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date: 04 June 2020

(p. xix) Editors and Contributors

(p. xix) Editors and Contributors

Naomi Cahn is the Harold H. Greene Professor at George Washington University Law School. Her research and writing focus on gender issues in both domestic and international law. She first co-taught a Women and International Law course in 1992, at Georgetown University Law Center. With Fionnuala Ní Aoláin and Dina Francesca Haynes, she is the co-author of On the Frontlines: Gender, War, and the Post-Conflict Process (Oxford University Press, 2011). She has written or co-written numerous other books and articles, including Marriage Markets: How Inequality Is Remaking the American Family (Oxford University Press, 2014, with Professor June Carbone).

Dina Francesca Haynes is Professor of Law at New England Law, Boston, where she teaches courses related to migration, refugees, and human rights, as well as human trafficking and constitutional law. She has published numerous books, chapters, and articles, including Deconstructing the Reconstruction: Human Rights and the Rule of Law in Postwar BiH (Ashgate, 2008), and On the Frontlines (Oxford University Press, 2011, with Fionnuala Ní Aoláin and Naomi Cahn). Prior to teaching law she served as Protection Officer with the UN High Commissioner of Refugees, Human Rights Officer with the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, and Director General of the Human Rights Department of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

Fionnuala Ní Aoláin holds the Regents University Professorship and Robina Chair in Law, Public Policy, and Society at the University of Minnesota Law School and is concurrently Professor of Law and Associate Director at Ulster University’s Transitional Justice Institute (Belfast). Her book Law in Times of Crisis, with Oren Gross (Cambridge University Press, 2006) was awarded ASIL’s Certificate of Merit for creative scholarship (2007). She is co-author of On the Frontlines: Gender, War and the Post Conflict Process with Naomi Chan and Dina Haynes (Oxford University Press, 2011). Ní Aoláin was appointed by the UN Secretary-General as Special Expert on promoting gender equality in times of conflict and peace-making (2003). She has served as Expert to the ICC Trust Fund for Victims (2015), and Consultant to UN Women and OHCHR on a Study on Reparations for Conflict Related Sexual Violence (2013). She was nominated twice by the Irish Government as Judge to the European Court of Human Rights (2004 and 2007). She is Board Chair of the Open Society’s Women’s Program, and serves on the Board of the Center for Victims of Torture and the Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace, and Security. She was appointed by the United Nations Human Rights Council to hold the mandate of UN Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights while Countering Terrorism in August 2017.

(p. xx) Nahla Valji is the Senior Gender Adviser in the Executive Office of the UN Secretary General. She was formerly the acting Chief/Deputy Chief, Peace and Security, in UN Women’s headquarters in New York, where she led at different points the organization’s work on peacekeeping, peace negotiations, countering violent extremism, transitional justice, and rule of law, involving both global programming and policy work, particularly with regard to the Security Council. During this time, she headed the Secretariat for the Global Study on the implementation of Security Council resolution 1325, a comprehensive study requested by the Security Council for the fifteen-year review of women, peace, and security. Following the completion of the Global Study review, she headed the secretariats of the resulting Security Council mechanism, the Informal Expert Group on Women, Peace and Security (established by resolution 2242), and a new pooled funding mechanism on women’s engagement in peace, security, and humanitarian assistance. Prior to joining the UN she worked in South Africa, where she founded and managed the International Journal of Transitional Justice and led the regional transitional justice work of the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, including the African Transitional Justice Research Network and joint work with the African Union.

Jerusa Ali is a doctoral candidate in Law and Legal Studies at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. She holds a BSc in Foreign Service from Georgetown University, an MA in International Relations from Keele University, and an LLM in International Human Rights Law from the University of Nottingham. She completed the fieldwork component of her doctoral project on the crime of persecution in residence at the Department of Jurisprudence and International Law, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.

Anton Baaré has since 1990 worked as international development and conflict-resolution practitioner in East and West Africa, and Southeast Asia. More recently he has started working in South and Central Asia. His experience covers human security, community-driven recovery and development, and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programming. His work in Uganda started in 1993 when he was Danida advisor to the Uganda Veterans Assistance Board (UVAB), where he worked on the demobilization of the National Resistance Army (now UPDF). He has since worked on numerous projects in Uganda, including the ongoing Northern Uganda Social Action Fund 2 (NUSAF 2). In 2000–2002 he was Danida advisor to the Uganda Human Rights Commission (UHRC) and manager of the Danish support Human Right and Democratisation Programme. Between 2006 and 2008 he was seconded to the GOSS mediation team on the LRA “Juba Peace Talks” and was involved in drafting the Cessation of Hostilities agreement of August 2006, training the Cessation of Hostilities Monitoring Team, and drafting the Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegrationprotocol of the Juba Peace Agreement.

Christine Bell is Professor of Constitutional Law, and Assistant Principal (Global Justice) of the University of Edinburgh. She is a Fellow and Council member of the British Academy, and a member of the International Board of International IDEA. She is a former Director of the Human Rights Centre, Queens University of Belfast, and of the Transitional Justice Institute, University of Ulster. She was also Chairperson of the (p. xxi) Committee on the Administration of Justice, and a member of the first Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission established under the Belfast Agreement, which had responsibility for drafting a bill of rights for Northern Ireland. Her research interests lie in the interface between constitutional and international law, gender and conflict, with a particular interest in peace processes and their agreements. She has participated in and given legal and constitutional advice to participants in a number of peace negotiations (Basque country, Northern Ireland, Sri Lanka, Ogaden-Ethiopia, Philippines, Myanmar, and Colombia).

