- Oxford Library of Psychology
- The Oxford Handbook of Reading
- Oxford Library of Psychology
- About the Editors
- The Oxford Handbook of Reading: Setting the Stage
- Writing Systems: Their Properties and Implications for Reading
- Visual Word Recognition
- The Work of the Eyes During Reading
- Visual Word Recognition in the Bayesian Reader Framework
- Neighborhood Effects in Visual Word Recognition and Reading
- Cross-Linguistic Perspectives on Letter-Order Processing: Empirical Findings and Theoretical Considerations
- The Nature of Lexical Representation in Visual Word Recognition
- Are Polymorphemic Words Processed Differently From Other Words During Reading?
- Individual Differences Among Skilled Readers: The Role of Lexical Quality
- What Does Acquired Dyslexia Tell Us About Reading in the Mind and Brain?
- Literacy and Literacy Development in Bilinguals
- The Role of Sound in Silent Reading
- Reading Sentences: Syntactic Parsing and Semantic Interpretation
- Models of Discourse Comprehension
- The Role of Words in Chinese Reading
- How Is Information Integrated Across Fixations in Reading?
- Direct Lexical and Nonlexical Control of Fixation Duration in Reading
- E-Z Reader: An Overview of the Model and Two Recent Applications
- How Children Learn to Read Words
- Children’s Spelling Development: Theories and Evidence
- Learning to Read and Spell Words in Different Writing Systems
- Children’s Reading Comprehension and Comprehension Difficulties
- Development of Dyslexia
- How Learning to Read Influences Language and Cognition
- Young Children’s Home Literacy Experiences
- Primary Grade Reading Instruction in the United States
- African American English and Its Link to Reading Achievement
- Teachers’ Knowledge About Beginning Reading Development and Instruction
- Adolescent Literacy: Development and Instruction
- Name Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter reviews recent United States policy and research on literacy instruction in the primary grades, kindergarten through fifth grade. Four topics are discussed: policy and seminal reports, decoding and multitiered systems of instruction, comprehension, and individualized or differentiated instruction. The research review focuses on typically developing students, students who have or are at risk for reading disabilities, and English Language Learners. Research indicates that multitiered systems of instruction show promise although they have focused primarily on decoding and not on comprehension. For comprehension, multicomponent strategies may be more effective than single strategy interventions. However, mixed results—with various studies on teaching students how to comprehend what they are reading showing positive, null, and negative effects—indicate more research is needed. Individualizing the instruction provided to students based on assessment results appears to improve decoding and comprehension outcomes. Future directions for policy and research are also discussed.
Carol McDonald Connor, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University
Stephanie Al Otaiba, Department of Teaching and Learning, Southern Methodist University
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