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Subscriber: Goettingen University Library; date: 26 June 2019

(p. 591) Index

(p. 591) Index

Tables, figures, and boxes are indicated by an italic t, f, and b following the page/paragraph number.

abortions, 148, 151, 177, 312, 358, 359, 501
Abu Ghraib, 25–26, 381
accidental activism, 547–48
ACORD (Agency for Cooperation and Research in Development), 55–56, 57
activists, demobilization of, 471
“add women and stir,” 49, 147, 458, 469
Afghanistan, xxxvii, 345
Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission, 489
Afghanistan National Development Strategy, 488
Afghanistan Peace and Reconciliation Program (APRP), 491–92
Afghan Local Police, 492
aid to, 487–88
attacks in, on schoolgirls, 177
CEDAW and, 179
community peace initiative in, 492
Constitution of, 488, 495n10
Consultative Peace Jirga, 491
DDR programming in, 446t
Elimination of Violence Against Women Law, 488, 489
equal rights in, 488
gender discrimination in, 487
gender mainstreaming in, 488
gender norms in, 343, 349
girls’ education in, 129
guns in, 370
health-care facilities attacked in, 357
High Peace Council, 491–92
IHL regime and, 290
insurgency in, 490–91
intervention in, 493
National Action Plan for the Women of Afghanistan, 488
peace process in, 491
reconciliation in, 492
Taliban, 159, 486, 487, 490–93
Ulema statement controversy in, 485–86, 491, 493
war in, 25, 290
war’s effect on, 487
women in public life of, 488, 489
women’s representation in, 176
women’s rights in, 485–94
Africa
anti-colonial movements in, 18
bureaucratic structures in, colonialism and, 272
colonial legacy in, 267–73
DDR process in, 444–45
European women in, and colonial rule, 271
Great Lakes region of, 533
imperalism’s effects in, 270, 272
independence movement in, 267, 273, 459
masculine culture of, 273
men from, recruited to fight in world wars, 272–73
military rule in, 267, 273
nationalism in, 273
nation-states in, militarist gender order of, 272
patriarchal gender regime in, 266
postcolonial, women’s subordination in, 265
regional women’s organizations in, 439
revolutionary optimism in, 267
slave trade from, 266
social contract in, 273
(p. 592) underdevelopment in, 267–68
women’s activism in, 430
See also individual nations; sub-Saharan Africa
African Union, 166, 204
African Women in Crisis (AFWIC), 438
agency
assessment of, 345–46
defined, 343, 344
economic initiative and, 348–49
Agency for Cooperation and Research in Development, 55–56, 57
Alexander the Great, 305
Algeria
Armed Islamic Group, 499
Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation of 2005, 506–7n9
Coalition of Associations of Victims of the 1990s, 498, 505
jihadist mass rape in, 498–506
liberation war in, French women and, 271–72
Rachda Association, 500
Alien Tort Claims Act, 505
Al-Khansaa Brigade, 159
Al-Qaeda, gendered narrative of, 158
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, 159
Al Shabaab (Somalia), 159
Al-Zarqawi, Abu Musab, 158
American Revolutionary War, 64
ammunition, access to, 369
amnesty, 420, 423
Amnesty International, 379, 411, 504
andrapodizing, 306, 309, 310–11
Angola
DDR programming and, 446t
gender and conflict in, 55
Annan, Kofi, 404–5
anti-colonial movements, 18
antiwar movement, 18
Apio, Eunice, 153
Arab League, 204
archives, significance of, 150
Argentina
Falklands War and, 24–25
women’s rights and, 124
armed conflict
civilian deaths during, causes of, 354–55
gendered dimension of, 211
inequality exacerbated by, 39
legal framework for, xxxvi–xxxvii
non-international, laws about, 37
root causes of, 161–62
See also conflict
armed violence, worldwide deaths from, 368
armies, mobilization of, 64
arms-control regimes, 367
arms industry, nationalization of, 108
Arms Trade Treaty (2013), 112, 367
Arria-formula meetings, 182
Asia, 18, 459. See also individual nations
Asia Foundation, 490
Australia, women’s rights and, 124
autonomous weapons systems (AWS), 376–77, 383, 384
Azerbaijan, on women’s empowerment and the UNSC, 129
Balkanism, 27
Balkan War, martial rape in, 308
Bangladesh
peacekeepers from, sexual misconduct of, 410
peace process in, 422
women’s rights in, 159
Bangura, Zainab, 91, 133, 134–35
Ban Ki-moon, 390, 398, 406, 411
Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law (UNGA resolution 60/147), 254, 511
Basra, after US intervention, 297
Belfast/Good Friday Agreement, 546, 551–54
Bemba case, 86, 212
benchmarks, for WPS Agenda, 186b, 187–88
(p. 593) birth
sites of, and colonial rule, 561–62
stories of, as stories of resistance, 564
blood ties, 148
Boko Haram, 159, 166, 177, 499
Bormann, Martin, 211–12
Bosnia and Herzegovina, xxxvii
Amendments to the RS Law on the Protection of Civilian Victims of War 514
andrapodizing in, 311–12
Bosnia Herzegovina v. Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (ICJ), 518n2
CEDAW reporting in, 179
Cesic, Ranko, 95
children born of rape in, 151
Constitution of, 511
criminal justice in, for sexual violence victims, 515
displacement in, 517
Dayton Peace Accords, 428n4, 510, 511, 512, 517
Draft Strategy on Transitional Justice, 515
female-headed households in, 79
Foča case, 508
gender hierarchy in, 511
IDPs in, 514
independence of, from Yugoslavia, 509–10
Karadžić, Radovan, 219
Law on Principles of Social Welfare, Protection of Civilian Victims of War and Protection of Families with Children (1999), 518n5
Law on Protection of Civilian Victims of War (1993), 514–15, 518n5
Law on the Rights of Victims of Torture, 514, 515
Law on the Rights of War Veterans, Disabled War Veterans and Families of the War Veterans Who Died in the Homeland War (2007), 518n5
medical equipment unused in, 357
National Strategy for War Crimes Processing, 515
nationalist parties in, 518n1
NGOs in, 516
peacekeepers’ sexual misconduct in, 409
post-conflict, 509–18
rapes in, 291, 500, 508, 511, 515
ratification by, of core IHR treaties, 511
rehabilitation in, for sexual violence victims, 516
reparations in, 515–16
Republika Srpska, 512, 513–14, 516–17, 518n5
sexual violence in, against men, 89
social values in, 510–11
terrorism threat in, 163
trafficking in, 403, 405
transitional justice in, 509, 513–17
treated as the Global South, 142n2
war in (1992–1995), 508–11
women’s employment in, 79–80
women’s inequality in, 510–11
boys, sexual abuse of, 72, 90–93, 145–47, 149, 154, 226, 262, 283
Brazil, UN Security Council and, 123
Britain. See United Kingdom
Burundi
All Party Women’s Peace Conference, 426
Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi, 426, 437–38
Centre for Women in Burundi, 438–39
Collectif des Associations et ONGs Féminines du Burundi (CAFOB), 438
DDR programming in, 446t
female-headed households in, 79
Ligue Iteka (Burundi), 438
peace negotiations in, 437–39
peace process in, 422, 424, 426
traumatic rape in, 358
Bush (George W.) administration, 338n4
bush wives, 240, 246, 248
Cahn, Naomi, 551
Cambodia, 93