Karima Bennoune is Professor of Law and Martin Luther King, Jr., Hall Research Scholar at the University of California, Davis School of Law. She is the author of “Your Fatwa Does Not Apply Here: Untold Stories from the Fight against Muslim Fundamentalism,” which won the 2014 Dayton Literary Peace Prize. Bennoune has served as legal advisor for Amnesty International, and sits on the Board of the Network of Women Living Under Muslim Laws. She currently serves as Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights.

Theresa S. Betancourt, ScD, MA is a professor at the Boston College School of Social Work and Director of the Research Program on Children and Adversity (RPCA). Her central research interests include the developmental and psychosocial consequences of concentrated adversity on children, youth, and families; resilience and protective processes in child and adolescent mental health and child development; refugee families; and applied cross-cultural mental health research. She is Principal Investigator of a prospective longitudinal study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone, which led to the development of group interventions for war-affected youth that are now being scaled up in Sierra Leone in collaboration with the World Bank and the Government of Sierra Leone. She has developed and evaluated the impact of a Family Strengthening Intervention for HIV-affected children and families and is also investigating the impact of a home-visiting early childhood development (ECD) intervention to promote enriched parent-child relationships and prevent violence in Rwanda. Domestically, she is engaged in community-based participatory research on family-based prevention of emotional and behavioral problems in refugee children and adolescents resettled in the United States. She has written extensively on mental health and resilience in children facing adversity, including recent articles in Child Development, The Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Social Science and Medicine, JAMA Psychiatry, and PLOS One.

Tess Borden is the 2015–2017 Aryeh Neier Fellow at the American Civil Liberties Union and Human Rights Watch. She works on the intersection of drug policy and criminal justice and is author of the 196-page ACLU/Human Rights Watch report, “Every 25 Seconds: The Human Toll of Criminalizing Drug Use in the United States.” Tess clerked for the Honorable George A. O’Toole, Jr., of the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts, and was a researcher for the United Nations Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary, or arbitrary executions. She received her bachelor’s degree from Yale College, where she majored in French, and her law degree from Harvard Law School, where she was a member of the International Human Rights Clinic and an editor of the Harvard Human Rights Journal.

(p. xxii) Pascha Bueno-Hansen is an Associate Professor of Women and Gender Studies at the University of Delaware and serves as the Coordinator of the Sexualities and Gender Studies Minor and the Academic Coordinator of the LGBTQ+ and Racial Justice Activism Living and Learning Community. She is the author of Feminist and Human Rights Struggles in Peru: Decolonizing Transitional Justice (University of Illinois Press, 2015) as well as journal articles and book chapters on sexual violence, feminicide, women of color feminisms, sexuality, race, transitional justice, internal armed conflict and social movements. Her next project examines the emerging issue of violence against gender and sexual minorities within transitional justice efforts in Latin America.

Doris Buss is Professor of Law at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, and teaches and researches in the areas of international law and human rights, women’s rights, global social movements, and feminist theory. She is the author (with Didi Herman) of Globalizing Family Values: The International Politics of the Christian Right (University of Minnesota Press, 2003), co-editor (with Ambreena Manji) of International Law: Modern Feminist Approaches (Hart, 2005), and co-editor (with Joanne Lebert, Blair Rutherford, and Donna Sharkey) of Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies: International Agendas and African Contexts (Routledge, 2014).

Jo Butterfield is a Visiting Assistant Professor of History at the University of Iowa. Her research examines the history of modern human rights by exploring the intersections between policy, ideology, and activism. Her book manuscript (in progress), Social Justice, Not Charity: International Women’s Activism, Gender Politics and the Making of Modern Human Rights, explores how feminist activists navigated international politics and ideas about gender in their efforts to promote a global “social revolution” for women in the aftermath of World War II. She co-authored “Eleanor Roosevelt: Negotiating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights” in Junctures in Women’s Leadership: Social Movements (Rutgers University Press, 2016). She currently teaches courses on the World since 1945, the United States in World Affairs, the History of Human Rights, and Cold War America.

Pablo Castillo Díaz is a policy specialist at UN Women, focused on efforts to prevent and respond to sexual and gender-based violence in conflict, post-conflict, and emergency settings; mainstream gender equality in peacekeeping operations; and engaging with the Security Council on women, peace, and security. He has contributed to the negotiations and adoption of several new Security Council resolutions on women, peace, and security, monitoring and accountability frameworks for the UN system on resolution 1325, research on women’s participation in peace talks, conflict prevention, peacekeeping operations, and programmatic initiatives on community-led protection and specialized trainings for peacekeepers. In 2015, he helped shape UN Women’s contributions to the global study and high-level review of resolution 1325 and the high-level independent panel on peace operations. Before joining the United Nations in 2009, he spent several years teaching international politics at various universities in the United States. He grew up in the Canary Islands (Spain) and has a degree in Political Science and International (p. xxiii) Relations from Universidad Complutense de Madrid and a Doctorate from Rutgers University for his work on international criminal justice and conflict resolution.

