding to, 100
words composed of, 13
Morphological codes, 253–254
Morphological priming, 36, 140–142
Morphological processing, 50, 103–109
Morphological segmentation, 115, 120–122
Morpho-orthographic level of representation, 105
Moving window/moving mask experiments, 47–48
Moving window paradigm, 236, 245–246
Multitiered systems of support for reading instruction, 416–419
Musical notation, 12
Mutation-selection model, 370
Naïve discriminative learning, 95
National Academy of Sciences, 449
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 438, 458–459
National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 455
National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ), 455–456
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 450
National Reading Panel, 416, 450, 453
National Research Council (NRC), 449–450
Necessary inferences, in discourse comprehension, 219–222
Neglect dyslexia, 150
Neighborhood effects, 76–87
consonant and vowel status, 82–83
future directions on, 83–84
to help or hinder word identification, 79–82
initial definitions of, overview, 77–79
masked neighbor priming, 137–138
orthographic neighborhood size, 33
overview, 76–77
Nelson-Denny Reading Test, 137
Neural competition, 384–385
Neuroimaging, dyslexia evidence from, 156–157, 159
Neuronal recycling, 131, 377
Neuropsychology of dyslexia, 363–365
New York Review of Books, 4
NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development), 450
Noisy-channel model, 69, 72
Nonalphabetic writing systems, 336–340
NRC (National Research Council), 449–450
Nunes and Bryant’s stage model, 316–318
Object relative clauses (ORCs), 210–211
Oculomotor-tuning hypothesis, 283–284
OLD20 measure, 79, 82–83
One-letter substitution neighbors, 77, 79
Online gaming, 465
Onset entropy, 329
Oral language development, 398, 402–403, 419, 424, 439
Oral versus silent reading, 45
ORCs (object relative clauses), 210–211
Orthographic codes, in information integration across fixations, 249–251
Orthographic logogens, 100
Orthographic mapping, 298–299
Orthographic neighborhood size, 33
Orthographic-phonological (O-P) correspondence, 134. See also Grapheme-phoneme relations
Orthographic precision, 130, 133–135
Orthographic priming, masked, 137–140
Orthographic processing
eye movements during reading, 46–47
in lexical search, 100
in metaphonological performance in literates, 379–380
of parafoveal words, 49
in parallel distributed processing, 101
in Semitic languages, 91–92
similarity in, 33–34
in spoken word recognition, 380–382
Outer form differences in writing, 10, 21–22
Overlap model, 69, 72, 90
Overlap open bigram model, 69, 73
Overlapping ambiguous strings in Chinese words, 239–240
Parafoveal fast priming paradigm, 192–193
Parafoveal magnification paradigm, 46
Parafoveal preview benefit, 237, 257
Parafoveal preview contingent eye-movement paradigm, 190
Parafoveal processing, 143, 286
Parafoveal words, 49–50
Parallel distributed processing (PDP) model, 30, 33, 101–103, 107, 130
Parallelism in sentence processing, 206–207
Partial alphabetic phase, in phase theory of development, 301–303
Partial cue reading strategy, 135
Pauses, in text, 196–197
PDP (parallel distributed processing) model, 30, 33, 101–103, 107, 130
Pedagogical content knowledge, 448
Perceptual identification, 28
Perceptual span, 48, 143, 246
Peripheral acquired dyslexia, 150–151
Phase theory of development, 300–304
Phoneme awareness, 398, 404
Phonemes, 13, 193–194
Phonics instruction, 5–6, 448, 453–454
Phonograms, 13
Phonographemic consistency, 328
Phonographical processing, 49
Phonological awareness, 378, 449
Phonological codes, 246, 251–253
Phonological dyslexia, 30, 151
Phonological encoding
inner and outer speech and, 198–199
memory and, 194–197
of words in eye-movement paradigms, 189–194
of words in single-word identification tasks, 186–189
Phonological neighbors, 79
Phonological output logogens, 100
Phonological perspective on spelling development, 312–315
Phonological priming effects, 35–36
Phonological processing, in parallel distributed processing, 101
Phonological similarity, 33–34, 383
Phonological working memory, 307
(p. 502) Phonotactics, 14
Pictorial outer forms, 22
PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), 465
Polymorphemic words, processing of, 114–128
compound word studies, implications of, 119–120
derived word identification, 123
first-constituent frequency effects, 116–118
