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date: 14 November 2019

(p. 1397) Index

(p. 1397) Index

ABA Section of International and Comparative Law 191, 203–4, 208
abortion 1123–4
access to justice
importance of 1355–6
litigation, financing 1356–7
mass claims 1357–61
acephalous and state societies 656–8
Acevedo, Eduardo 279–81
Ackerman, Bruce 1234–5
acte clair 889
Adams, John 180–1
adaptionism 347–9
administrative courts 1279–80
administrative law
administration, liability of 1282–4
administrative litigation, and 1261
common European standards 1281
concepts, varying 1274–5
constitutional values 1271–3
definition 1261
distinctiveness 1263
fundamental rights, reflecting 1271–3
good administration, standards of 1273–4
influences on 1284–6
institutions 1263
instrumental or non-instrumental good, as 1270
Islamic 623
judges, role of 1284–5
judicial review see judicial review
legal redress, forms of 1278–84
legislators, role of 1284–5
national institutions and traditions, bound up with 1260
principles, development of 1285
professors, role of 1284–5
public administration, and 1264
public administration, trends in 1285–6
public law and private law distinguished 1262
roots of 1284
scope of 1261
trends in 1285–6
values served by 1271–4
administrative science 1275
administrative standards 253
Africa, harmonization of sales law 949–51
African colonies 644–5
African customary law
barter 655
bridewealth 648–9
children, as to 651
contract 655
decolonization, effect of 661–2
disillusionment 663
diversity of forces in creating 664
effective courts 659
ethnic diversity 662
generalization 648
ideological functions 663–6
inquisitorial procedure 660
legal anthropology, development of 651–6
legal terminology 650–1
living 666
Malagasy cultures, rights to land in 654
marriage, conclusion of 649
official 665
oral law, nature of 647
oral traditions, reduction to writing 646
pluralist age, in 670–1
pre-legal order 644
process and disputes, shift to 656–61
(p. 1398) property, conceptions of 654
social practices, changing 665
social relationships, importance of 658–9
specialization 648
succession 654–5
survival of 671
vengeance, thirst for 661
Western forms, transformation into 645–51
witchcraft, evidence of 660
writing, effects of 648–50
wrong-doing in 659–61
Age of Comparison 71
Alien Tort Claims Act 586, 1393–94
Allen, C. K. 136
Allott, Anthony 163
Amari, Emerico 109
American Association for the Comparative Study of Law 206–8
American Bar Association 191
American Foreign Law Association 191–2, 197–8, 203, 205
American Journal of Comparative Law 207
American Law Institute 198, 517
joint ALI/UNIDROIT Civil Procedure Project 1345–8
Judgment Recognition Initiative 1344–5
Principles of Transnational Civil Procedure 1345–8
American law
exportation of 211–12
purpose of transformation 767–8, 771
American legal education 187–9
American Legal Realism 783
American Revolution 180–1
American Society of Comparative Law 177, 208–9, 822
Ames, James Barr 188
Amos, Sir Maurice 141, 146–8, 161–3
Ancel, Marc 389
ancient world 4–8
Andean Community (CAN) 292
Anderson, Sir Norman 163
arbitration
advantages of 1348
international commercial 59
international, procedural harmonization through 1348–51
labour disputes, of 1145
main actors 1350
New York Convention 1342
state procedural systems 1351
status and legitimacy of rules 1350
UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules 1349
UNCITRAL Model Law 1348–9, 1351
Argentina
Civil Code 280–1
commercial and civil law 279
Supreme Court 298
Argentinean Constitution 268–9
Aristotle 4–5, 16, 345
artificial insemination 1121–2
Ascarelli, Tullio 110–11
Asian Development Bank 254
Asian law, irrationality 781
assisted reproduction 1121–2
Association of American Law Schools 190
Athenian Constitution 4
Atkin, Lord 160
Austrian Civil Code 75
sources of law 881
statutory interpretation, rules of 888
Avant-projet 568
Baldwin, Simeon 189, 192, 195
Bar, Christian von 56
Barbeyrac, Jean 26
Barotse society 653–6, 658
Bartolus 12–14
Baxi, Upendra 597–8
Beccaria, Cesare 1289, 1294–5
Bedwell, C. E. A. 154
Bello, Andrés 274–5, 282
Bentham, Jeremy 1289, 1295
Bentwich, Norman 155
Beveridge, Sir William 1146–7
Bevilaqua, Clovis 283–4
(p. 1399) Bloch, Marc 400
Bodin, Jean 15–16, 21, 31
Bohannan, Paul 650, 656–7
Bolivar, Simón 268, 271
Bolivian Commercial Code 272
Bolivian Constitution 268
Bologna, legal study at 9
Brazil
Civil Code 276–8, 295–6
class actions 287–8
Commercial Code 272, 280
comparative law 283–4
Portuguese claim to 266
Supreme Court 299–300
Brewer, David 193
Breyer, Justice 58
British Empire 134, 451
British Institute of International and Comparative Law 168
Brito, Guzmán 276
Brown, I. Neville 163, 165–6
Brown, W. Jethro 136
Bryce, James 133, 135
Burge, William 134
Burgundian Code 8–9
Cadastre 623
Caemmerer, Ernst von 85, 87, 95
Calamandrei, Piero 112
Cambodia
Civil Code 255
Code of Civil Procedure 255
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 1227, 1247, 1250
Canivet, Guy 58–9
canon law 10–12
private property, justification of 30–1
capital punishment
individuals under 18 at time of crime, for 178
Cappelletti, Mauro 112–13, 117, 128, 287
Carbonnier, Jean 48–50
case law, concept of 702
Cassagne, Juan Carlos 297
Cassin, René 684
Cassirer, Ernst 355–6, 358
categorization, notion of 429
caveat emptor 955–60
Central and Eastern Europe, comparative law in
before Communism 217–19
before Stalinism 219–20
constitutional 231–4
during Communism 219–27
during Stalinism 220–1
Europeanization of legal systems 228
fall of Communism, after 227–34
from 1960s to 1980s 221–7
German model 233
legal education, features of 229
legal systems, redrafting 228
post-Communist legal academia 229–30
practical use of 218
prospective of 235
scope of region 216
transformation, effect of 227
Central and Eastern European countries
securities regulation 1180
democracy, transition to 1228
Central European University 230
centralism 666–8
child and female labour 1144
child support
divorce, after 1114
Chile
Civil Code 275
codes, influence of 282
Commercial Code 275–6
economy, liberalization of 287
China
