- Oxford Library of Psychology
- The Oxford Handbook of Reading
- Oxford Library of Psychology
- About the Editors
- The Oxford Handbook of Reading: Setting the Stage
- Writing Systems: Their Properties and Implications for Reading
- Visual Word Recognition
- The Work of the Eyes During Reading
- Visual Word Recognition in the Bayesian Reader Framework
- Neighborhood Effects in Visual Word Recognition and Reading
- Cross-Linguistic Perspectives on Letter-Order Processing: Empirical Findings and Theoretical Considerations
- The Nature of Lexical Representation in Visual Word Recognition
- Are Polymorphemic Words Processed Differently From Other Words During Reading?
- Individual Differences Among Skilled Readers: The Role of Lexical Quality
- What Does Acquired Dyslexia Tell Us About Reading in the Mind and Brain?
- Literacy and Literacy Development in Bilinguals
- The Role of Sound in Silent Reading
- Reading Sentences: Syntactic Parsing and Semantic Interpretation
- Models of Discourse Comprehension
- The Role of Words in Chinese Reading
- How Is Information Integrated Across Fixations in Reading?
- Direct Lexical and Nonlexical Control of Fixation Duration in Reading
- E-Z Reader: An Overview of the Model and Two Recent Applications
- How Children Learn to Read Words
- Children’s Spelling Development: Theories and Evidence
- Learning to Read and Spell Words in Different Writing Systems
- Children’s Reading Comprehension and Comprehension Difficulties
- Development of Dyslexia
- How Learning to Read Influences Language and Cognition
- Young Children’s Home Literacy Experiences
- Primary Grade Reading Instruction in the United States
- African American English and Its Link to Reading Achievement
- Teachers’ Knowledge About Beginning Reading Development and Instruction
- Adolescent Literacy: Development and Instruction
- Name Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
A primary goal for beginners when they learn to read words is to secure spellings of the words to both their pronunciations and meanings in memory so that they can recognize the words immediately upon seeing them in or out of text. This requires orthographic mapping skill where knowledge of letter-sound units provides the connections for bonding spellings to pronunciations in memory. When readers apply decoding, analogizing, or prediction strategies to read unfamiliar spellings, this activates letter-sound connections and initiates bonding so that the words can be read from memory. When readers’ mapping skill is activated as they read individual words in different, semantically rich sentences, spelling-meaning connections accumulate in memory. Development is portrayed by four phases, each characterized by the type of connections used to secure spellings to pronunciations in memory, ranging from visual/contextual, to partial alphabetic, to full graphophonemic, to consolidated syllabic and morphemic letter-sound spelling patterns.
Linnea C. Ehri, Ph.D. Program in Educational Psychology, Graduate Center of the City University of New York
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