inflected word identification, 123–125
meaning computation in reading, 125–127
morphological segmentation in reading, 120–122
overview, 114–116
second-constituent frequency effects, 118–119
whole-word frequency effects, 119
Polysyllabic word representation, 110
Prealphabetic phase, in phase theory of development, 300–301
Predictability effects, 53
Prediction, as a word reading method, 296–297
Predictive inferences, 224
Preferred viewing location (PVL), in fixations, 240–241
Preview benefit, 48–49, 246, 248, 252
Primary grades reading instruction (US). See Reading instruction in primary grades (US)
Priming
cross-modal, 92
expectancy in, 37
facilitatory phonological, 168
Form Priming Project, 38
masked
derivational transparency in, 109–110
for Hebrew word recognition, 92
for letter order coding, 69–73
for lexical competition, 80–83
morphological, 140–142
neighbor, 137–138
orthographic, 137–140
semantic, 142–143
mediated, 36–37
morphological, 36
overview, 5
parafoveal fast, 192–193
phonological, 35–36
repetition, 81
semantic, 36–37, 168
Semantic Priming Project, 38
spoken-word, 195
transposed-letter (TL), 70, 72, 91–93, 138–140
in word recognition by bilinguals, 167–168
Print knowledge, 449
Procedural rules, in spelling, 451
Process-monitoring hypothesis, 273
Production, reception and, 109
Professional development, in teaching of reading, 456–457
Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 465
Progressive ambiguity in Chinese words, 239
Project CRISS, 422
Project READI (Reading, Evidence, and Argument in Disciplinary Instruction), 469–471
Pronunciation, set for variability and, 294
Proprioception, of tones, 16
Psycholinguistic grain size theory, 145
Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading, The (Huey), 4
Pure alexia, 150–151
PVL (preferred viewing location), in fixations, 240–241
Quality reading instruction. See Teaching of reading
RAND report on Reading for Understanding, 416
Rapid automatized naming (RAN), 175, 332–335
Rapid Serial Visual Representation (RSVP), 205, 208
Rational left-corner parser, 206
Reaction time (RT) measures, 5, 99. See also Fixation
ReadAbout intervention, 422–423
Read for Real intervention, 422
Reading Apprenticeship (RA), 470, 473–474
Reading First, 416
Reading for Knowledge intervention, 422–423
Reading for Understanding (RAND), 416
Reading for Understanding Network, 428
Reading instruction in primary grades (US), 415–430. See also Teaching of reading
code-focused, 417–419
for comprehension
of English language learners, 420–421
IES Practice Guide on, 419–420
intervention studies on, 421–424
future directions, 426–428
individualized, 424–426
overview, 415–416
reports and policies influencing, 416–417
Reading Recovery program, 297
Reading research, introduction to, 3–9
cognitive revolution and, 4–5
early, 4
handbook overview, 6–9
teaching of reading, 5–6
Reading skill development application of E-Z Reader model, 283–285
Reasoning, literacy effects on, 388
Reception and production relationship, 109
Recognition of words. See Visual word recognition
Redundancy, visual, 11
Refixations, 247–249
Regional synonyms, 432
Regressing, in target word processing, 190
Regressive eye movements, 44–45, 212
Regularity of words, 34
Reicher-Wheeler effect, 27
Relationship-based professional development models, 457
Relative position constraint, 70
Relearning, 159–160
Repetition priming effects, 81
Resonance model of discourse comprehension, 219
Response time distributions, in word recognition, 38–39
Response to intervention (RTI) models, 416–418, 427–428
Restructuring, lexical, 134
Return sweep eye movements, 45
Root morpheme, 92
Root-word conflict, 124
RSVP (Rapid Serial Visual Representation), 205, 208
RTI (Response to Intervention), 416–418, 427–428
RT (reaction time) measures, 5, 99. See also Fixations
Saccades. See also E-Z Reader model; Fixations
in Chinese reading, 236, 240–242
cognitive processing effect on, 50–51
description of, 44–46, 245
in target word processing, 190
vision suppressed during, 115
SAE (Standard American English), 432
Same-different task, 71–73
Scenario-mapping focus model of discourse comprehension, 219
School-wide enrichment model of reading (SEM-R), 424, 426
Science, integrated with literacy learning, 469–470
Scientist’s Notebook approach, 469
Script, in language, 10–11
Script directionality, reading influence on, 378, 384
Search and activation models, in lexical representation, 100