civil code 244, 257
law, influence of 444–5
modern legal system 259
private law, codification 257
civil law
enforcement of contract 910
United States, in 182
civil partnerships 1118
civil procedure
access to justice 1355–61 see also access to justice
adversarial legalism 1354
adversarial model 1330
(p. 1400) American Law Institute's Judgment Recognition Initiative 1344–5
American law, special status of 1334–5
American pre-trial discovery 1353
Brussels Convention 1339–40, 1388, 1390
Brussels Regulation 1340–1
competitive individualism 1353
core elements of system 1352
cross-border litigation in Europe 1339–42
Damaska's strategies 1331–4
discovery 1353–5
European Court of Justice, case law of 1338
European Union, harmonization in 1337–42
Hague judgment project 1342–4
harmonization 1335–55
hierarchical ordering system 1332
hybrid systems 1331
initiation of 1335
inquisitorial model 1330
international arbitration, procedural harmonization through 1348–51
intra-state disputes in Europe, for 1337–8
joint ALI/UNIDROIT project 1345–8
lay juries, institution of 1353
mass claims 1357–61
party and court, reallocation of authority between 1330
Principles of Transnational Civil Procedure 1345–8
scope and limits to harmonization 1351–5
substantive rules 1336
supra-regional harmonization 1342–51
traditional labels 1329–31
class action 287–8, 1357–61
Coase theorem 840
Cocquille, Guy 16–19, 22
cohabitation
attractions of 1115
legal issues 1115
rise in 1114–15
collective agreements 1146
collective bargaining 1145
Columbian Commercial Code 272, 282
commercial law, comparative discussion of 1110
Commission for European Contract Law see Lando Commission
Committee on Comparative Law of the Association of American Law Schools 206
Common Core Project 374, 557–8
common good, promotion of 1262–3
common law
civil law, connections with 558–9
construction of 908
diffusion of 451–3
enforcement of contract 908–10
foreign case law, reference to 535
kadi justice, and 782
local law and foreign law, promotion of uniformity between 492
origins of 762
unjustified enrichment 972–5 see also unjustified enrichment
common law tradition 110
Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR) 292–3
Commonwealth countries, laws of 522, 534
company law
Cadbury Report 1182–3
company self-regulation 1182–4
comparative see comparative company law
English legislation 1165
European 1174–8
federal securities regulation, and 1179
French code de commerce 1164
groups, of 1175–6
harmonization 1163, 1174–8
investor protection see investor protection
modern company, rise of 1164–5
modern, development of 1164–78
need for development of 1165–6
ownership and control, separation of 1165–6
(p. 1401) principal-agent conflict 1166
professionals, as task for 1162
public companies, problems of 1165
US law, investor protection in 1178–9
US securities regulation, global advance of 1179–82
comparative administrative law
administration, liability of 1282–4
administrative law, definition 1261
comparisons, lack of success of 1260
empirical research 1269–71
ideological communities, comparison with 1265
judicial review see judicial review
legal families, comparison within 1266–7
legal redress, comparing 1278–84
local administration, research in 1276
long-standing discipline of 1260
organizations, comparison of 1275–7
powers of administration, comparing 1274–5
procedures, comparison of 1277–8
public employment, comparison 1276
public sector enterprises 1276
systems in which comparison useful 1264–71
transnational trends 1267–9
comparative civil procedure
access to justice 1355–61 see also access to justice
American Law Institute's Judgment Recognition Initiative 1344–5
categorization 1329–35
cross-border litigation in Europe 1339–42
divergent substantive litigation 1336
European Union, harmonization in 1337–42
Hague judgment project 1342–4
harmonization 1335–55
international arbitration, procedural harmonization through 1348–51
joint ALI/UNIDROIT project 1345–8
legal families 1329–35
mass claims 1357–61
neglect of 1328
scope and limits to harmonization 1351–5
supra-regional harmonization 1342–51
traditional labels 1329–31
comparative company law
academia, interest of 1169–72
Company Law Action Plan 1176–8, 1186
company self-regulation 1182–4
conflicts of laws, in context of 1170
corporate governance 1182–3, 1187
court decisions 1172–3
economics, and 1184–6
enforcement 1189–90
European Court of Justice, cases in 1172–3
future research, perspectives for 1186–90
harmonization versus competition 1189
High Level Group of Company Law Experts, preparatory work of 1176–8
impetus to 1173
international networks, influence on 1171
internationalization and interdisciplinary research, need for 1190
lawyers, view of 1169
legal counsel, view of 1169
legal literature, American influence on 1170
legislators, view of 1167–9
national company law reviews 1172
old and modern, being 1162
problem areas 1188–90
professionals, as task for 1162
renewed interest in 1168
scope of 1162
US securities regulation, global advance of 1179–82
comparative competition law
administrative focus 1208
agenda, enriching 1219–20
Asia, development issue in 1214–16
breadth and depth of analysis 1219–20
changing contexts 1218–19
descriptive scholarship 1199–1201
discipline of 1195–6
economic analysis 1200
economic competition, turn to 1194
economic globalization, impact of 1194
(p. 1402) EU and member states compared 1214
EU-level comparison 1211
Europe, in 1209–14
general characteristics and influences 1207–9
global view 1196–9
globalization, impact of 1217
institutional scholarship 1216
interaction across differences 1220
internal dynamics 1203–4
international organizations 1216
Japan, interest in 1215
lack of development 1222
leadership perspective 1201–3
more extensive knowledge, potential value of 1223
national interests 1218
national level comparisons 1212–14
nature and status, uncertainty about 1208
obstacles 1223
opportunities for 1222–3
post-World War II 1212
private interests 1218
private power, role of 1207
public policy context 1219
roles for scholarship 1217–22
roles of 1218