Naureen Chowdhury Fink is a Policy Specialist on gender and counterterrorism/CVE at UN Women, where she also works closely with the UN’s counterterrorism bodies including the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate (CTED). She has spent over a decade focusing on the international and multilateral response to terrorism and the role of the United Nations and its partners, including governments, experts and civil society. Previously, she worked for the Global Center on Cooperative Security, leading on multilateral programs and CVE, and before that, the International Peace Institute, where she developed the counter-terrorism portfolio. She has published numerous reports and articles, has contributed to policy and program development at national and multilateral levels, and has been a frequent speaker at high level and expert conferences. She is a Senior Fellow at the Global Center on Cooperative Security and at Hedayah. She has also worked with the Middle East Programme in Chatham House, the World Intellectual Property Organization and World Trade Organization in Geneva. Ms. Fink holds a BA from the University of Pennsylvania, an MA from the Courtauld Institute of Art, and an MA in War Studies from King’s College London.

Hanny Cueva Beteta is UN Women’s Regional Governance and Security Advisor for Asia and the Pacific. Before taking this position, she was the coordinator of the Global Study on the Implementation of Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) and until October 2014 she served as the Gender Advisor to UNCT for the UN Women office in Peru. Previously, she was the Policy Advisor and Deputy to the Chief Advisor for the Peace and Security Section in UN Women HQ. Before joining the United Nations in 2006, Hanny worked as a researcher and lecturer at the Universidad del Pacifico in Lima, Peru, where she published extensively on issues of poverty and development economics. She is Peruvian and holds a BA in Economics (Universdad del Pacifico, Lima) and a MPhil in Development Studies (Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK).

Alison Davidian is currently a Programme Specialist on Women, Peace and Security with UN Women's regional office in Thailand. Previous to this, she worked with UN Women's Peace and Security Section in New York where her portfolio areas included transitional justice and countering violent extremism and with its office in Uganda as a Transitional Justice Specialist. She has worked for ten years on peace and security, access to justice and gender issues for organizations including the International Center for Transitional Justice in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Equality Now in Zambia, UNDP Somalia, and the Refugee Advice and Casework Service in Australia.

Chris Dolan is Director of the Refugee Law Project, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Since 1992 he has worked extensively in South Africa, Mozambique, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda, and has consulted for UNHCR, UNSRSG-SVC, IICI, and numerous NGOs. His research and writing are focused on conflict-related sexual violence against men, gender, sexuality, masculinities, dynamics (p. xxiv) of inclusion/exclusion in conflict, and forced migration settings, including humanitarian and transitional justice processes. He is the author of Social Torture: The case of Northern Uganda 1986–2006 (Berghan, 2009) and, together with Moses Chrispus Okello, editor of Where Law Meets Reality: Forging African Transitional Justice (Pambazuka Press, 2012).

Judy El-Bushra was an independent researcher on issues of gender, conflict, development, and peace-building. Her main experience was gained with the development agency ACORD (1982 to 2002) and the peace-building organization International Alert (2006 to 2011). She coordinated a research project on the impact of conflict on gender relations in five African countries (“Cycles of Violence: Gender Relations and Armed Conflict”) for ACORD, and helped develop International Alert’s recent work on “Rethinking Gender in Conflict,” which aimed to set out and expand the parameters of the topic. With Judith Gardner, she co-edited Somalia, The Untold Story: The War through the Eyes of Women, which they followed in 2016 with The Impact of War on Somali Men for the Rift Valley Institute. Her main work has been on the Horn of Africa, the Great Lakes, and Nigeria.

Karen Engle is the Minerva House Drysdale Regents Chair in Law and founder and co-director of the Bernard and Audre Rapoport Center for Human Rights and Justice at the University of Texas at Austin. She researches and writes on international human rights law and advocacy, particularly as they intersect with women’s rights and indigenous rights movements. She is author of numerous scholarly articles and The Elusive Promise of Indigenous Development: Rights, Culture, Strategy (Duke University Press, 2010). She is also co-editor of Anti-Impunity and the Human Rights Agenda (Cambridge University Press, 2016).

Maria Eriksson Baaz is Professor in Peace and Development Research at the School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Her main research interests are in civil-military relations, gendered dynamics of conflict and violence, and post-colonial theory.She is the co-author (with Maria Stern) of Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War? Perceptions, Prescriptions, Problems in the Congo and Beyond (2013) and the author ofThe Paternalism of Partnership: A Post-colonial Reading of Development Aid (2005). Additionally, her articles have appeared in several leading international academic journals, such as International Studies Quarterly, African Affairs, Third World Quarterly and Armed Forces and Society.

Barbara A. Frey, J.D., directs the Human Rights Program in the College of Liberal Arts at the University of Minnesota. She is a Senior Lecturer in the Institute for Global Studies and co-director of graduate studies for the Master of Human Rights, a joint degree of the College of Liberal Arts and the Humphrey School of Public Affairs. From 2003 to 2006 she was special rapporteur for the UN Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights on the topic of preventing human rights abuses committed with small arms and light weapons. Frey co-founded the Advocates for Human Rights (formerly Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights), where she also served as the first full-time Executive Director (1985–1997).

