- Oxford Library of Psychology
- The Oxford Handbook of Reading
- Oxford Library of Psychology
- About the Editors
- The Oxford Handbook of Reading: Setting the Stage
- Writing Systems: Their Properties and Implications for Reading
- Visual Word Recognition
- The Work of the Eyes During Reading
- Visual Word Recognition in the Bayesian Reader Framework
- Neighborhood Effects in Visual Word Recognition and Reading
- Cross-Linguistic Perspectives on Letter-Order Processing: Empirical Findings and Theoretical Considerations
- The Nature of Lexical Representation in Visual Word Recognition
- Are Polymorphemic Words Processed Differently From Other Words During Reading?
- Individual Differences Among Skilled Readers: The Role of Lexical Quality
- What Does Acquired Dyslexia Tell Us About Reading in the Mind and Brain?
- Literacy and Literacy Development in Bilinguals
- The Role of Sound in Silent Reading
- Reading Sentences: Syntactic Parsing and Semantic Interpretation
- Models of Discourse Comprehension
- The Role of Words in Chinese Reading
- How Is Information Integrated Across Fixations in Reading?
- Direct Lexical and Nonlexical Control of Fixation Duration in Reading
- E-Z Reader: An Overview of the Model and Two Recent Applications
- How Children Learn to Read Words
- Children’s Spelling Development: Theories and Evidence
- Learning to Read and Spell Words in Different Writing Systems
- Children’s Reading Comprehension and Comprehension Difficulties
- Development of Dyslexia
- How Learning to Read Influences Language and Cognition
- Young Children’s Home Literacy Experiences
- Primary Grade Reading Instruction in the United States
- African American English and Its Link to Reading Achievement
- Teachers’ Knowledge About Beginning Reading Development and Instruction
- Adolescent Literacy: Development and Instruction
- Name Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
There is strong evidence that word reading and spelling ability in English is founded on three core skills, namely knowledge of letters of the alphabet, awareness of phonemes in spoken words, and rapid automatized naming of visual stimuli (RAN). We suggest that these abilities represent cognitive constructs that comprise the triple foundation of literacy in all languages. In the present chapter we review the research carried out in different writing systems to assess the extent to which this triple foundation provides a good language-general model of early literacy development. The evidence is considered in the context of potentially important moderating, language-specific influences of orthographic variables, especially symbol-sound mapping consistency. We propose that the triple foundation model, conceptualized as (1) knowledge of the functional symbol set of the orthography, (2) awareness of the speech units to which orthographic symbols map, and (3) efficient mappings between the representational systems of orthographic symbols and their related speech units provides a universally valid description of the cognitive architecture underlying early literacy development.
Markéta Caravolas is Senior Lecturer in Psychology and Director of the Miles Dyslexia Centre at Bangor University.
Anna Samara, Bangor University
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