Extraordinary Criminal Chambers of Cambodia (Extraordinary Chambers (p. 594) in the Courts of Cambodia), 93, 211, 240, 245–49
forced marriage in, 240, 245–49
Cameroon, peacekeepers from, sexual misconduct of, 406
camp followers, 65
Canada, 329
identity dynamics in, for Muslim women, 335
women in combat roles in, 371
capitalism
class formation and, 266–67
colonialism and, 270
militarism and, 266
war and, 267
carceral agenda, 106, 132, 134, 141
Caribbean, citizenship in, 64
ceasefires, 121, 174
conditions of, 420, 423, 424, 428
women and, 419–20, 549
Celtic forces, ravaging by, 306, 307
Central Africa, genocide in, recurrent, 54
Central African Republic
DDR programming in, 446t
human rights violations in, 174–75
peacekeepers’ sexual misconduct in, 406, 409–10
UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic, 409
Central Europe
governance in, 66
guns in, 370
socialist revolution in, 67
Cesic, Ranko, 95
Chad
DDR programming in, 446t
peacekeepers from, sexual misconduct of, 409
traumatic rape in, 358
children
born of sexual violence, 145–46, 150–54, 258–59
Children and Armed Conflict, Annual Report on, 125–26
Chile, women’s rights and, 124
China, on women’s empowerment and the UNSC, 129
citizenship, 62–67, 284
citizen-soldier, 66
civilian-military binary, 95–96
civilian protection advocacy, 89
civilians
deaths of, unrelated to combat, 354–55
health risks, during armed conflict, 354–62
ICRC’s protection of, 42
sexual violence against, 146
treatment of, in post-conflict societies, 514
vulnerability of, 297
civil rights, activism for, 18, 547–48. See also women’s activism
civil society
OTP’s engagement with, 237
peace agreements and, 431–32
women’s civil society organizations, 160
women’s movements and, in sub-Saharan Africa, 477–78
civil society organizations, 110
involvement of, in overcoming victim-oriented policies, 529
in sub-Saharan Africa, 473–74, 465
civil wars
social effects of, 55
women’s labor force participation during, 79
Clausewitz, Carl von, 306
clientelism, 479
Clinton, Hillary, 204, 338n4, 490, 555n2
Cold War, 70–71
collateral damage, 380
Collectif 95 (Mahgreb), 500
(p. 595) Colombia
agrarian reform in, 524, 527
agrarian struggles in, 523–26
anti-restitution armies in, 527
ANMUCIC (Asociación Nacional de Mujeres Campesinas e Indígenas de Colombia), 525
armed conflict in, 521, 526
children in, born of sexual violence, 152
Civil Code in, 524
Constitution of, 523, 525
CRSV data from, 320, 323
DDR process in, 448
DDR programming in, 446t, 449
displaced persons in, 526
Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), 371, 448, 521
gender equality in, 525
gender inequalities in, 523
impunity in, 527
Integrated Rural Development policy, 524
Justice and Peace Law in, 527, 530n7
land grabs in, 526
land restitution in, 521–29
land rights in, 522–25
Law on Victims and Land Restitution (2011), 521
Ligas Campesinas (peasant leagues, 523
market-led agrarian reform law in, 524–25
Peace Accords in, 521
peace process in, 421, 425
peasant movement in, 524
peasant-reserve zones in, 528
reparations in, 256, 527–29
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (see Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia)
rural policies in, family-centered, 523
sexual and class domination in, 524
sexual violence in, 234–37, 526
transitional justice in, 521–29
unprotected women in, 525
Victims and Land Restitution Law in, 526–29
women in combat roles in, 371
women’s employment in, 79–80
women’s empowerment in, 351
women’s property rights in, 523
women’s rights in, patriarchal denial of, 525
colonialism, 63, 66, 456, 459–60
administrative aspects of, 271
armies under, 268, 269
capitalism and, 270
citizenship and, 63
colonies under, pacification of, 267–73
in East Jerusalem, 558–65
economies of, women in, 270–71
European women’s involvement in, 271–72
gender analysis of, 25, 265, 268
masculinity and, 268–69
militaristic nature of, 272–73
political status and, 66
Portugal, colonialism of, 459
post-colonial theory and, 459
power matrix of, 465–66n3
sex and gender coercion and, 265–66
social relations and, 459–60
violence of, 267
Columbus, Christopher, 305, 309
combatants, gender significations of, 12
command responsibility, 97
Commission on the Status of Women (UN), 123
Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 171, 172, 174, 176, 178–82. See also conventions: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
Committee Against Torture, 514
communities, breakdown of, during conflict, 359–60, 362
community stigma, xxxix
complementarity, 172–73
effects of, 231–34, 236
facets of, 226–28
gender-sensitive approach to, 226
narrow construction of, 227
positive, 227, 231
success of, 229, 232–33
concentration camps, 270
conflict
aftermath of, and LOAC, 39
alternative mappings of, 288
assessment of, 49, 53
CEDAW applied to, 173–77
civilian health risks during, 354
(p. 596) classifications of, 289, 290
cycles of, 49–54
data on, analytical pitfalls with, 317–23
decisions about, men and women participating in, 106
defined, 49
depoliticization following, 445
differential impacts of, 55–56
discourse on, shifting, 51
displacement and, 276
economic effects of, 75, 76–77
female deaths in, reporting of, 336–37
framing of, 54
gender division of labor and, 55–56
gendered context for, 292–93
gendered division of labor during, 435
gendered issues as symptoms of, 282
gender norms and, 343–52
gender roles and, 75–76, 78–79
impacts of, 52, 55–56, 57
interconnected dynamics of, 12
international vs. non- international, 289–90
likelihood of, 54
mainstream approaches to, 49–52, 56
measurements of, 316
ongoing, 49–50
prevention of, 48
recordkeeping during 188
recurrence of, 49–51, 53–55
suffrage and, 67
trajectory of, 49–50
weapons allowed in, 37
conflict analysis
continuum of, 54
mainstream approach to, 54, 58
masculinized character of, 51, 53–54
social relations and, 49
conflict cycles, 50, 51, 55
conflict mapping, 288, 289, 292–99
conflict prevention, 111
CEDAW and, 173
gender equality and, 171
women’s participation in, 173
conflict-related sexual violence, 120, 316
attention to, as isolated phenomenon, 323–24
data on, 316–25
as humanitarian issue, 121
patterns of, 316
as tactic of warfare, 121
victims’ perceptions of, 324
conflict resolution, women’s involvement in, 194
conflict studies, intersectionality and, 328–38
conflict transformation, women’s contribution to, 546, 552–54
conflict trap, 50–51, 52
conflictual activism, 548
Congress of Vienna (1815), 68
conjugal slavery, 245, 247, 249. See also marriage, forced
consent, legal concept of, 232
consent/coercion binary, 463
constructivism, 8, 20, 24
convenience samples, 319
conventions
on access to health, education, and employment, 176–77
on access to justice, 178
conflict prevention and, 173
conflict-related situations and, 172–73
Convention on Consent to Marriage, marriage consent and, 241
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 126, 171, 173–77, 179, 182, 187, 297, 418, 488, 514
Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 175
extraterritorial application of, 174
gender-based violence and, 174–75
Geneva Conventions. See Geneva Conventions
human rights mechanisms and, 181
internally displaced persons and, 175–76
marriage consent and, 241
non-state actors and, 180
Optional Protocol to, 179, 181
refugees and, 175–76
(p. 597) reporting and, 178–79, 182
sexual violence and, 174–75
trafficking and, 175
WPS Agenda and, 171, 180–82
Copenhagen school, 4
coping, strategies for, 77–78, 347, 361–62
core-periphery relationship, 6
Côte d’Ivoire
DDR programming in, 446t
medical staff fleeing from, 357
counterinsurgency, response to, 44
counterterrorism, 157, 298
Counter-Terrorism Committee, 168n3
Counter Terrorism Executive Directorate, 168n3
gender dimension in, 162–67
gender stereotypes and, 167
Global Counterterrorism Forum, 164
Global Counterterrorism Strategy, 164
grassroots insights into, 165
legislation on, effects of, 165
unmanned weapons and, 379
women and, 162–63, 379–80
Crimean War, 68
criminal proceedings, nations’ unwillingness to prosecute, 228
Croatia, xxxvii
CEDAW reporting in, 179
sexual violence in, against men, 89
CVE (countering violent extremism) agenda, 157–58
evolution of, 164
gender dimension to, integration of, 166
women’s inclusion in, 165
Dabiq, 159, 160–61
Daesh. See ISIS
Dahomey, king of, women’s guard for, 268
Darfur, xxxvii
peace process in, 188
sexual violence in, 121, 306–7
data
emphasis on, criticism of, 189
policymaking and, 192, 194–95
social production of, 324–25
decision-making, women’s involvement in, 278
declarations
Declaration on the Right to Peace (UN Human Rights Council), 112
G8 Declaration on Preventing Sexual Violence (2013), 90, 133–36
UN General Assembly Declaration of Commitment to End Sexual Violence in Conflict, 133, 135
decolonial feminist analysis, 456–65
decolonial theory, 456, 459
decolonization, 63, 372–73
defined, 442
women and, 420
democracy, transition to, 468
democratic peace, 7
Democratic Republic of Congo, xxxvii, 50, 54, 141, 268
armed forces in, 533–34
CEDAW reporting in, 179
CRSV reporting in, 320
displacement in, 281
female ex-combatants in, stigmatization of, 448
forced marriage in, 240
maternity services in, 358
militarized masculinity in, 533–34, 536–42
military sociological analysis of, 541
national armed forces of, 533–34, 539
peacekeepers from, sexual misconduct of, 403, 404, 405, 406
rape in, 268, 358
sexual violence in, 121, 281
sexual violence laws in, effect of, 230
soldiers’ testimonies in, 537–41
Demographic and Health Surveys program (ICF International), 321
dependent cultures, 332
depoliticization, following conflict, 445
(p. 598) development
agendas for, in sub-Saharan Africa, 475
assessment of, 187
gender and, 351
interventions for, 351
reparations and, 261
dignity, right to, 387
dirty peace, 115
disappearance, pregnancy and, 559
disarmament, 108, 372–74
defined, 442
feminist support for, 110
universal, 106, 110–12
in WPS resolutions, 111
disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) process, 442–52
addressing militarization, 448–49
alternatives to, 443
comparative study of, 445, 446t
evolution of, 443
gender equality and, 447–48
gender-focused approach to, 443–44, 447
initiatives for, 442–43
national programs for, 451
peace accords and, 444–45
portfolio view of, 451–52
programs for, 111, 372–73, 446t
reconstructing masculinities, femininities, and relationships, 449–50
shortfalls of, 443–49
women combatants and, 445–47
women’s inaccessibility to, 443–44
women’s refusal to enter, 450, 452
discrimination, 173
gender-based violence as, 174
reparations and, 258
discursive opportunity, 552
displacement, 276
causes of, 281
disease and, 357
domestic violence and, 280
gender and, 276–77, 279
gendered dimension of, 281
gender-related harms and, 277, 280–83
gender-related issues precipitating, 279
masculinities and, 277
reporting of, 324
sexual violence and, 281
urban-based, 283–84
varying effects of, 276
distance, and moral capacity to kill, 383–84
distinction, unmanned weapons and, 377
Djibouti, peace process in, 422
Doe v. Haddam (US District Court), 505
domestic violence
displacement and, 280
punitive approach to, 140
silence and, 333–34
dominance relations, gendering of, 6–7
DPKO/DFS Guidelines: Integrating a Gender Perspective into the Work of the United Nations Military in Peacekeeping Operations (UN DPKO/DFS), 397t
drones, armed, 376–79, 383–84
Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. See Democratic Republic of Congo
Eastern Europe, governance in, 66
East Jerusalem, settler colonialism in, 558–65
East Timor, xxxvii
children in, born of sexual violence, 152
constitution of, women’s involvement in, 420–21
Fretlin (East Timor), 421
indicting peacekeeper for sexual misconduct, 411
ECCC. See Cambodia
econometric approach, 53
economic recovery
in post-conflict period, 79–82
women-led, 192
(p. 599) economic security, war’s interruption of, 360–61
economy, Western feminist analysis of, 29
education
girls’ access to, 177
war’s effect on, 360–61, 369
effective land rights, 522
Egypt, women’s rights and, 124
Eichmann case, 215
Electoral Assistance Division (DPA), 127
electoral gender quotas, 194. See also women: quotas for
elimination, logic of, 559
el patron, theory/metaphor of, 462, 463, 465
El Salvador, women joining liberation war in, 448
employment
discrimination in, 177
war’s interruption of, 361
empowerment, 344
assessment of, 346
perceptions of, by gender, 349
enemies, feminization of, 395
enfranchisement, war and, 67–68
enslavement, 221, 248–49. See also conjugal slavery
Equatorial Guinea, peacekeepers from, sexual misconduct of, 409
Eritrea
DDR in, 445, 446t
women joining liberation war in, 448
ethnic-based hatred, 26
ethnic cleansing, 510
ethnic essentialism, 26–27, 89
ethnic insults, sexual violence and, 148–49
ethnicity
essentializing of, 26–27
gender and, 26
genocide and, 54
ethno-religious identity, forced procreation and, 310–12
EU PEACE Programme, 549
Euripides, 310
Europe
capitalist industrialization in, 266
class formation in, 266
development in, 267–68
ethnocentrism of, 27
gender equality in, 81
glorification of, as modern, 459–60
imperialism of, 265
See also individual nations
European Commission, 515
European Court of Human Rights, 428n4
European Union, equality directives of, 423
everyday, the
human rights in, 296
politics of, 199, 200, 206, 208
women’s rights in, 297
evolutionary biology, 9, 10
exile, gender harms in, 281–82. See also displacement
extremism
countering of, 157, 162–63. See also CVE
gendered dimension of, 157
Facilitation of Humanitarian Assistance, 180
Falklands/Malvinas war, 24–25
family
breakdown of, during conflict, 359–60
male-biased concept of, 522
family feminists, 549
famine, 356
fascism, 63, 66
FBiH. See Federacija
Federacija, 512, 513–14, 518n5
Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan, 379–80
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), CEDAW reporting in, 179
