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date: 03 August 2020

Abstract and Keywords

A primary goal for beginners when they learn to read words is to secure spellings of the words to both their pronunciations and meanings in memory so that they can recognize the words immediately upon seeing them in or out of text. This requires orthographic mapping skill where knowledge of letter-sound units provides the connections for bonding spellings to pronunciations in memory. When readers apply decoding, analogizing, or prediction strategies to read unfamiliar spellings, this activates letter-sound connections and initiates bonding so that the words can be read from memory. When readers’ mapping skill is activated as they read individual words in different, semantically rich sentences, spelling-meaning connections accumulate in memory. Development is portrayed by four phases, each characterized by the type of connections used to secure spellings to pronunciations in memory, ranging from visual/contextual, to partial alphabetic, to full graphophonemic, to consolidated syllabic and morphemic letter-sound spelling patterns.

Keywords: orthographic mapping, sight word learning, word spellings, developmental phases of word reading, vocabulary learning, decoding, analogizing, grapheme-phoneme relations, connectionist theory

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