(p. xxv) Kathy L. Gaca is Associate Professor of Classics and an Associate Member of the Divinity School at Vanderbilt University. Her research explores aspects of social injustice rooted in antiquity that remain problematic in the modern day and that need a clearer ethical and historical understanding. She focuses mainly on ancient customs of sexual violence and repression and their ongoing relevance for comprehending current norms of injustice and violence against women and girls. She is the author of several publications, including The Making of Fornication: Eros, Ethics, and Political Reform in Greek Philosophy and Early Christianity (University of California Press, 2003, winner of the CAMWS 2006 Outstanding Publication Award), and is currently at work on her second book, provisionally titled, Rape as Sexual Warfare against Girls and Women: Ancient Society and Religion, Modern Witness. She received her PhD in Classics at the University of Toronto and held the Hannah Seeger Davis Postdoctoral Fellowship in Hellenic Studies at Princeton University.

Judith Gardam is Emeritus Professor at the Law School, University of Adelaide in South Australia, and a Fellow of both the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia and the Australian Academy of Law. She is an International Lawyer and a feminist scholar. Her particular areas of expertise are international humanitarian law and the international law rules that regulate the use of force between states. She is the author of “A New Frontline for Feminism and International Humanitarian Law” in The Ashgate Research Companion to Feminist Legal Theory, M. Davies and V. Munro (eds.) (Ashgate, 2013); “War, Law, Terror, Nothing New for Women,” Australian Feminist Law Journal 32 (2010): 61–76; and of numerous other books and articles in her field.

Anne Marie Goetz is a Professor at New York University at the Center for Global Affairs. She was a Fellow of the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex and was a senior advisor on Women, Peace and Security at UNIFEM/UN Women, where she developed policy on women and peace-building and combating sexual violence in conflict. Goetz is the author or co-author of seven books on women’s rights, democratization, and accountability, including No Shortcuts to Power: African Women in Politics and Policy-Making (Zed Press, 2003), and Governing Women: Women in Politics and Governance in Developing Countries (Routlegde, 2009).

Lejla Hadzimesic is specialized in international human rights law. She has sixteen years of professional experience in capacity building, research, and analysis in the human rights field, both in the civil society sector and in international organizations, including the United Nations. She holds a Master’s Degree in International Human Rights Law from the University of Oxford.

Gina Heathcote is a Reader in Gender Studies and International Law at SOAS University of London, where she teaches a portfolio of courses on Public International Law and Gender Studies, including Gender, Armed Conflict and International Law, and Feminist Legal Theory. Gina is the author of The Law on the Use of Force: A Feminist Analysis (Routledge, 2012) and co-editor (with Dianne Otto) of Rethinking Peacekeeping, Gender Equality and Collective Security (2014). Gina is also a member of the Feminist Review editorial collective.

(p. xxvi) Elizabeth Heineman is Professor of History and Gender, Women’s, and Sexuality Studies at the University of Iowa, where she served as Acting Associate Director and member of the Executive Board of the Center for Human Rights. Her recent publications include Sexual Violence in Conflict Zones: From the Ancient World to the Era of Human Rights (ed., University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011).

Marsha Henry is Deputy Director of the Centre for Women, Peace and Security and Associate Professor in the Gender Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science. She has previously worked at the University of Bristol and the University of British Columbia. Dr. Henry’s research interests focus on gender and militarization, peacekeeping, and qualitative methodologies. For the past twelve years she has been conducting research on the social, cultural, and gendered aspects of peacekeeping. She has co-authored Insecure Spaces with Zed Press in 2009, and her recent work on female peacekeepers from the Global South can be found in the journal Globalizations.

Christof Heyns is Professor of Human Rights Law and Director of the Institute for International and Comparative Law at the University of Pretoria and is a member of the UN Human Rights Committee. He was United Nations Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions (2010–2016). During 2016 he chaired the UN Independent Investigation on Burundi.

Amelia Hoover Green is Assistant Professor in the Department of Politics at Drexel University, and a Field Consultant to the Human Rights Data Analysis Group. Her research primarily falls in two areas: the politics of quantification in human rights practice, and the role of armed group institutions in creating and controlling violence against civilians in wartime. As a consultant to HRDAG, she has aided prosecutions in both national and international courts. Her current book manuscript, The Commander’s Dilemma, focuses on variation in repertoires of violence against civilians during civil war in El Salvador.

Lucy Hovil is the Senior Research Associate at the International Refugee Rights Initiative and the Managing Editor of the International Journal of Transitional Justice and a deployable civilian expert for the UK government’s stabilization unit. She has seventeen years of experience in carrying out research in Africa’s Great Lakes region, where she previously founded and led the Research and Advocacy Department at the Refugee Law Project, Faculty of Law, Makerere University, Uganda. She recently published Refugees, Conflict and the Search for Belonging (Palgrave Macmillan 2016), drawing on eight years of research in Africa’s Great Lakes region.

Rob Jenkins is Professor of Political Science at Hunter College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York. Though his research focuses on the political economy of policy change and movement activism in India, Jenkins has also published widely on peace-building, including a monograph, Peacebuilding: From Concept to Commission (Routledge, 2013). As a consultant to the UN Peacebuilding Support Office, (p. xxvii) he was the lead author of the Report of the Secretary-General on Women’s Participation in Peacebuilding (2010). His most recent book, Politics and the Right to Work (Oxford University Press, 2017), co-authored with James Manor, examines the political origins and implications of India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, one of the world’s largest participatory anti-poverty programs.