(p. 600) Federation of African Women’s Peace Networks, 439
female gender, intersectional analysis and, 331
female-headed households, 77–80, 284, 361, 523
femicide, 291
femininity
construction of, 393
militarization of, 448–49
reconstruction of, after war, 450
feminism
black, 19
black lesbian, 19
criticism of, 20
decolonial, 456–65
as element in Western cultural imperialism, 477
as epistemological project, 21
international organizing of, 68–69
lesbian, 19
radical, 18, 26
UN Security Council agendas and, 288
feminist critique, of system-level war theorizing, 6
feminist international relations, 88–89
feminist movement, 278
feminist politics, projects of, 17, 18
feminist postcolonial theory, 459
feminists
addressing war’s costs, 69, 70
debates among, 42, 138
peacemaking and, 69
society-based, 473
feminist security theory, 386
feminist social change project, 91
feminist theory
aim of, 332
as critical engagement, 329
just war theory and, 386
feminization, 11–12, 66–67, 294, 395, 447, 510, 536
Femmes Afrique Solidarité, 439
femocracy, 21, 22
femocrats, 471, 474
firearms
availability of, 367
defined, 366
gender and, 373
gender ideologies and, 369–70
gender implications of, 365–66
multiplier effect of, 367
policy regarding, women and, 372–73
regulation of, women and, 373
sexual violence and, 370
violence against women and, 370
first-lady syndrome, 474
first-wave feminism, 18
flight, 279, 281. See also displacement
food insecurity, 356
force
depersonalization of, 376. See also unmanned weapons
justification for, 106
use of, threshold for, 378
formed police units, 391
framework agreements, for peace processes, 421–23
France
citizenship in, 64
conscripting African men, 272
mass conscription in, 64
peacekeepers from, sexual misconduct of, 409–10, 411
freedom, sex exchanged for, 462–63
Fujimori, Alberto, 458. See also Peru
fundamentalisms, defined, 506n2
Gaddafi, Muammar, 123
Gaddafi regime, 202
Gallic Aegosagae, ravaging by, 310
Gambia, WAFF and, 268
gang rape, 148, 149, 308, 464. See also rape
gender, xxxvi, 533
alternative mappings of, 288
bureaucratization and, 21–22
as cartographic principle, 295
as cause of war, 8
coloniality and, 460
conflict and, decolonial feminist analysis of, 456–65
contextual analysis of, 21
control of, 460
data related to, 188–89
determining sequence of killing, 214
dichotomous conceptions of, 115
displacement and, 276–77
division of labor and, 78, 265, 370
ethnicity and, 26
as feminist analytical category, 20–21
firearms and, 365–66, 373
fluidity of, 401
hierarchies of, 370
ICF’s representation of, and conflict mapping, 294
ideologies of, and firearms, 369–70
interpretations of, for refugees, 280
intersectionality and, 21–22, 55, 56, 58, 329, 330
living of, 535
North-South dynamics and, 295
peace-building and, 57–58
peacekeeping and, 390–401
power relations and, 20–21
production of, 399, 535
relational understanding of, 58
as social category, 115
social identity and, 331
stereotypes of, 8, 399
unmanned weapons and, 376–87
“women” and, xxxvi, 146
gender advisors, 128, 130, 475
gender analysis
of DDR process, 447
gender-relational approach to, 55
of human rights violations, 256
militarization and, 9
questioning IR theory, 5
questioning war theory, 5
recurrent conflict and, 54–55
gender-based asylum, 279
gender-based violence, 92, 93
as cause of displacement, 281
CEDAW and, 174–75
colonial encounter and, 459
data on, 188
defined, 456
desensitization and, 96
hetero-patriarchal social structures and, 458
national jurisdictions’ handling of, 231–33
protection from, 112–13
refugees and, 278
reparations and, 257–62
repetition of, 262
state’s implication in, 458
unmanned weapons and, 385
gender budgets, 475
gender clauses, 426–27
gender crimes, policy on, 86
gender data gap, 188–89
Gender and Development, 475
gendered analysis, 532–33
gendered ideologies, 56
gendered institutions, 56
gendered protection norm, 394
gendered war narratives, 8
gender equality
benchmarks for, 187–88
building of, 121
as casualty in war, 491
data on, 188–89
DDR process and, 447–48
effects of, 81–82
governance arrangements and, 422–23
guerrilla life and, 448
humanitarian assistance and, 195, 282
opportunity for, 344–45
peacebuilding and, 122–23, 171
peacefulness and, 52
peacekeeping and, 401
reparations and, 257
troops and, 395
(p. 602) gender equity, political parties and, in post-conflict states, 472–73
gender essentialism, 10, 89, 120–21, 457, 458
gender inequality, 86
conflict exacerbating, 174
drone programs and, 380
insecurity and, 119
reparations and, 256
terrorism and, 161
gender inequity, land issues and, 522
gender innocence, 336, 337
gender interventions, 82
gender issues, operational instructions in, 124
gender jurisprudence, 211
genocide and, 214–20
international criminal law and, 213–14
international humanitarian law and, 213–14
narrow view of, 212–17, 220
panoramic view of, 213, 217–20
reconsideration of, 220–22
utilitarian function of, 221, 222
gender justice, 333
peace process and, 426
promotion of, 237
Rome Statute and, 225. See also Rome Statute
gender mainstreaming, 22, 88, 107, 160, 277, 279, 469, 472, 474, 478, 488
displaced persons and, 281–82
drawbacks of, 282
gender ministries, 471–72, 474
gender nonconformity, xl
gender norms, conflict and, 343–52
gender policies, 21–22
gender/race/class framework. See intersectionality
gender-relational approach, 55
gender relations, changes in, 55–58
gender roles, 56, 75–76
during armed conflict, changes in, 78–79
DDR process and, 447–48
peacekeeping and, 399
gender studies, 21–22
gender subordination, 12, 497
gender vulnerability, 86
General Recommendation No. 30 on Women in Conflict Prevention, Conflict, and Post-Conflict Situations (CEDAW), 126, 171, 182, 418
adoption of, 172
intent of, 181
provisions of, 175–77
recommendations of, 173–75, 177, 178, 181
Geneva Convention (1929), 69
Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in the Field (1864), 68
Geneva Conventions (1949), xxxvii, 37–41, 43, 69, 87, 95, 289, 290–91
civilian protection and, 290
grave breaches under, 290–91, 293–94
Protocols and, 37, 38–40, 43, 69
rape and, 290–91, 293–94
on sexual violence in war, 293
Geneva Law, xxxvi, 37, 38
Geneva Protocol (1925), 69
genocide
crime of, 214
doctrinal essence of, 217, 221
ethnicity and, 54
gender and, 211
gender jurisprudence and, 214–20
incitement to, 216
legal foundation for, 217
logic of, 559
non-killing acts as, 215–19
population transfer and, 218–19
prevention of, 216
rape as act of, 215–17, 300n2, 335, 508
Rwandan, 568–70
sexual violence as, 215–16
structural, 559
vs. war, 300n2
against women, 291
Genocide Convention (Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide), 215–17
Germany, 329
Herero genocide and, 270
Nazi regime of, 23, 70, 211, 215
reunification of, intersectional analysis and, 331–32
(p. 603) women’s roles in, after World War II, 79
Gikuyu people, Britain’s displacement of, 270
girls
protection of, 112–13, 278