Search process, in lexical access models, 32
Second-constituent frequency, 118–119
Seed of Science/Roots of Reading curriculum, 470
Segmentability, of tones, 16
Segmentation of words
Chinese standards for, 233–234
(p. 503)
lower-level, 234–235
mechanisms of, 238–239
of spatially ambiguous words, 239–240
Self-teaching mechanism, decoding as, 295
Semantic classification, 28
Semantic dementia, 151, 155
Semantic influences, on visual word recognition, 32–35
Semantic information, in information integration across fixations, 254–256
Semantic knowledge, reading acquisition effects on, 387–388
Semantic neighbors, 34
Semantic priming
in bilinguals, 168
effects of, 36–37
masked, 142–143
Semantic Priming Project, 38
Semantic processing, 101, 202, 208–209
Semantic richness, 34–35
Semantic transparency effect, 36
Semasiographic systems, 12
Semitic language orthographic processing, 91–92
SEM-R (school-wide enrichment model of reading), 424, 426
Sentence processing, 202–216. See also Children, reading comprehension of
by bilinguals, 168–169, 171–174
constraint-based approach to, 206–207
incrementality in, 204–206
independence of, 208–209
lexical quality and, 145
memory in, 209–211
overview, 202–204
seriality versus parallelism, 206–207
visual word recognition and, 211–213
Serial-attention models, 278
Seriality in sentence processing, 206–207
SERIOL model, 69, 90
Set for variability, 294
Shallow alphabetic writing systems, 21
Short-term memory (STM), 382–383
Sight word reading, 297–299
Silent reading, 185–201
inner speech and outer speech relation, 197–199
oral reading versus, 45
overview, 185–186
phonological encoding of words in eye-movement paradigms, 189–194
phonological encoding of words in single-word identification tasks, 186–189
short term memory and phonological coding, 194–197
Simple view of reading model, 419, 425
Single-route model of word recognition, 29
Single-word identification tasks, 186–189
Situation model of text comprehension, 217–218, 344
Skipping effects, 52
Slip-of-the-ear errors, 382
Slot-based coding, 67–69, 90
SNARC effect, 384
Social media, 465
SOPHIA model, 171
Spacing
compound word reading and, 120–121
lack of, in Chinese words, 232–233
Spatial association, reading influence on, 384
Spatial coding model, 91
Speaking, development of, 4. See also Oral language development.
Speeded pronunciation, 28–31
Spelling development, 311–325. See also Children, word reading by
American English spelling system, 448, 451–452
conclusions, 321–322
constructivist approach to, 315–318
overview, 311–312
phonological perspective, 312–315
statistical learning, 318–321
Spelling-meaning factor, 138
Spoken-word priming, 195
Spoken word recognition, 380–384
Stability, of tones, 16
Standard American English (SAE), 432
Statistical learning, in spelling development, 318–321
STM (short-term memory), 382–383
Story structure, in reading comprehension, 353–355
Strategy-based models of discourse comprehension, 218–219, 222, 228
Stroop task, 297
Structure-building framework for discourse comprehension, 218
Student outcomes, teaching of reading and, 454–455
Style shifting, in AAE, 437–438, 440
Stylistic consistency, in writing, 11
Sublexical route in model of word recognition, 29, 32
Subvocalization, 186, 197–198
Subword pathway impairments, 157–161
Surface dyslexia, 151, 156
Survival analyses, 54
Syllabaric writing systems, 18, 20
Syllabic alphabets, 19
Syllable neighbors, 78
Symbolic lexical representations, 145
Symbols, 12
Synonyms, regional, 432
Syntactic skills, in children’s reading comprehension, 348
Tachistoscope, 4
Tactical rules, in spelling, 451
Teachers, parents as. See Children, home literacy experiences of
Teacher study group model, 457–458
Teaching of reading, 447–462
American English spelling system, 451–452
literacy instruction in, 452–453
overview, 447–448
phonics, 453–454
professional development interventions, 456–457
quality reading instruction, 448–451
recognition of lack of knowledge in, 453
research on, 5–6
student outcomes and, 454–455
teacher knowledge gaps, 455–456
teacher study group model, 457–458
Teaching Reading Really is Rocket Science (Moats), 459
Technology, 422–424. See also Adolescent literacy
Test for Reception of Grammar, 348
Test of Preschool Early Literacy (TOPEL), 458
Textbase representation, 217
Text comprehension in children, 344–345. See also Children, comprehension of.