scholarship outside US 1204–17
scholarship, defining 1195–6
separation, lines of 1198–9
shaping factors 1203–4
shared influences on scholarship 1196–8
sources of data 1205–7
sparsity of literature 1208
Sweden, writing in 1213–14
themes of 1194–5
tools for 1221–2
transnational conferences 1224
transnational factors influencing 1197
United States, scholarship in 1199–1203
US and Europe, differences in 1216–17
US antitrust, developments in 1201–2, 1205–7
US experience, assessment of 1195
Western European countries, writing in 1212
comparative conflicts law
American studies 1370–2
Asian countries, in 1373
basic orientation and goals 1374
comparative scholarship 1370
comparison of regimes 1367–77
development of 1367–9
English studies 1370
European countries, legislation in 1372–3
foreign law, information about 1381–2
fundamental issues 1373–7
International Conventions, interpretation of 1387–8
Latin America, in 1373
making of law, assisting 1377–80
norms, character of 1375–7
pervasive issues 1374
regional survey 1369–73
routine norms, construction of 1384–7
specific analysis 1382–4
supra-national legal orders, emergence and impact of 1388–94
tool, as 1380–88
comparative constitutional law
Asian values 1255
constitutional structures 1240–2
constitutionalism, and 1230–3
developments elsewhere, adverting to 1255
doctrinal structures, differences in 1256
evolution of field of 1226–8
foundings and transformations 1234–9
growth of scholarship on 1256–7
international human rights, and 1228–30
judicial review see judicial review
limiting study of 1229
limits of 1255
national history, relevance of 1256
national identity, and 1253–5
politics, and 1228–30
comparative contract law
agreement, requirement of 915–18
anticipatory repudiation, doctrine of 925
approaches to 902–5
changed events, effect of 926–7
commercial and civil contracts 905–6, 934
commonalities, search for 902
(p. 1403) content of contract 918–21
damages 928
enforcement, bases for 907–15 see also enforcement of contract
harmonization and unification agendas 903
influences on other legal systems 904
international commercial contract 905–6
offer and acceptance 915–17
origins 900–1
performance and breach 922–6
precontractual liability 917–18
relationship, ending 923–6
remedies 928–32
Roman law background 907–8
salient area of law, as 901–2
scope of obligation 919
similarities and differences, study of 901, 904
specific relief for breach 929–32
stipulated damages 928–9
third parties, rights of 932–3
writing, integrity of 920–1
comparative criminal law
ahistorical nature of 1291–2
codification 1317–18
conspiracy 1324
constitutionality 1316
context, in 1324–5
criminal liability, analysis and principles of 1318–22
domesticating 1301–2
egalitarian 1299–1300
Enlightenment critique, significance of 1290
expansion of scope, exhortations for 1292
Feuerbach, role of 1292–4
foreign law as 1302–5
hierarchical 1296–9
histories and functions of 1291–1308
imperialist 1296–7
inchoate offences 1323–4
insanity, position of 1321–2
interest in 1289
internal 1301
issues 1308
jurisdiction 1311–13
legality, principle of 1313–18
legislativity 1315
modes of 1296–1308
multidirectional 1299–1300
non-colonial 1297
nulla poena sine lege 1313–18
offences 1322–4
paucity of work on 1309
prospectivity 1315
punishment execution and sanctions, law of 1298–9
punishment theory 1309–10
special part, scope of 1322–4
specificity 1313–14
topics of 1308–9
unidirectional 1296–9
victims, role of 1310–11
comparative enquiries, steps of selection 407–11
typical 406
comparative family law
abortion 1123–4
artificial insemination 1121–2
assisted reproduction 1121–2
contraception 1123–4
cultural bases, differences in 1101
current structures 1127
embryo transplantation 1121–2
future of 1124–6
Hague Conventions 1105
in vitro fertilization 1121–2
increasing population, threat from 1127–8
International Society of Family Law, work of 1102
marriage see marriage
methodology 1108–11
national commissions, work of 1105
same-sex relationships 1117–19
scope of 1108–11
specific legal rules, comparison of 1111
surrogate motherhood 1121–2
transnational disputes 1101
usefulness of comparison 1101
work on 1102–8
worldwide treaties 1106
(p. 1404) comparative influence, types of 525–7
comparative knowledge
core of 336
examination of idea of 309
global governance, issues of 599–603
comparative labour law
arbitration and conciliation of interest disputes 1145
Asia and developing world, in 1151
child and female labour 1144
collective agreements 1145
collective bargaining 1145
contemporary quandary 1153–8
demographic change 1157
descriptive genre 1139–40
flexibilization 1154–5
future of 1158–9
individualization 1155–7
industrial accident insurance 1144
industrialization to end of World War II, dialogue during 1143–7
International Association for Workers' Statutory Protection 1138
international conference 1138
international policy dialogue 1143–52
internationally negotiated standards 1157
labour rights adjudication 1144–5
Maastricht to present, from 1149–52
new problems of 1159
Philadelphia Declaration to Treaty of Maastricht 1147–9
predictive 1141
profound 1142–3
purposive 1140
secondary literature, as 1143
State, capacity of 1157–8
studies of 1148–9
taxonomy 1139–43
theoretical 1142
unemployment insurance 1144
United States, in 1151–2
wage payment 1144
worker privacy 1141
working time 1141
works on 1138–9
comparative law
aims of 875
American scholars, critique from 60–2
application, concerns with 49–50
changes in law, showing effects of 398
changing role of 1391–2
contemporary state of 105
courts of law, in 104
definition 49
descriptive approach 845–7
discipline, nature of 582
epistemological problems of 306
eurocentric history of 641–2
functionalist approach 246–7
future development 105
ideological challenge to 593–603
international approach 62–3
marginality 38
method of study, as 1367–77
method, as 307
methodological challenge to 583–92
methodological disease 308–9
methodological mishmash 362
modern, origins of 900–1
normative approach 847–9
normative force 876
norms, as inspiration for drafting 39
personal effects 50