global agenda, gender-define, 295
Global Campaign for Women’s Human Rights, 137–38
Global Campaign to End Statelessness (UNHCR), 285
Global Community Engagement and Resilience Fund, 164
global politics
gender subordination in, 10
women’s position in, 11
global sisterhood, 19
Global Study on the Implementation of UNSCR 1325 (UN), 145, 161, 162, 167, 181, 182
Global Summit to End Sexual Violence in Conflict (2014; London), 90–91, 133–34
Global Tribunal for Accountability of Violations of Women’s Human Rights, 505
Gold Coast Regiment, WAFF and, 268
governance
gender-responsive, 571
militarized, 273
in post-conflict societies, 468–79
transitional democracies and, 470
governance feminism, 299
great-power focus, 3–4
Great Upheaval (Egba), 271
Greeks, ravaging by, 310–11, 312
Guatemala
children in, born of sexual violence, 152
displacement in, 281
peace process in, women and, 421
reparations in, 256
“Guidance for Mediators: Addressing Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in Ceasefire and Peace Agreements” (UN Department of Political Affairs), 418
Guidelines for Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Settings (IASC), 92, 93
Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women (UNHCR), 278
Guinea
Conakry stadium massacre, 235
international crimes in, prosecution of, 235
nationalist movement in, 272
Penal Code in, 232
Gulf War (1990–1991), 24–26
Gulf War (2003), 25–26. See also Afghanistan; Iraq
Gun Free South Africa, 373
guns
access to, 369
chronic violence from, effects of, 365
cultural importance of, 370
Gyanendra (king of Nepal), 435
Habyarimana, Juvénal, 568, 574
Hague, William, 81, 133, 134, 135
Hague Congress of Women (1915), 105–8, 112, 114
Hague Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Custom of War on Land, 37 (1899; 1907), xxxvii, 37, 68
Haiti
criminal charges in, for peacekeeper sexual misconduct, 411
MINUSTAH (United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti), 411–12
Universal Periodic Review of, 412
harms, web of, 200, 208
health care, access to, in conflict situations, 177, 357–59, 369
health sector data, on CRSV, 320
Hedayah, 164
Hefazat-e-Islam, 159
hegemonic femininity, 449
hegemonic masculinity, 25, 393, 395, 464, 539
Herero peoples, genocide of, 270
heteromasculinity, 510
heteronormativity, 456
(p. 604) hetero-patriarchy, 456, 458, 460
heterosexist accounts, 10
High-Level Independent Panel on United Nations Peace Operations, 128, 162
Hispaniola, ravaging on, 309
historical moments, separation of, 459, 462, 464, 465
home front, 23
honor, LOAC and, 40
households
coping strategies of, 77–78, 80–81
gender programming in, 82
House of Lords Select Committee on Sexual Violence in Conflict (UK), 136–37
housing, war’s effect on, 355
humanitarian assistance, gender equality and, 282
humanitarian crises
human rights and, 296–98
military intervention and, 199
women’s insecurity in, 200
humanitarian discourse, 28
humanitarian intervention
authorization for, 200
gender analysis of, 201
gendered dynamics of, 199–200, 201, 205–7
justifications for, 200–201
legality of, 199
states’ rights to, 199–200
usefulness of, 199
women’s experience in, 205
humanitarian law, 37, 43, 69, 72
human rights and, 289
violations of, small arms and, 367
humanitarian programming, gender-blind approach to, 278
humanitarian relief programs, gender equality and, 195
human lives, feminist theorizing on, 17
human nature
gender roles and, 10
war theory and, 9
human rights, 70
assessment of, 187
CEDAW and, 181
discourse relating to, resurgence in, 296
displaced persons and, 276–77
gender analyses of violations, 256
history writing about, 504
humanitarian crises and, 296
humanitarian law and, 289
male framework for, 291–92
military intervention and violations of, 123
reparations and violations of, 255, 256
universalist form of, 292
women’s rights as, 137–39
human rights frameworks, peace agreements and, 422–23
human rights law, 35, 37–38, 63, 72, 172–73, 583
human rights movement, 278
Human Rights Watch, 409, 412–13, 502, 504
human security theory, 4
humiliation, sexualized, 92, 335
ICC. See International Criminal Court
Policy Paper on Sexual and Gender-Based Crimes (OTP), 249
Iceland, women’s parties in, 546–47
identity
conflict-related, as outcome, 335
process of, 541
identity categories, deconstruction of, 329
identity politics, 555n8
Igbo Women’s War, 271
(p. 605) IIDA Women’s Development Organization (Somalia), 434
Iliad, The (Homer), 307, 308
imperialism
capitalism and, 266
effects of, in Africa, 270
European, 265
masculine pacts and, 268
sexuality and, 265
violence of, 267
implementation agreements, for peace processes, 423–24
impunity, 122
consequences of, 174
culture of, 132, 135, 140, 229, 462, 517, 585
generating fear in returnees, 285
loopholes allowing, 233
for peacekeepers, 403
independent land rights, 522
India
CEDAW reporting in, 179
Indian Formed Police Unit, 399
on military intervention by the UN, 123
partition of, 23, 67
peace process in, 422
UN Security Council and, 123
UNSCR 1325 and, 123
women leaders in, 81
on women’s empowerment and the UNSC, 129
women’s labor force participation in, 81
indicators
of sexual violence, 189
value of, 192
for WPS Agenda, 186b, 187
indigenous society, erasure of, 559
individual behavior, war theory and, 9
individualism, 18
Indonesia
DDR programming in, 446t
terrorism threat in, 163
women’s civil society organizations in, 160
women’s empowerment in, 351
industrialization, class formation and, 266
infanticide, 151
Institute of Development Studies, 282
institutional rebuilding, 226
institutional silence, 329
Inter-Agency Standing Committee, 92, 93, 98n4, 98n7
Inter-American Court of Human Rights, 255, 263
internally displaced persons, 175–76, 280
in BiH, 514, 517
in Colombia, 526
gendered humanitarian response to, 277–79
policies related to, 276
risks to, 282
urban settings for, 283–84
International Committee of the Red Cross, 36–37, 68, 290
changing attitudes in, 42–43
feminists and, 41
influence of, 42
responding to discrimination against women, 42
International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace, 106
International Conference on Afghanistan (2010; London), 179
International Conflict Feminism, 288
achievements of, 288–89
advocacy of, for UNSCR 1820, 296
challenging IHL, 292–94
conflict framing by, 299–300
conflict mapping and, 289, 293
development of, 291
on human rights in context of humanitarian crisis, 296–98
representation of gender by, 294–96
strategies of, 291
transitional justice and, 295
on women as victims, 294
International Court of Justice, 508, 510
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 241
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 70, 241, 512
International Crimes Act, 230
International Criminal Court, 38, 72, 86, 211, 212, 294
Assembly of States Parties, 236
cases admissible to, 226–27
(p. 606) credibility of, 229
establishment of, 225
gender at, 228–30
influence of, 230, 232–33