Patricia Justino is a Professorial Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies in the United Kingdom. She is a development economist specializing in applied microeconomics. Her current research work focuses on the impact of violence and conflict on household welfare and local institutional structures, the micro-foundations of violent conflict, and the implications of violence for economic development. Patricia has led several research projects funded by the British Academy, DFID, the European Commission, the ESRC, FAO, the Leverhulme Trust, UNDP, UNESCO, UN Women, and the World Bank. She was the Director of MICROCON, and co-founder and co-director of the Households in Conflict Network. Since June 2010, Patricia convenes the Conflict and Violence cluster at IDS.

Kristin Kalla is a senior expert on the Gender-based Violence Surge Global Humanitarian Emergency Roster with the United Nations Populations Fund. She led the creation of the ICC Trust Fund for Victims from 2007–2015; and was responsible for overseeing the victims’ assistance and reparations programs, including providing leadership toward gender-sensitive and inclusive programming for survivors of sexual and gender-based violence. Ms. Kalla led the development of the first reparations implementation plan in ICC Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo. She is a public health anthropologist with over twenty-five years of experience managing humanitarian, human rights, and public health efforts in over twenty countries in conflict situations, primarily in Africa. In 2014, Ms. Kalla was inducted into the Alumni Hall of Fame at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health.

Amrita Kapur is an independent consultant and the former Senior Associate in the Gender Justice Program at the International Center for Transitional Justice in New York, where she focused on the gender dimensions of measures such as truth-seeking, criminal prosecutions, reparations, and institutional reform. She lectures at New York University, and previously at the Faculty of Law at the University of New South Wales in Australia. Previously she worked on gender justice issues in Timor-Leste, Mozambique, Tanzania, Colombia, Guinea, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Kenya; and has practiced domestic and international criminal law. Amrita holds psychology and law degrees, and an LL.M in International Legal Studies from New York University. She is completing a PhD on the ICC’s potential to catalyze national prosecutions for international crimes of sexual violence, including field research in Colombia and Guinea.

Sabrina Karim (PhD, Emory University) is an Assistant Professor in Government at Cornell University. She is the co-author of Equal Opportunity Peacekeeping (Oxford University Press, 2017). The book was the winner of the Conflict Research Studies Best Book Prize for 2017. Her work has appeared in International Organization, the British (p. xxviii) Journal of Political Science, The Journal of Peace Research, International Interactions, World Development, and Conflict Management and Peace Science. Her research focuses on conflict and peace processes, particularly state building in the aftermath of civil war. Specifically, she studies international involvement in security assistance to post-conflict states, gender reforms in peacekeeping and domestic security sectors, and the relationship between gender and violence. Much of her research has been in sub-Saharan Africa, where she has conducted field experiments, lab experiments, and surveys. Her research has been supported by the National Science Foundation, the Folke Bernadotte Academy, the International Growth Centre, and the British Research Council.

Avila Kilmurray is a practitioner in the area of peace-building and community-based action, drawing experience from developments in Northern Ireland through her work as Director of the Community Foundation for Northern Ireland (1994–2014) and as a founding member of the Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition. Avila is a Board member of Conciliation Resources (UK) and a founding member of the Foundations for Peace Network, independent funders working in Sri Lanka, Serbia, Georgia, Palestine, Colombia, Nepal, India, and Bangladesh. Appointed an Hon. Visiting Professor at the University of Ulster’s Transitional Justice Institute, Avila’s recent publications include “Civil Society Actors and the End of Violence,” in The Ashgate Research Companion to Political Violence (ed. M. Breen-Smyth, 2012); Philanthropy and Peacebuilding in Conflict-Affected Environments: A Guide for Funders (Social Change Initiative, 2016); and Community Action in Contested Society: The Story of Northern Ireland (Peter Lang, 2016).

Lisa Kindervater is a doctoral researcher at The University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. She has a Master of Arts in International Development Studies (Dalhousie University) and a Bachelor of Arts (Honours) in Political Science. Using Liberia as a case study, her master’s thesis examined women’s political participation and gender equality outcomes in transitions to peace and democracy. Her research and teaching interests include the comparative politics of postcolonial African states and gender politics in transitional societies, particularly in African contexts. Lisa is living in Liberia, and working on gender inclusive elections and conducting her PhD fieldwork. This research focuses on multilevel governance in the area of women’s political participation and representation, especially on the struggle for a legislative quota and gender and elections in the 2017 presidential and legislative elections.

Sari Kouvo is Adviser for Human Rights and Gender at the European External Action Service in Brussels. Sari’s previous engagements include founder and co-director of the Afghanistan Analysts Network, Senior Associate at the International Centre for Transitional Justice, and Special Adviser to the European Union Special Adviser for Afghanistan. She has held visiting fellowships at the NATO Defense College, Australian National University, and Kent/Keele Universities. Sari holds a doctorate and an associate professor degree from Gothenburg University, and has published extensively on gender, international law, and Afghanistan.

(p. xxix) Roxanne Krystalli is the Program Manager for the Humanitarian Evidence Program, a UK aid-funded partnership between Oxfam GB and the Feinstein International Center to synthesize evidence-based humanitarian research and improve its use in humanitarian policy and practice. Roxanne is a PhD Candidate at The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, where she is exploring questions related to victim-centered justice.