postgraduate studies 104
post-war revitalization 88
practical applications 514
practical challenge to 603–7
premiers pas 39–42
primary function 49
private international law, relationship with 1364–95 see also comparative conflicts law
purpose of 37
roles vis-à-vis private international law 1366
sociological and legal concepts, clash between 361
source of law, as 875–6
stasis 426–9
study, history of 759–63
subject matter of 1364–5
(p. 1405) taxonomic project 423–6
translator, as 704–6
unacknowledged world vision 595–9
unification, as tool for 290
urgent need for 705
Comparative Law Bureau 177, 191, 194–6
comparative legal enquiries, purposes of advice, looking for 410
analysis 416–18
choice between legal systems, facilitating 404–5
description 412–16
differences and similarities, explaining 416–17
foreign law, applying 404
legal context, relevance of 413
legal systems, learning between 417–18
non-legal context, relevance of 414
results, looking for 414–16
solving problems 403
summary 418–19
typology 401
understanding law 405–6
unifying law 402–3
comparative property law
absolute rights, numerus clausus 1053–6
American legal literature, numerous clausus debate in 1061–2
avoidance of 1044
civilian systems 1051–7
common law systems 1057–60
dogmatism of civil law 1056–7
dynamic analysis 1062–5
dynamism of 1068
feudal remnants 1057–9
focus of 1051
future of 1048–50
integration of markets, impact of 1065
national, regional and global, osmosis of 1065–8
numerus clausus 1053–6, 1061–2
personal versus real rights 1051–3, 1059
property right, nature of 1055
qualitative rights and duties 1053
relative and absolute rights, division of 1051–3
rules impacting on 1044
studies of 1046–8
transfer systems 1060–1
transparency requirements 1060–1
comparative reasoning
legitimacy of 527–30
motives and strategies in 530–3
national law, influence on 536–7
comparative research, theoretical-descriptive form 845
comparative sales law
features of 955–66
modern, basis of 938
non-conformity, buyer's remedy for 955–66
termination of contract as remedy 960–6
comparative succession law
civil and common law systems, gulf between 1085–6
death, transfer of estate on 1094–6
debts, transfer of liability for 1094
economic factors influencing 1079–80
equality, consideration of 1078
executor, role of 1095–6
focus areas 1086–7
freedom of testation, principle of 1084
inheritance contracts 1086–7
little literature on 1074
micro-comparison 1073
non-discrimination provisions, effect of 1087
patterns, identification of 1085–6
personal representative, role of 1095–6
practical issues 1082–3
public international law instruments 1081–2
research 1081–4
researchers, mission for 1097
scholarship, role of 1082–4
social factors influencing 1077–9
specific questions on 1074
trusts see trusts
vertical comparison 1083–4
will substitutes 1079–80
wills see wills
(p. 1406) comparative tort law
common developments 1007–20
criminal law, relationship with 1010–12
delict and common law, difference in style 1005–7
dignitary injuries, liability for 1020–3
European Code, possibility of 1005
fault liability 1023–9
future perspective 1040–1
general clause versus individual torts 1005–12
insurance, and 1035–41
major area, as 1004
major catastrophes, response to 1040–1
merger of systems 1009
mixed systems 1026–8
moral wrongdoing, liability for 1023–4
negligence liability 1009
no-fault schemes 1036–9
objective standard of care, dominance of 1024–6
patterns of cases 1004
protected interests versus general clause 1013–15
pure economic loss, liability for 1015–20
risks, attribution of 1023–4
Roman roots 1007
scope of protection 1012–23
social security schemes, coordination with 1039–40
strict liability 1029–34
substantive issue 1012–13, 1028–9
comparison
analysis of 310–18
arbitrariness 313
basis of 407–8
classification, and 310–11
common or distinguishing features, search for 310
common sense 308
comparative judgments 337
comparative law, as essence of 845
comparing 318–35
complex 315–18, 336
complex social concepts, comparative use of 317
convergent and divergent 400–1
difference-orientated 385
differences and similarities 307
epistemological interests, imposing 335
examination of idea of 309
experiments 319–20
family similarity 315–18
historical linguistics 320–5
historical, process of 333
Idealtypus 315–18
interests and methods 318–35
invariable element, requiring 367
legal systems, choice of 409
levels of analysis 367
meaning of 307
normative neutrality 314
origins of law and religion, reconstruction of 318
partly autonomous normative systems, of 337
pragmatic treatment of 307
procedures 314–15
process of 336
prototypes 316
qualification, and 311–12
research for which inadequate 319
similarity and difference, judging 312–14
similarity, concept of 311
social change, understanding 331–5
subjective 313
tertia comparationis, choosing 314–15, 334–7
theory, and 333–5
competition law
developments, influences on 1197
European 1209–14
international trade issues 1197
Italy, in 1214
promotion of 1198
separation, lines of 1198–9
Sweden, in 1213–14
UK system, development of 1213
Comte, Auguste 347
conciliation of labour disputes 1145
conflict of laws 13, 96–7
(p. 1407) comparative law, relationship with 1364–95 see also comparative conflicts law
coordination, task of 1394
foreign law, judicial notice of 605
International Conventions, interpretation of 1387–8
international unification 1377–9
law, making 1377–80
modern legislation 1379–80
routine norms, construction of 1384–7
Confucianism 743–4, 748–9
Congress of Paris 36, 42–3, 133, 423, 540, 581, 1368
Constantinesco, Léontin-Jean 430–1
constitutional courts
adjudicatory procedures 1248–9
centralized 1244–6
development of 1245
judicial review see judicial review
limiting access to 1248–9
specialized 1244–6
constitutional law
constitutionalism, and 1230–3
generic 1249–53
high politics, link with 1229
judicial review see judicial review
Kelsenian model 1244–6
proportionality analysis, justifications for 1249–52
constitutionalism
concept of 1230
constitutions interfering with 1233
second-and third-generation rights 1231–2