institutional capacity of, 227
institutional features of, 225
interpretation by, of sexual violence offenses, 229
investigations by, 230
jurisprudence of, on sexual violence and gender, 225
Katanga case, 229
law enforcement and, 230
legislative limitations of, 231
Lubanga case, 229
objective of, 225, 226
Office of the Prosecutor, 227–29, 231, 233–37, 249
optimism about, 234–35
potential of, 225, 228
Prosecutor v. Ongwen, 249
Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, 257
relationship of, with states parties, 226–28
reparations and, 236, 255
Report on Preliminary Examination Activities (OTP), 227
Rules of Procedure and Evidence, 228
SGBV prosecutions by, track record of, 229
staffing of, gender parity in, 229
transitional justice and, 226
Trust Fund for Victim, 229, 255
international criminal courts, 41, 140, 240
international criminal justice, 423
international criminal law, 35, 37–38, 41, 97, 292
developments in, on sexual violence, 43
doctrinal components of, 217
era of, 211
forced marriage and, 242–50
gender and, 211, 213–14, 217, 221–22
reparations in, 255
Rome Statute’s extension of, 228
women’s human rights and, 139–40
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, 38, 86, 95, 211, 212, 215, 217–22, 510, 518n2, 519n6
Blagojević case, 218, 220
Celibici ruling, 293–94
conflict classification and, 290
creation of, 139–40, 288
Furundzija case, 214
Karadžić case, 212, 219–20
Krnojelac case, 221–22
Krstić case, 217–18, 220, 221
Kunarac case, 221–22, 214, 508
Popović case, 218–19, 220
Prosecutor v. Ranko Češić, 95, 518n2
rape and, 293–94
“Special Declaration on Bosnia and Herzegovina,” 139
Tadić case, gender jurisprudence and, 212
Tolimir case, 219, 220
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 38, 212, 215–17, 220, 508–9
Akayesu case, 214–15, 217, 220, 221, 222–23nn2–3
Gacumbitsi case, 215–16
Karemera case, 216
Media Case, 214, 216
Muhimana case, 215–16
Nahimana case. See Media Case
Ngirumpaste case, 216
international criminal tribunals, xxxvii, 140
international humanitarian law, 37, 172–73, 288–92, 298–99
citizenship and, 68
conflict demarcation and, 290
conflict mapping and, 292
feminist engagement with, 291
framework of, 289–90
gender jurisprudence and, 213–14, 221
ICF’s challenges to, 288, 292–94
international vs. non-international distinction for, 289–90, 292–93
reparations in, 254–55
universality and, 292
unmanned weapons and, 376, 377
international human rights groups, 504–5
international human rights law, 292, 298–99, 457–58, 498, 516
drones and, 377
forced marriage and, 241–42, 249–50
frameworks for, 291
intersectional analysis and, 334–35
(p. 607) international human rights methodology, 502–4
internationalism, 71
international law
citizenship and, 63
gender politics of, 291
masculine binaries of, 205
masculine model of, 208
military force in, 199
women as subjects of, 71–72, 379
International Law Association, 293
International Monetary Fund, 474
International Police Task Force, 407, 409
International Protocol on the Documentation and Investigation of Sexual Violence in Conflict, 92
international refugee law, forced marriage and, 241–42, 249–50
international relations, feminist, 88–89
international relations theory, 3–6, 11–12
International Security Assistance Force, 487
intersectional analysis
aims of, 330
benefits of, 330
local application of, 332
peace agreements and, 332–33
reflexivity of, 331–32
surfacing women’s conflict harms, 334–35
of US domestic violence, 329–30
intersectionality, 20, 21–22, 24, 26, 55
conflict studies and, 328–38
gender and, 26, 56
German reunification and, 331–32
as legal doctrine, 329
interventionism discourse, 28
interventions, 51
in Afghanistan, 486, 487
approaches to, 494
design of, and gender, 52
development, 351
gender, 82
military, 199
sexual exploitation and, 208
sexual violence and, 92
UNSC powers of, 139
intrastate conflicts, xxxvii
Iraq, xxxvii, 124
Abu Ghraib, 25–26
andrapodizing in, 313
assessment of, on humanitarian issues, 188
CEDAW and, 179
forced marriage in, 240
Gulf War and, 24–25
IHL regime and, 290
jihadist rape in, 498, 505
sewage treatment in, 356
war in, as non-international conflict, 290
ISIS (IS, ISIL), 174, 499
andrapodizing by, 313
expectations of, on women’s behavior, 160–61
gendered narrative of, 158–60
recruiting women for combat roles, 331
women joining, 160
women’s role in, 158–59
Islamic Salvation Front, 505
Islamic State. See ISIS
Islamic Utopia, objective of, 158
Israel
Israeli Defense Forces, 564
settler colonialism of, 558–65
women’s parties in, 546–47
Italy, women joining armed groups in, 161
janjaweed, 307
jihadist rape, 505
Jordan, peacekeeper from, sexual misconduct of, 411
jus ad bellum, 106, 111, 112
jus in bello, 106, 112
justice
criteria for, 235
processes for, women’s involvement in, 296
in refugee camps, 283
women’s access to, 178
just war theory, new weapons and, 386
Karadžić, Radovan, 219
(p. 608) Karunga, 216
Karzai, Hamid, 486, 489, 490, 491
Kenya
enacting International Crimes Act, 230
post-election violence in, 98n3
Sexual Offences Act in (2006), 230
women’s civil society organizations in, 160
Khmer Rouge regime (Cambodia), 240, 245–47. See also Cambodia
killology, 96
Kings African Rifles, 269
Kosovo, xxxvii
children in, born of sexual violence, 151
conflict in, 44
trafficking in, 405
women’s employment in, 79–80
labor, gendered division of, 78, 265, 370
La Force Publique, 268
land
interconnections of, with gender and conflict issues, 521–29
rights to, 522–25
Latin America
citizenship in, 64
colonization of, 459–60
gender-based violence in, heteronormativity of, 456
governance in, 66
hetero-patriarchy in, 460
independence struggles in, 459
liberation movements in, 67
redistributive land reforms in, 524
See also individual nations
law of armed conflict (LOAC), 35–44
law enforcement
data from, on CRSV, 320–21
domestic, unmanned weapons and, 377
eague of Nations, 68, 70, 108
legislation, boomerang effect of, 489
Leopold (king of Congo), 268
LGBTQIs, conflict and, xl
liberal citizenship, 62, 63, 64
liberal feminism, 18, 21, 22
liberal peace, 51
model of, 48–49
women’s rights and, 53
liberation movements, 67
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Sri Lanka), 161, 371, 421, 432, 579–80, 581, 584–86
Liberia, xxxvii, 345
civil war in, 54
CRSV data in, 321, 323–24
DDR programming in, 446t
empowerment in, 350–51
female president of, 471, 472
gender norms in, 343, 344, 345, 349, 350–51
men’s disempowerment in, 349
National Elections Commission in, 472
peace activists in, 470
peace process in, 421, 433
political parties in, 472
women fighters in, 437
women’s advocates in, 477
Libya
air strikes on, 123
humanitarian intervention in, 199, 202–4, 207
Lieber Code (1864), xxvi, 68
life, value of, 105
light weapons
defined, 366
as tool of conflict, 365
types of, used in warfare, 368
women’s use of, 371–72
loan conditionality, gender and, 474
local communities, gender relations in, 236