Corey Levine is a human rights and peace-building policy expert, researcher, and writer with a specialization in gender. She has worked in conflict and post-conflict areas for more than twenty years. She has worked in Afghanistan at various periods between 2002 and 2014, and was the Gender Advisor for the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) in 2004–2005.

Amina Mama, widely published and traveled Nigerian/British feminist activist, researcher, and scholar, has lived and worked in Nigeria, South Africa, Britain, the Netherlands, and the United States. She is Professor in the Department of Gender, Sexuality and Women’s Studies at UC Davis. She spent ten years (1999–2009) leading the establishment of the University of Cape Town’s African Gender Institute as a continental resource dedicated to developing transformative scholarship, bringing feminist theory and activism together. Founding editor of the continental journal of gender studies, Feminist Africa, her publications include Beyond the Masks: Race, Gender and Subjectivity (Routledge, 1995), Women’s Studies and Studies of Women in Africa (CODESRIA, 1996), Engendering African Social Sciences (co-edited, CODESRIA, 1997) and numerous book chapters and journal articles. Committed to strengthening activism and activist research in African contexts, her research interests include culture and subjectivity, politics and policy, women’s movements, and militarism. She and Yaba Badoe co-produced the fifty-minute documentary film The Witches of Gambaga (2010).

Dyan Mazurana, PhD, is Associate Research Professor at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, and Research Director at the Feinstein International Center, Tufts University. Her areas of focus include women, children, and armed conflict; documenting serious crimes committed during conflict and working with survivors; accountability, remedy, and reparation; and research methods in situations of armed conflict. Her latest book is Research Methods in Conflict Settings: A View from Below (Cambridge University Press, 2013) with Karen Jacobsen and Lacey Gale.

Monica McWilliams is Professor of Women’s Studies and Research Fellow in the Transitional Justice Institute at Ulster University. Monica was involved in the multi-party peace talks leading to the 1998 Belfast/Good Friday Agreement and served as Chief Commissioner for the Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission. Her research and writing focus on the impact of political conflict on women’s lives.

Donny Meertens is Associate Professor at Javeriana University (retired) in Bogota, Colombia, and formerly worked in the Gender Studies School at Colombia’s National University, and for UNHCR and UNIFEM in Colombia. She was the Rapporteur of (p. xxx) the Historical Memory Report on violent land dispossession of women and men in Colombia’s armed conflict (published in Spanish as La Tierra en Disputa, 2010) and Fellow (2013–2014) at the Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, DC. She has published numerous articles in English and Spanish on gender and conflict, forced displacement, transitional justice, and access to land.

Sheila Meintjes recently retired as Professor from the Department of Political Studies at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, where she taught African politics and feminist theory and politics. She was involved in the anti-apartheid movement, and worked with rural social movements and women’s movements in the 1980s and 1990s. She was a Commissioner in the South African Commission for Gender Equality from 2001 to 2004. She has sat on numerous NGO boards working for social justice and gender equality, and against gender violence. She has published on post-conflict and gender politics, co-editing The Aftermath: Women in Post-conflict Transformation (Zed Books, 2002), One Woman, One Vote: The Gender Politics of Elections (Electoral Institute of Southern Africa, 2003), Women Writing Africa: The Southern Region (The Feminist Press, CUNY, 1st edition, 2002), and Women’s Activism in South Africa: Working across Divides (UKZN Press, 2009). Currently, she co-leads a research project on South Africa and Switzerland entitled “Safeguarding Democracy: Contests of Values and Interests.”

Vasuki Nesiah is Associate Professor of Practice at New York University. Her main areas of research include the law and politics of international human rights and humanitarianism, international feminisms, and the history of colonialism in international law. Her most immediate projects includes a book on reparations for colonialism and slavery, a book on International Conflict Feminism and a co-edited volume (with Luis Eslava and Michael Fakhri) on A Global History of Bandung and Critical Traditions in International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2017). She is one of the founding members of Third World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL), continues as core faculty in Harvard Law School’s Institute for Global Law and Policy (IGLP) and is a Senior Fellow at Melbourne Law School. Professor Nesiah's publications can be accessed at

Lauren C. Ng is an Assistant Professor at Boston University School of Medicine and staff psychologist at Boston Medical Center. Her work focuses on the psychological impact of war, conflict, and daily hardships on children and families, risk and resilience factors in child and adolescent global mental health, and the development and assessment of culturally appropriate evidence-based interventions for trauma and its correlates.

Valerie Oosterveld is the Associate Dean (Research) and an Associate Professor at the University of Western Ontario Faculty of Law (Canada). She previously served as a Legal Officer with Canada’s Department of Foreign Affairs, providing legal advice on international criminal law. Her research and writing focus on gendered forms of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, as well as on gender-sensitive international criminal prosecutions.

(p. xxxi) Dianne Otto is Professorial Fellow at Melbourne Law School, Australia. She held the Francine V. McNiff Chair in Human Rights Law 2013–2016 and was Director of the Institute for International Law and the Humanities (IILAH) 2012–2015. Her research covers a broad range of interests, including addressing gender, sexuality, and race inequalities in the context of international human rights law, the UN Security Council’s peacekeeping work, the technologies of global “crisis governance,” threats to economic, social, and cultural rights, and the transformative potential of people’s tribunals and other NGO initiatives. Her recent publications include Queering International Law: Possibilities, Alliances, Complicities, Risks (editor, Routledge 2017), Rethinking Peacekeeping, Gender Equality and Collective Security (co-editor with Gina Heathcote, Palgrave-Macmillan, 2014), three edited volumes, Gender Issues and Human Rights (Edward Elgar, 2013).