study of 1230–3
subset of study 1232
transformation 1231
constitutions
adoption of 1237
amendment procedure 1238–9
approval of 1234
Canadian 1227
constitutional structures 1240–2
constitutionalism, interference with 1233
emergency, defining 1240–1
entrenched provisions 1238–9
former colonies, for 1227
fundamental rights, enumerating 1272–3
horizontal effect 1252–3
imposed 1237–8
institutions transforming 1235
interpretation 1239
legitimacy 1236–8
national identity, and 1253–5
origins of 1234
personal versus territorial models 624–8
separation of powers strategy 1241–2
specific provisions, varying in 1249
specific subjects dealt with in 1254
totalitarian governments, of 1232
transparency 1236
constructive trust 989
consumer protection, mass claims 1358
contraception 1123–4
contract
agreement, requirement of 915–18
anticipatory repudiation, doctrine of 925
bargaining process, abuse of 911–13
breach, determining 922–6
conditions for making 910
consideration, doctrine of 908–9
content of 918–21
damages for breach 928–9
definiteness 915–17
failed, winding up 981–3
fundamental breach, effect of 912–13
international transactions, relevant to 906
offer and acceptance 915–17
precontractual liability 917–18
promissory estoppel, doctrine of 909
specific relief for breach 929–32
standardization of terms 911
substance, individual influence on 913
third parties, rights of 932–3
writing, integrity of 920–1
writing, requirement of 914–15
contract law
Action Plan on a more coherent European Contract Law 546, 947
(p. 1408) African customary law 655
changed events, effect of 926–7
Communications on European Contract Law 946–7
comparative law, prominence in 900–2
comparative see comparative contract law
English and Scottish 472
force majeure 926
general 771
Islamic 629–32
Italian 113
Japanese 249–53
legal framework 918
pacta sunt servanda, principle of 926
parol evidence rule 920–1
private law, as dynamic area of 1045
privity 413
remedies 928–32
statutory default rules 872
contractual damages, assessment of 852–5
convergence 349
Corpus Iuris Civilis 8, 10–11
corruption 377–8
Costa Rica, Civil Code 283
Cour de Cassation 58–9
Couvier, Baron 318
creditor protection 1187
criminal law
codification 1317–18
comparative see comparative criminal law
conspiracy 1324
constitutionality 1316
crime, definition 1322
criminal liability, analysis and principles of 1318–22
foreign offenders, disposition in English law 1296
fragmentation 1010
general theory of 1305–7
Germany, export of doctrine from 1298
inchoate offences 1323–4
insanity, position of 1321–2
international 1307
jurisdiction 1311–13
law of delict, as blueprint for 1010–12
legality, principle of 1313–18
legislativity 1315
Middle Eastern 623
nulla poena sine lege 1313–18
offences 1322–4
other modes of state governance distinguished 1301
parochialism 1288–91
patriarchal model 1289
pre-Enlightenment 1289–90
prospectivity 1315
punishment theory 1309–10
Rechtsgut 1322–3
regionalization 1307
sovereignty, connection with 1288
specificity 1313–14
tort law, relationship with 1010–12
US Model Penal Code 1300–3, 1318–22, 1324
victims, role of 1310–11
Critical Legal Studies
Africa, in 821
anthropomorphic ideas, use of 834
areas of activity 830–2
comparative lawyers, network of 818–22
comparative study, as object of 816
contexts of critique 830–2
development of comparative law, contribution to 835
disruption or continuity, work as 823–32
eclecticism of comparatists 833
functionalism and structuralism, critique of 825–7
fundamental ambitions, questioning 832–3
Harvard group 818–19
irony towards 834
Latin American scholars 820–1
legal consciousness, exploring 828–30
liberation through disruption and disorientation, agenda of 819
Mediterranean comparatists 819
merits of network 832
metropolitan comparatists 821
(p. 1409) negative tone 833
New Approaches to Comparative Law conference 818
political movement, as 816
relationship with comparative law 816–22
school of thought, as 816
sympathetic critique 832–5
theory of law, as 816
traditional canon, assault on 823–5
transplants and receptions, critique of 827–8
cryptotypes 391
culture
law inside 711–13
legal see legal culture
political functions 664
Curran, Vivian 391–2, 724, 726–7
Cushing, Luther 185
custom
character of 786
meaning 780
source of law, as 895–6
customary law
comparative studies, in 641–2
invented tradition, as 788
national tradition, as 641
sub-Saharan 642 see also African customary law
Czechoslovakia
Constitutional Court 233–4
law in 217
law schools 230
socialist codes 224
Dahm, Georg 85
Damaska, Mirjan 390, 1331–4
Daube, David 756–7
David, René 45–7, 51, 205, 422, 434, 662, 759, 761, 831, 890
Dávila, Tristán Narvaja 281
Davis, Kingsley 343
de Thou, Christophe 19–21
Deák, Francis 203
defamation, liability for 1020–3
delict, law of 324
comparative see comparative tort law
European 552–5
Swiss 92–3
democracy
Central and eastern European counties, transition 1228
Muslim states, experience of 619
Denning, Lord 167
Denti, Vittorio 117
departmentalism 1244
Derbigny, Pierre 186
deterrence, function of 375
Dicey, A.V. 139
differences
comparative enquiries, steps of 406–19
comparison focusing on 384
complex enquiries 399–401
explaining 416–17
similarities, contemporary debate 394–6
similarity, and 312–14
theory 389–90
diversity 390
globalization, threat to 586
divorce
child support 1114
yesterday's debates 1113–14
Drobnig, Ulrich 93
due process 587
Durkheim, Émile 349–50, 353, 356, 466
dynamic longitudinal project 585
East Asia, comparative law in 786
commentaries, era of 240
functional method 245
functionalism 246–7, 250–1
German Pandectist system, influence of 239–44, 247, 256–9
imported doctrine, era of 240–2
Japanese experience, influence of 243
legal assistance, competition for 254–6
legal systems, modernization 247–8
lessons for 243–5
modern history of 239–45
next-generation issues 253–4
pluralistic legal models 248–9
practice, in 247–50
private law 238
(p. 1410) theory in and from 245–53
economic analysis of law
allocation of risk, optimal 853
analytical capacity, increasing 850
ancillary discipline to comparative law, as 845–9
