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date: 17 June 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Acknowledging that combat is not the primary cause of death or disability for civilians during armed conflict, this chapter outlines various ways female civilians experience harm or health risks in conflict. The chapter covers threats to safety and security; access to health care; family and community connections; and education and economic security (the “SAFE model”). Particular attention is given to risks related to the destruction of housing, reduced access to clean water, famine and malnutrition, infectious diseases, reproductive health, sexual violence, forced displacement, mental health, and widowhood. The chapter provides examples from a variety of conflict settings. It closes with a call for post-conflict reconstruction efforts to be informed by recognition of the unique, non-combat harms faced by women.

Keywords: civilian harm, female civilians, conflict, SAFE model, health care, famine and malnutrition, mental health, post-conflict reconstruction

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