Pramila Patten is the Special Representative of the Secretary General on Sexual Violence in Conflict since June 2017. She has been a member of the CEDAW Committee between 2003 and 2017. She was previously a member of the Advisory Panel for the African Women’s Rights Observatory of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. She has served on the Governing Council and the Executive Committee of the African Centre for Democracy and Human Rights Studies (ACDHRS) and Women in Law and Development in Africa (WILDAF), both large Pan-African organizations. She was appointed Commissioner by the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the International Commission of Inquiry that investigated the massacre in Guinea Conakry on September 28, 2009. Ms. Patten chaired the Working Group on General Recommendation No. 30 on “Women in Conflict Prevention, Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations,” adopted by the CEDAW Committee on October 18, 2013, and has provided technical assistance to several states parties to CEDAW, including Albania, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Haiti, Timor Leste, Ukraine, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Turkey, India, Bangladesh, Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia. In July 2014, Ms. Patten was appointed by UN Women to a High Level Expert Advisory Panel on the monitoring of implementation of Security Council resolution 1325. Ms. Patten was a consultant for several regional and international organizations. She has been a practicing lawyer in Mauritius since 1982 and is a member of Gray’s Inn.

Patti Petesch, an independent researcher, specializes in qualitative field research on gender, poverty, conflict, and participatory development. She co-authored three World Bank global studies: Voices of the Poor, Moving Out Poverty, and On Norms and Agency (Oxford University Press [for the World Bank], 2000); and authored, for USAID, Women’s Empowerment Arising from Violent Conflict and Recovery: Life Stories from Four Middle-Income Countries. She is currently advising on design and analysis for a twenty-six-country study with the CGIAR entitled “GENNOVATE: Enabling Gender Equality in Agricultural and Environmental Innovation.”

Eilish Rooney teaches in the School for Applied Social and Policy Sciences and is a member of the Transitional Justice Institute at Ulster University. She uses intersectionality in her research on gender and women’s lives in conflict and applies the theory to (p. xxxii) practice in the Institute’s Grassroots Toolkit program with Bridge of Hope,

Ambika Satkunanathan was appointed a Commissioner of the Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka in October 2015. From February 1998 to March 2014, Ambika functioned as Legal Consultant to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights attached to the Office of the UN-Resident Coordinator in Colombo. Her research has focused on transitional justice, militarization, and gender and Tamil nationalism. Her forthcoming publications include contributions to the Routledge Handbook on Human Rights in South Asia, and Contemporary South Asia. Ambika is Chairperson of the Neelan Tiruchelvam Trust, an indigenous grant-making organization. She is also an Advisory Board Member of Suriya Women’s Development Centre, Batticaloa in the Eastern Province. Ambika has a Master of Laws (Human Rights) degree from the University of Nottingham, where she was Chevening Scholar, and earned bachelor’s degrees (LL.B/BA) at Monash University, Australia.

Patricia Viseur Sellers is an international criminal lawyer and Special Advisor on Gender to the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Court. As a Visiting Fellow at Kellogg College of Oxford University, she lectures on international criminal law. From 1994 to 2007, Ms. Sellers was the Legal Advisor for Gender Related Crimes and Senior Acting Trial Attorney in the Office of the Prosecutor for the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda, where she advised and litigated cases, such as Prosecutor v. Furundzija, Prosecutor v. Akayesu, and Prosecutor v. Kunarac. She has been a Special Advisor to the Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Children in Armed Conflict, and, in 2000, was the Co-Prosecutor at the International Women’s Tribunal in a symbolic trial to redress crimes committed against the Comfort Women. She is a recipient of the American Society of International Law’s Prominent Women in International Law Award. Her articles include “Wartime Female Slavery: Enslavement?”; “Gender Strategy Is Not a Luxury”; “Rape and Sexual Violence,” in The 1949 Geneva Conventions, A Commentary (ed. A. Clapham, P. Gaeta, M. Sassòli, Oxford University Press, 2015), and “Issues of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia” with Valerie Oosterveld in The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. International Criminal Justice Series, vol. 6 (ed., S. Meisenberg, I. Stegmiller, T.M.C. Asser Press, 2016).

Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian is the Lawrence D. Biele Chair in Law at the Faculty of Law-Institute of Criminology and the School of Social Work and Public Welfare at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. She is a longtime anti-violence, native Palestinian feminist activist and the director of the Gender Studies Program at Mada al-Carmel, the Arab Center for Applied Social Research in Haifa. Her research focuses on law, society, and crimes of abuse of power. She studies the crime of femicide and other forms of gendered violence, crimes of abuse of power in settler colonial contexts, surveillance, securitization, and social control, and trauma and recovery in militarized and colonized zones. Shalhoub-Kevorkian’s recent works include Militarization and Violence against Women in Conflict Zones in the Middle East: The Palestinian Case Study (Cambridge University (p. xxxiii) Press, 2010) and Security Theology, Surveillance and the Politics of Fear (Cambridge University Press, 2015). She has published articles in multi-disciplinary journals, including the British Journal of Criminology, International Review of Victimology, Feminism and Psychology, Middle East Law and Governance, International Journal of Lifelong Education, American Behavioral Scientist Journal, Social Service Review, Violence Against Women, Journal of Feminist Family Therapy: An International Forum, Social Identities, Social Science and Medicine, Signs, Law & Society Review, and more. As a resident of the old city of Jerusalem, Shalhoub-Kevorkian is a prominent local activist. She engages in direct actions and critical dialogue to end the inscription of power over Palestinian children’s lives, spaces of death, and women’s birthing bodies and lives.