application of law, as to 857–9
branches of 839
case law, structuring 857
characteristics of 838–44
Coase theorem 840
codified and non-codified parts of systems, as to 858
comparative 856–61
comparative law as ancillary discipline of 849–52
comparative law combined with 863–4
comparative law, comparison with 838
comparative law, of 861–3
contractual damages, assessment of 852–5
different roles, reasons for 860–1
double function 848
empirical studies, reliance on 851
externalities 839
internationally uniform laws, application of 859
judicial decision-making, as basis for 858
Kaldor-Hicks criterion 843–4
legal transplants, study of 847
legislation, in process of 859–61
models, use of 849
normative 842–4, 851
normative comparative research, role for 847–9
objects of study 850
Pareto improvements 842–3
positive 839–42, 850
prototypical rules, study of 849
risk neutrality 841
social science, as 849
specific norms, predicting response to 851
economics
comparative 320
comparative company law, and 1184
science of 1184
Eder, Phanor J. 296–7
Egypt
legal position in 145, 148
Supreme Constitutional Court 618, 639
Egyptian Civil Code 629–30
Eliot, Charles 187, 200
embryo transplanation 1121–2
emergency powers 1240–2
empirical research 1269–71
enforcement of contract
bases for refusing 910–14
civil law systems, in 910
common-law and civilian solutions 908–10
conditions for 910
consideration, doctrine of 908–9
formalities 914–15
fundamental breach, effect of 912–13, 964–6
promissory estoppel, doctrine of 909
public interest, refusal in order to protect 914
Roman law background 907–8
England, courts referring to foreign law in 522–3
English law
colonies, export to 134
foreign law, presumption as to 394–5
non-conformity of goods, buyer's remedy for 957–60
Roman law, comparison of 135–6
study of 758
US resistance to 181–2
environment law, mass claims 1358
Eörsi, Gyula 223
epistemic communities 584–8
equitable lien 989
equity
common law, and 1059–60
trusts see trusts
Esser, Josef 346–7, 357
ethnocentrism 122
Eurocentrism 434–6
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development 254
secured transactions, model law 1066–7
European Civil Code 45, 690
move to 568–9
practical endeavours 103
progress to 56
Study Group 56, 102, 546, 569, 948–9
European Code of Civil Procedure 1337–8
European Constitution 542
European Contract Code 103
European Convention on Human Rights 50, 1150
comparative law, use by judges 63
European Court of Human Rights 701
European law
acquis communautaire 55
Action Plan on a more coherent European Contract Law 546, 947, 1004
Central and Eastern Europe, in 228
Communications on European Contract Law 946–7
company law 1174–8
Company Law Action Plan 1176–8, 1186
company law harmonization 1163, 1174–8
comparative law in France, impact on 55–60
competition 1209–14
Consumer Sales Directive 944–5
contract, of 943–9 see also Principles of European
Contract Law Directives 101, 543–5
groups, of 1175–6
harmonization, minimization of assumptions underlying law 972–3
High Level Group of Company Law Experts, preparatory work of 1176–8
influence of 100–1
ius commune approach 102
labour law 1148, 1150
law reviews 56
piecemeal change 702
procedural, harmonization of 1337–42
resolution of cases under 762
sales 942–9
sector-specific measures 942
translating 700–4
European law journals 555–7
European legal integration 729–31
European legal scholarship 546–7
European Union
Amsterdam Treaty 542
creation of 542
Maastricht Treaty 542
sales law, harmonization of 942–9
Single European Act 542
Treaty of Nice 542
Europeanization of national law 535
Europeanization of private law
Channel, bridging the 558–60
common conceptual structures 552–5
common core 557–8
comparative law, contribution of 548–69
contract law 560–4
current position 569–72
delict 552–5
Directives 543–5
economic analysis 577
educational process of 571–2
European Civil Code, move to 568–9
European Court of Justice, role of 545
family 566
future of 572–7
insolvency 566
law journals 555–7
legal materials, accessibility of 549–50
legal training 548
national boundaries, disregarding 550–2
need for 543
networks, establishing 555–7
obligations, of 549
systematic 546
tort law 564–6
trust 566
unjustified enrichment 552–5
evolutionism 652
Ewald, William 720, 722, 724, 765, 795
executor, role of 1095–6
family law
abortion 1123–4
artificial insemination 1121–2
assisted reproduction 1121–2
cohabitation see cohabitation
comparative see comparative family law
contraception 1123–4
(p. 1412) current structures 1127
embryo transplantation 1121–2
European 566
future of 1124–6
German 96
in vitro fertilization 1121–2
increasing population, threat from 1127–8
Islamic 632–7
marriage see marriage
meaning 1111–12
same-sex relationships 1117–19
scope 1111–12
surrogate motherhood 1121–2
today's and tomorrow's debates 1114–24
United States, in 1106–8, 111
Western 1110
yesterday's debates 1113–14
family leave 1126
family provision 1085–6
fault liability 1023–9
federalism 627–8
federated Europe 1228
Feudal law 9
Feuerbach, Anselm von 135, 1289, 1292–6, 1302–5
fideicommissa 13
Field, David Dudley 185–6
finalism 345–7
Fletcher, George 1305–7
floating charge 1067
Foelix, Jean-Gaspard 41, 1368
Follen, Charles 183
force majeure 926
foreign law, proof and application of 37
foreseeability rule 852–5
Fortescue, Sir John 14–15, 21–2
France
Code Pénal 41
diminishing influence of 36
foreign law, application of 37
foreign law, courts referring to 521
national law, nature of 40
France, comparative law in
administrative law courts, use in 58
after World War II 45
belle époque 42–7
chair of 38
coexisting goals 64
Congress 36, 42–3
Cour de Cassation, in 58–9
decline of 48–55
development of European law, impact of 55–60
diverse functions, recognition and promotion of 64–5
epistemological function 64
foreign exchange programmes 53
Foundation for Comparative Law Studies 52
incentives for learning 53–5
Institute of Comparative Law 45
insufficient teaching of 52–3
International Academy 45, 53
international law, integration with 62–3
law faculties, marginal position in 52–5