Text-onset delay paradigm, 271–272
Text processing
by bilinguals, 173–174
pauses coded by inner speech, 196–197
Time course of lexical processing application of E-Z Reader model, 285–288
TL (transposed-letter) priming. See Transposed-letter (TL) priming
Tone, in language, 16, 20
Tongue-twisters, 196
TOPEL (Test of Preschool Early Literacy), 458
Total fixation time, 116, 124, 190, 235, 246
Transposed-letter (TL) priming
cross-linguistic research on, 91–93
effects of, 88–90
masked orthographic priming and, 138–140
morphological boundaries and, 70
neighbors, 79–80
task dissociation and, 72
Triple foundation model, 327, 331, 338
Tuning, lexical, 134
Typical response to intervention (RTI) model, 418
Underrepresentation, 15, 20
Uniformity assumption, 130
Unitization, 298
Unrestricted race model, 206
U.S. Department of Education, 449–450, 455
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 449
(p. 504) Valence, emotional, 35
Verbal Behavior (Skinner), 4
Verbal efficiency theory, 130
Verification process, in lexical access models, 32
Viewing distance effects, 45–46
Visual agnosia, 152
Visual nature of writing, 11–12
Visual processing, reading influence on, 384–387
Visual word form area (VWFA)
mirror invariance, unlearning, 385–386
reading paradox and, 131–132
speech processing to activate, 382
Visual word recognition, 26–43. See also Neighborhood effects; Polymorphemic words, processing of
context and priming effects, 35–37
individual differences in, 39, 144
joint effects of variables, 37
lexical- and semantic-level influences on, 32–35
megastudies versus factorial studies of, 37–38
response time distribution analyses, 38–39
sentence processing and, 211–213
theories of, 26–32
letter recognition, 27–28
lexical processing, 28–32
overview, 26–27
Visual word recognition, lexical representation in, 99–113
AUSTRAL model, 102–103
derivational transparency in masked priming, 109–110
dual pathway from form to lemma, 110
interactive-activation model, 100–101
morphological processing, 103–109
overview, 99–100
parallel distributed processing model, 101–102
polysyllabic word representation, 110
reception and production relationship, 109
search and activation models, 100
Visual word recognition in Bayesian Reader framework, 63–75
overview, 63–64
representation of letter order in
masked priming, 69–73
slot code, 67–69
word frequency as determinant of, 64–67
Vocabulary, 306–307, 346–348, 449
Vowel and consonant status, 82–83, 89
Vowel harmony, in Finnish, 122
VWFA (visual word form area). See Visual word form area (VWFA)
WEAVER++ model, 109
Whole-language approach, 5, 448
Whole-word form representation, 106–107
Whole-word frequency, 119
Whole-word instruction method, 5
Whole-word pathway impairments, 155–157, 160–161
Word-frequency effect, 32–33, 52, 64–67
Word Generation program, 473
Word recognition, by bilinguals, 166–171
bilingual interactive activation model, 169–171
fMRI studies, 169
priming studies, 167–168
in sentence contexts, 168–169
single word studies, 166–167
Words. See also Children, reading comprehension of; Children, word reading by; Polymorphemic words, processing of; Visual word recognition
irregularly inflected, 106–107
phonological encoding of, 189–194
polysyllabic word representation, 110
single-word identification tasks, 186–189
written representation of, 18–21
Words in Chinese reading, 232–244
description of, 233–234
overview, 232–233
psychological reality of, 234–238
saccade target selection in, 240–242
segmentation mechanisms for, 238–239
spatially ambiguous, 239–240
Words in different writing systems, 326–343
alphabetic literacy skills, 334–335
in alphabetic orthographies, 328–330
English literacy foundations, 330–332
literacy foundations in alphabetic orthographies other than English, 332–334
in nonalphabetic writing systems, 336–340
overview, 326–328
Word superiority effect, 27
Working memory, literacy effects on, 387–388
Writing, 10–25
importance of, 3
language aspects not represented by, 15–17
language change lags in, 17–18
language represented by, 12–15
letter order coding modulated by systems of, 93–94
outer form differences in, 21–22
reading implications, 22–24
visual nature of, 11–12
words represented differently in, 18–21