logic of elimination, 559
logic of genocide, 559
logistics, in war, 10–11
Lord’s Resistance Army (Uganda), 96, 153
Mainstreaming a Gender Perspective in Multidimensional Peace Operations (UN DPKO), 398t
Malaysia, women’s rights and, 124
male bias, institutionalized, 472
male-dominant environments, induction into, 145–46, 148–49
male experience, normativity of, 40
(p. 609) Mali, 55–57
community breakdown in, 360
conflict in, differential impacts of, 56
forced marriage in, 240
terrorist recruitment in, 158
Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa, 159
United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali, 124
UNSCR 2100 and, 124
women’s rights in, 159
malnutrition, 356–57
Mano River Union Women Peace Network, 439
marginalized, solidarity among, 19
marriage, forced, 240, 247–48, 450, 499
defining, 240–45
as form of prosecution, 242
harms from, 243–44, 245, 247
international criminal legal categories and, 248
in international human rights law, 241–42
in international refugee law, 241–42
labeling of, 249
refusal of, 246
as sexual slavery, 243–45
martial rape
defined, 307
as directed aggression, 307
global spread of, 305
organized, 308
purpose of, 305, 307
ravaging and, 305, 308
reproductive agenda of, 306
types of, 308–9
Marxist critical theory, 4
Marxist feminism, 20
masculinity
conferral of, 449
construction of, 393, 147
failed, 539, 541
forms of, 393–95
guns and, 366
hegemonic, 25, 393, 395, 464, 535, 539
ideals of, 393
intersectional analysis and, 330–31
macho-violent, 535, 536
military culture and, 384–85
modern, formation of, 268–69
peacekeeping and, 391–95
reconstruction of, after war, 449–50
training in, 464
unmanned weapons and, 381, 382–85
violence and, 56–57
war and, 64
masculinity theory, xxxvi
massacre. See ravaging warfare
mass rape, 511
Mayan women, displacement of, 281
media attention, sex-based violence and, xxxvii
media data, on CRSV, 319
Mediation Support Unit (DPA), 127
mediators, women as, 426, 432
Mediterranean, ancient
martial rape in, 305
ravaging in, 306–7, 309
men
absence of, 77, 78
agency of, 343, 344, 346–47
civilian, premature deaths of, 89, 90
colonized, feminization of, 66–67
in combat, gendered coercion of, 97
conflict deaths of, reporting of, 336
DDR programs and, 372–73
deaths of, from war-related trauma, 89
disempowerment of, 343, 349
empowerment of, 350
feminizing of, 536
guns and, 369–70
as homicide victims, 368
impact on, of gendered dynamics, 295
insecurity of, 343, 347
militarized, xxxix, 87, 89, 96, 149
portrayed as soldiers, 23
re-employment of, 82
as secondary victims, 147
(p. 610) sexual violence against, xxxix, 25, 42, 72, 86–87, 90–98, 145–50, 212, 283, 295, 370
social production of, 25
treatment of, in ravaging, 306–7
unmanned weapons’ effect on role of, 381–85
vulnerability of, xxxvi
See also masculinity
MENA region (Middle East–North Africa), intersectional analysis in, 332
mental health
sexual assault survivors and, 359
war survivors and, 359, 362
meta-labels, 249
methodological gaps, in CRSV data, 316–24
Middle East
boys fleeing from, 90
gender inequality in, 81
Western feminist engagement in, 332
See also individual nations
militarism, gender and, 265, 266
militarization, xxxix
defined, 581–82
feminist theory and, 23, 535
gender and, 448–49
in Sri Lanka, 579, 581–89
women’s association with, 535
military culture, 394–95, 396
masculinity and, 384–85
reproducing racial and gender hierarchies, 464
unmanned weapons and, 380
military force
authorization for, 207–8
gender impact of, 213
military groupings, formation of, 95–96
military observers, peacekeeping and, 391
military sociology, 541
military technology, 69
Millennium Development Goals, 187
MINUSTAH (United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti), 411–12
Mitchell, George, 554
modernity, narrative of, 459. See also coloniality
monad-level war theorizing, 7
Morocco
peacekeepers from, sexual misconduct of, 406
reparations in, 236, 256
motherhood, enslavement and, 18
mothers, as violence preventers, 160
Mozambique
female-headed households in, 79
food availability in, 356
peace process in, 433
women joining liberation war in, 448
Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program, 442, 444
Myanmar, forced marriage in, 240
Nairobi Declaration on Women’s and Girls’ Right to a Remedy and Reparation (2007), 257, 511
Namibia, power inequalities in, 57–58
naming practices, sexual violence and, 151–54
naming and shaming, 142n1
narrative, war and, 5
National Action Plan (US), 295–98
national action plans, 87, 395
indicators for, 189, 191–93
for UNSCR 1325, 187
national citizenship, 62
nationalism, 65, 66–67, 71
national jurisdictions, sexual violence crimes and, 230–33
nation-state, stabilization of, 458
NATO, 44, 487
Nazi regime
biological experiments by, 215
slave labor policy and, 211
neoliberalism, 29
feminists and, 141
in Rwanda, 573
Nepal, 77
Code of Conduct, 436
Communist Party of Nepal–Maoists, 161, 371, 435
Comprehensive Peace Agreement, 435
Constituent Assembly in, 436
(p. 611) Constitution of, 436
DDR programming in, 446t
female combatants in, 449
homelessness in, war-related, 355
peace process in, 422, 433, 435–36
PLA (People’s Liberation Army), 449
33 Percent Women (Nepal), 436
women joining liberation war in, 161, 448
Women’s Alliance for Peace, Power, Democracy and the Constituent Assembly, 436
women’s employment in, 79–80
New Deal for Fragile and Conflict Affected States, 51–52, 59n1
new wars, 378
new wars theory, 28–29
NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security, 439
Nicaragua
children in, born of sexual violence, 152
income declines in, 361
Sandinista National Liberation Front, 371
women joining liberation war in, 371, 448
Niger, peacekeepers from, sexual misconduct of, 410
Nigeria
formation of, 268
jihadist rape in, 498
terrorism threat in, 163
WAFF and, 268
women suicide bombers in, 161
women’s civil society organizations in, 160
1951 Refugee Convention (UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees), 276
1967 Protocol (UN Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees), 276
nongovernmental organizations, 516
case files of, CRSV data from, 321–23
donor funds for, 474–75
history writing and, 504
professionalism of, 475
non-killing acts, treated as genocide, 215–19
non-state actors, 36
nonviolence, 105
North Africa, gender inequality in, 81
North America, indigenous women in, 560
Northern Ireland, 50, 329, 547
activism in, around UNSCR 1325, 333
Bill of Rights in, 551
ceasefire in, 549
Commission for the Location of Victims Remains, 552
domestic violence in, silence about, 333–34
Downing Street Declaration, 549, 555n3
Equality Commission in, 551
Families of the Disappeared (Northern Ireland), 552
fatalities in, intersectional analysis of, 337–38
formation of, 547
gender-specific harms in, 552
intersectional analysis of, 335–36
Irish Republican Army, 337
Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission, 338n2
Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition, 546, 549–52, 554
Northern Ireland Women’s European Platform, 549
Northern Ireland Women’s Rights Movement, 548
peace-building in, 547–54
peace process in, 421, 424–25
Peace Women, 548
police in, representativeness of, 423
Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI), 334
post-conflict governance in, 551–52
Public Prosecution Service of Northern Ireland, 334
Relatives Action Committees, 548
social policy in, 547
Special (Political) Category Status in, 548
Tar Anall, 552
Ulster Volunteer Force, 337
women and guns in, 372
Women against Imperialism, 548
Women for Peace, 548
women’s conflict experience in, 335–37
women’s movement in, 546–55
Women Together, 548
Northern Mali
CEDAW and, 179
(p. 612) jihadist rape in, 505
See also Mali
North Uganda, peace process in, women and, 421
Nuremberg Judgment, 211
Nuremberg Trials, 69
nutrition, war and, 356–57
Obama, Barack, 295–96
Obama administration, 490
operational instructions, for UNSC resolutions, 124
opportunity structures, 344–45, 351, 575
Optional Protocol to CEDAW, 179, 181
Organisation d’Appui à l’Autopromotion (Burundi), 438
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 53
Organization of the Islamic Conference, 163, 204
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, 164–65
pacification, 267–73
Pakistan
decision-making in, by men, 379–80
prosecuting peacekeepers for sexual misconduct, 410
UNSCR 1325 and, 123
women’s civil society organizations in, 160
on women’s empowerment and the UNSC, 129
Palestine, 345
agency in, 347–48
CEDAW and, 179
gendered suffering in, pregnancy and, 558–65
gender norms in, 343, 344, 347–48, 351
women’s bodies in, as political weapons, 559–60, 565
Papua New Guinea, peace process in, 422
participation
UNSC focus on, 108–10, 124
WPS Agenda and, 119–20, 122–23
patriarchy, 266, 291, 525, 581, 583
power struggles and, 56–57
second-wave feminism and, 18–19, 20
women’s honor and, 40
patronage, 473, 474, 479
patrones, 461–62
peace
bridging differences and, 437–40
collective initiatives for, 433–34
creation of, 107
feminist advocacy for, 108–9
gendered ideologies of, 477
informal strategies for, 433–36
military strength and, 114
negotiations for, women and, 52, 53, 119, 194. See also peace agreements; peace processes
permanent, 106
as process instead of goal, 431, 437, 440
security and, 105
sustainable, 114, 161
peace activism, 548
peace agreements
addressing the past, 423
civil society and, 431–32
DDR process and, 444–45
defined, 417
enforceability of, 554
gender perspectives in, 426–27
gender-specific clauses in, 418
human rights frameworks and, 422–23
informing intersectional analysis, 332–33
(p. 613) power-sharing arrangements and, 422
pre-negotiation and, 419–21
sexual violence prohibitions and, 420
types of, 419
women’s influence on, 417–28
peace-building, 48, 82
failure of, 127–28
gender and, 55, 57–58, 193
gender equality and, 122–23, 171
human security approach to, 122
priorities for, 257–58
as UNSC theme, 108
women’s contribution to, 120–21, 546, 549–54, 574
Peacebuilding Architecture Review, 128
peace economy, 29
peacekeeping
vs. combat operations, 396
enforcement policy for, suggested changes to, 413
fieldwork in, 395
foreigners involved in, 399–400
gender balancing in, 396–98t
gender equality and, 401
identity and, 399–400
masculinity and, 391–95
peace agreements and, 420
personnel for, numbers of, 408
repatriation and, 410, 411
role of, 396
security sector personnel in, 391
sexual misconduct and, 385, 398–99, 403–14
skills required for, 396
trafficking and, 403–4
training for, 121
women and, 390–401
peace movements, 433–34, 439
peace processes
cultural obstacles to, 426, 427–28
defined, 417
gender advisors to, 421. See also gender advisors
pathways in and out of, 425
pre-negotiation and, 419–21
realpolitik of, 427–28
stages of, 419
success of, women’s involvement and, 432
women excluded from, 432–36
women organizing outside of, 421
women’s involvement in, 141, 296, 424–28
Pellene, mass rape in, 307
Peloponnesian War, 306
performance, war and, 5
permanent peace, components of, 106
perpetrators, masculinity and, 510
personal, related to the international, 9
Peru, 456, 458
children in, born of sexual violence, 150–54
colonialized women’s dehumanization in, 460
in the colonial period, 460
communal contracts and, 154
Communist Party of Peru. See Shining Path
CRSV reporting in, 324
decolonial feminist analysis of, 460–65
European influences on, 460
Final Report of the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 145, 148–51
gang rape in, 464
image in, of hetero-patriarchy, 460
indianized woman in, as abject subject, 460
military socialization in, 149
patrones in, 461–62
Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 92, 145, 148–51, 457, 463
reparations in, 256
sexual morality in, 460
sexual violence in, 148–54, 461–62, 464
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), 148, 150, 461
sociopolitical power dynamics in, 457
transitional justice in, 458
troops in, women given to, 464
Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, 150, 461
Philippines
peace process in, 422
women’s empowerment in, 351
pichana, 464
Pinochet, Augusto, 505
Plan of Action to Prevent Violent Extremism (UN Secretary-General), 164
police, peacekeeping and, 391
(p. 614) policymaking, evidence-based, 192
political margins, 6
political parties
activist movements transforming into, 469
post-conflict governance and, 472–73
women’s wings in, 474
political realism, 5–6
political responsiveness, and recurrence of war, 51
political settlements, women’s involvement in, 53
politics of everyday life, 553
Polybius, 307
population transfer, as act of genocide, 218–19
positive peace, 105, 109
postcolonial feminism, 19, 533
postcolonial states, 66, 67, 540
postcolonial theory, 459
post-conflict societies
CEDAW applied to, 173–77
economic recovery in, 78–82
gender equality and, 171
gender equity outcomes in, 475–76
gender mainstreaming in, 472
gender norms and, 343
governance in, 468–79, 479, 512, 551–52
justice during, 178
maternal discourse in, 476
reconstruction in, 51–52, 257–58
recordkeeping in, 188
reparations and, 261
sexual exploitation in, 175
sexual violence in, 174
treatment of, 50
women activists in, 121, 546. See also individual nations
women’s gains in, 478–79
women’s needs in, 119
women’s rights forestalled in, 486
zero-sum politics in, 555
postmodern (poststructural) critical theory, 4
poststructural feminist analysis, 20, 533
post-traumatic stress disorder, 96, 359, 516
power
dynamics of, international structures and, 200
gender and, 20–21
social relations of, 20
precaution, unmanned weapons and, 377
pregnancy
Palestinian women’s experience of, 558–65
unwanted, xxxix. See also procreation, compulsory
pre-negotiation, peace processes and, 419–21
Preventing/Countering Violent Extremism, efforts toward, 163
Preventing Sexual Violence Initiative,