legal scholarship 41
liberal use of 58
new challenges 62–5
new initiatives 55–62
opposition to 50–1
practical uses of 63–4
renaissance 55–65
research centres 54
revival 67
rise of 39–47
scientific view of 66
Société de législation comparée 42, 46
tradition of 36
universities, standing in 66
Frank, Hans 86
Frankenberg, Günther 818, 823
free trade regimes, effects of 793
Free Trade Area of the Americas 291
French Civil Code 36–7, 40–1, 44, 108, 759, 769
diffusion of 448–50
revision 51
Roman law influences 596
sources of law 881
French customary law 20–1
(p. 1413) French law
importance of 165–6
Latin American law, influence on 271–2
French legal thinkers, sixteenth-century 15–22
Friedman, Lawrence 781–2, 804
functionalism/functional method of comparative law 245–7, 308, 328
adaptionism 347–9
Africa, in 652
better law, determining 373–6
chimera, as 340
classical 349–50
comparative function 367–9
comparative law, approach to 246–7
concepts of 342–63
critical function 378–80
Critical Legal Studies critique 825–7
critique 389–91
cross-fertilization 344
culture, no room for 365
different disciplines, in 344
epistemological 355–6, 364–6
equivalence 356–9, 374
evaluation of 342
evaluative function 373–6
finalism 345–7
functions of function 363–80
hybridization 825
instrumentalism 351
law in practice 251–3
law, understanding 364–6
legal anthropology, development of 652–6
legal orders, critique of 378–80
mainstream comparative methodology, as 593
microcomparisons 407
post-modernist critiques 250
praesumptio similitudinis 369–72, 388
presumptive function 369–72
proponents 340
proponents and critics, reconciliation of 391–4
refined 352–5
rule-centred, being 364
social science, as 366
sociology, of 360, 365
studies 341
systematizing function 372–3
sythesis or eclecticism, as 360–3
tautology, as 766
tertium comparationis 367–9
triple misnomer, as 342
unification 386
universalizing function 376–8
utility of 381
Western and pluralistic models 251
Gaius 5–7
Gardner, J. C. 144
Gény, Francois 43
German Civil Code 99, 108, 354, 573
German Code of Civil Procedure 1338
German Criminal Code 1317–18
German law, interest in 170
German Pandectist System 239–44, 247, 256–9
Germany
Civil Code 74–5
codification of law 72–3
commercial statutes 74
criminal law doctrine, exporting 1298
Family Code 99–100
foreign law, courts referring to 521
Insider Trading Guidelines 1183
Pandektenschule 756
securities regulation 1180
Germany, Switzerland and Austria, comparative law in
conflict of laws 96–7
continuity 87
criticism 103–4
dark age 82–8
evolutionary paradigm 73–4
family law 96
focus of 92
Gleichschaltung, policy of 82–5
Golden Age 77–81
institutes, establishment of 89
(p. 1414) institutionalization 75–6, 89
journals 75–6
legislation and courts, in 97–8
legislative 74–5
long nineteenth century, in 71–6
Nationalist Socialist 84–8
new approaches 99–104
overview 70
periodization 70–1
philosophical and political traditions 71–3
post-war scholarship 93–7
recovery 88–98
restitution, law of 95
sales, law of 94
succession, law of 96
tort law 95
Ghana, Constitution of 881
Gibb, Andrew Dewar 167
global governance, issues of 599–603
global legal forms, national and local effects of 792–3
globalization
comparative competition law, impact on 1194, 1217
comparative law, challenges for 579–83
comparative law, fate of 581
democratic ideals, spreading 602
diversity, threat to 586
dominance, patterns of 586
dynamic perspective, move to 588–90
global liftoff, mechanisms of 601
history of 580
ideological challenge of 593–603
increased information and interconnectedness 603–6
law and market, implications for relationship of 599–600
legal culture 731–3
legal profession, of 789–90
meaning 580
methodological challenge of 583–92
practical challenge of 603–7
private law focus, abandonment of 590–2
rhetoric of 581
state sovereignty, assault on 588–9
tensions, as seat of 580
universalizing pressures, neutralizing 587
Gluckman, Max 650, 652–6, 658, 661
Goadby, Frederic M. 142, 148, 151–2, 155, 161
Godefroy, Jacques 21
Goitein, Samuel 638
Gordley, James 346–7, 558
Gorla, Gino 113, 117
Goudy, Henry 158
Gratian 9
Graveson, R. H. 166–7
Gray, Sir Albert 153
Graziadei, Michele 765
Great Britain, comparative law in
achievements 161–3
beyond Empire 163–72
disciplinary uncertainty 172–3
Empire period, evolution and legislation in 133–41
evolution 135–8
institutes and academies, foreign links 151–3
late Victorian crystallization 133
mixed systems 167, 172
modern foundations 141–63
new developments 170–2
pioneers 142–51
unification 167
universities, in 155–8
Griffiths, John 666–7
Groβeld, Bernhard 391–2
Grotius, Hugo 23–4, 324, 747
group litigation 1357–61
Group on European Tort Law 564–6
Guatemalan Commercial Code 282
Gutteridge, Harold C. 141–2, 153, 156–7, 159–63, 167, 389
Hadley, James 189
Hoeflich, Michael 176
Hague Academy of International Law 1369
Hague Conference on Private International Law 1377–8, 1387
Hague Law of International Sales 940
Hammond, William 188
(p. 1415) Hammurabi's Code 1110
harmonization of national laws 386
Harvard Law Review 189
Heck, Philipp 348, 373
Herschell, Lord Chancellor 138
Heymann, Ernst 83–4
Hindu law 148–9
Hintze, Otto 400
Hobbes, Thomas 24, 26
Hoffman, David 185
Holmes, Oliver Wendell 179, 187, 1025
Huber, Eugen 74
human dignity 734
human rights
civil and political 1231–2
comparative constitutional law, and 1228–30
fundamental, emergence of 1392–4
international institutions applying 1233
Muslim states, in 620
social and economic 1232
universal rights norms 1392–3
Hungary
Central European University 230
civilian heritage 223
Constitutional Court 231–2
law in 218
legal scholarship 223
hunting, in Roman law 29–30
Husa, Jaakko 393, 399
Ibero-Americanism 289–90
Ibn Abi al-Dam 614–17
Ilbert, Sir Courtenay 136, 138–40
Imperial Law School 158–60
in vitro fertilization 1121–2
industrial accident insurance 1144
inheritance contracts 1086–7
insider trading 1183
insolvency, European law 566
Institute for the Unification of Private Law 80–1 see also UNIDROIT
Institute of Advanced Legal Studies 160, 167
instrumentalism 351
insurance