Laura Sjoberg is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Florida. She holds a BA from the University of Chicago, a JD from Boston College, and PhD in International Relations from the University of Southern California. Dr. Sjoberg’s work has been published in more than three dozen journals in Political Science, Law, International Relations, Gender Studies, and Geography. She is author or editor of ten books, including, most recently, Gender, War, and Conflict (Polity, 2014) and Beyond Mothers, Monsters, Whores (with Caron Gentry, Zed Books, 2015). Her current projects include an edited volume on quantitative methods in critical and constructivist IR, Interpretive Quantification (with J. Samuel Barkin, 2017, University of Michigan Press), and a book on women’s perpetration of conflict sexual violence, Women as Wartime Rapists (New York University Press, 2016).

Maria Stern is Professor in Peace and Development Studies at the School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg. Her research interests include feminist security studies, security-development, critical military studies, and the international political sociology of violence. She is the co-author (with Maria Eriksson Baaz) of Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War? Perceptions, Prescriptions, Problems in the Congo and Beyond (Zed Books, 2013), co-editor of Studying the Agency of Being Governed, (Routledge, 2014); Feminist Methodologies for International Relations (Cambridge University Press, 2006) and the author of Naming Security – Constructing Identity (Manchester University Press, 2005). Additionally, her articles have appeared in leading international academic journals. She is currently Associate Editor of Security Dialogue.

Kimberly Theidon, a medical anthropologist, is the Henry J. Leir Professor of International Humanitarian Studies at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Her research interests include political violence, transitional justice, reconciliation, and the politics of postwar reparations. She is the author of many articles, and Entre Prójimos: El conflicto armado interno y la política de la reconciliación en el Perú (Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, 1st edition, 2004; 2nd edition, 2009) and Intimate Enemies: Violence and Reconciliation in Peru (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012).

Aili Mari Tripp is the Wangari Maathai Professor of Political Science and Gender & Women’s Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Tripp’s research has focused on women and politics in Africa, women’s movements in Africa, women and (p. xxxiv) peace-building, transnational feminism, African politics (with particular reference to Uganda and Tanzania), and on the informal economy in Africa. She is author of several award-winning books, including Women and Power in Postconflict Africa (Cambridge Studies in Gender and Politics, Cambridge University Press, 2015), Museveni’s Uganda: Paradoxes of Power in a Hybrid Regime (Lynne Rienner, 2010), African Women’s Movements: Transforming Political Landscapes (Cambridge University Press, 2009) with Isabel Casimiro, Joy Kwesiga, and Alice Mungwa, and Women and Politics in Uganda (University of Wisconsin Press, 2000). She has co-edited (with Myra Marx Ferree and Christina Ewig) Gender, Violence, and Human Security: Critical Feminist Perspectives (New York University Press, 2013).

Martina E. Vandenberg is the founder and president of The Human Trafficking Pro Bono Legal Center (HT Pro Bono). Vandenberg established HT Pro Bono in 2012 with generous support from the Open Society Foundations (OSF) Fellowship Program. Prior to becoming an OSF Fellow, Vandenberg served as a partner at Jenner & Block LLP, where she focused on complex commercial litigation and internal investigations under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Vandenberg has spent two decades fighting human trafficking, forced labor, rape as a war crime, and violence against women. A former Human Rights Watch researcher, Vandenberg spearheaded investigations into human rights violations in the Russian Federation, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Uzbekistan, Kosovo, Israel, and Ukraine. In 2013, she received the Harry S. Truman Scholarship Foundation’s Stevens Award for outstanding service in public interest law. T’ruah presented Vandenberg with the Raphael Lemkin Human Rights Award in 2014. She received the Katharine and George Alexander Law Prize the following year. Vandenberg currently serves as a co-chair of the International Bar Association’s Human Trafficking Task Force. A Rhodes Scholar and Truman Scholar, Vandenberg has taught as an adjunct faculty member at the American University Washington College of Law and at the Oxford University Human Rights Summer Program.

Dubravka Žarkov is Associate Professor of Gender, Conflict, Development at the International Institute of Social Studies/Erasmus University Rotterdam (The Netherlands). Her work addresses intersections of gender, sexuality, and ethnicity in (sexual) violence in war and their media representations, the nexus of neoliberal globalization and violent conflict, and ontological and epistemological questions in contemporary theorizing of war. Her recent publications include Conflict, Peace, Security and Development. Theories and Methodologies (Routledge, 2015, co-edited with Helen Hintjens), and Narratives of Justice in and out of the Courtroom: Former Yugoslavia and Beyond (Springer, 2014, co-edited with Marlies Glasius). She is co-editor of European Journal of Women’s Studies.