industrial accident 1144
liability 1035
no-fault schemes 1036–9
social schemes 1035–6
tort law, and 1035–41
unemployment 1144
Inter-American Specialized Conferences on Private International Law (CIDIP) 290–2
International Academy of Comparative Law 150–2, 168–9
international association for comparative law 88
international commercial contracts 905–6
International Committee for Comparative Law 205
International competition network 1216
International Criminal Court, Rome Statute 1307
international criminal tribunals 129
International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law 47
International Institute for the Unification of Private Law 151–2
International Labour Organization 1146–7
international law, transcendental dimension 749–50
international lawyers and comparatists, relationship of 830–1
internationalization 38
investor protection
need for 1165
securities fraud, against 1178
US company law and securities regulation, in 1178–9
US securities regulation, global advance of 1179–82
Iran
constitutional review 618
revolution 611
Iraq, federalism 628
Islamic law 149
administrative 623
all-encompassing 612
autonomous references 613
Cadastre 623
(p. 1416) child, custody of 633, 637
civilization, comparative framework 610–14
classical legacy 614–17
comparative law as essential component 611
constitutions 624–8
contemporary scene 617–22
contract and tort 629–32
criminal 623
dowry, payment of 635–6
family 632–7
gender equality, search for 632–7
Ibn Abi al-Dam's manual 614–17
Iranian revolution, effect of 611
judge, role of 617–21
larger frame of reference, within 612
legal profession 614
levels of 612
marriage 633, 636–7
Middle East, in 613
obligations, law of 629–31
official law, impact on 746
Ottoman Majalla 629–31, 638
personal system as 612
public and private, comparative issues 623–37
religious authorities, competence of 746
rule of law, and 620–2, 638
Shariʼa 610, 613
style, comparative argument 623
succession, of 634–5
Western-style legislation, displaced by 610
Islamic studies 122
Israel
Arabs in 626
constitutional review 618
federalism 628
Jew, legal definition of a 626
non-Jews, discrimination against 626–7
Italian Civil Code 108–9, 448
sources of law 884
Italian jurists 12
Italian law
Americanization 123
Anglo-American model 109
contract 113
Digesto 119
foreign models 125
German influence 111
models 108
reception, layers of 108–10
Italy, academic appointments 116
Italy, comparative law in
Associazione Italiana di Diritto Comparato 116–17
changes, role in 109
civil and commercial scholars, early twentieth century 110–11
contemporary scene 117–23
contributions in Europe and beyond 128–30
current challenges 123–7
founding fathers 109
functionalist methodology 121
future directions 123–7
institutionalization 116–17
interdisciplinary trends 125–7
Islamic studies 122
Latin American studies 122
legal anthropology, cooperation with 126
mainstream, emergence of 113–16
modern discipline, emergence of 110–17
non-traditional schools and approaches 120–1
political influence, lack of 124–5
post-World War II reformists 111–12
private law comparison 116–17
role and status 122
sub-traditions 120
Theses of Trento 117–20, 125
ius commune 13–14, 17–19, 102, 265, 385, 447, 547, 580
ius gentium 5–6
ius naturale 6
ius proprium 6
Japan
administrative standards 253
Chinese law, influence of 444–5
commentaries, era of 240
comparative competition law, interest in 1215
comparative law era 242–3
comparative law, study of 239
contract law 249–53
economy 1215
functionalist approach in comparative law 246–7
German law and doctrine in 241–2
labour law 1147, 1151
law reforms 257–8
legal assistance 255
legal culture 802–3
legal identity, search for 244–5
modern civil law, formative era of 239
modern legal system 259
private law system 240–2
securities regulation 1180
Japan International Cooperation Agency 255
Jauffret-Spinosi, C. 51
Jefferson, Thomas 181, 192, 494
Jenks, Edward 136, 140, 152
Jhering, Rudolf von 136, 307, 348, 1030–1
Jolowicz, H. F. 153
Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law 141, 146, 148, 154–5, 162
judgments
erga omnes effects 1246
intra partes effects 1246
judicial review
adjudicatory procedures 1248–9
centralized 1244–6
comparative constitutional law study, examination in 1242
constitutional foundation 1280
diffuse 1242–4
generalist 1242–4
grounds of 1280–2
Kelsenian model 1244–6
procedures and institutions, comparison of 1279–80
specialized 1244–6
structures of 1242–9
United States, in 1242–4
weak-form 1246–8
Juenger, Friedrich 1374
jurisprudence
comparative 140, 1294
comparative science of 133
historical 135–8, 186–90
Justinian 6
kadi justice 781–2
Kahn-Freund, Otto 165, 170–1, 1135, 1146
Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute 79–80, 83–7, 1368
Kalman, Laura 343
Keith, Berriedale 155
Kelsen, Hans 1244–6
Kennedy, David 392, 593, 595, 599
Kennedy, Duncan 126
Kent's Commentaries 184
Khedivial School of Law 146–7, 151
Kiralfy, Albert 165
Knapp, Viktor 224
Kocourek, Albert 200–1
Köhler, Hans 89
Kohler, Josef 73–4, 76
Korea
German Pandectist system 256, 259
modern legal system 259
Koschaker, Paul 319, 446, 547
Kötz, Hein 170, 388, 393, 422, 547, 550–3, 874, 902
labour law
academic instruction, as subject of 1136–8
Asia and developing world, in 1151
Britain, in 1135
comparative see comparative labour law
contemporary quandary 1153–8
continental divide 1136
creation of 1133
demographic change 1157
discipline of 1137
economic liberalization, effect of 1134
emergence of 1132–3
(p. 1418) employer policies 1156
European concept of 1136–7
European, creation of 1148, 1150
flexibilization 1154–5
German, lectures on 1136–7
individualization 1155–7
legal regimes 1132–3
State, capacity of 1157–8
United States, in 1138, 1151–2
Lambert, Edouard 43–5, 50, 75, 143, 540, 776, 1227
land holding 11
land registries, law on 1068–9
land title registration 454
Lando Commission 546, 560–2, 903, 948–9
Lando, Ole 56–7
Langdell, Christopher 187–8
language
communication by 679
comparative analysis 682
comparative law, connection of 677
comparative law theory in post-war generation 686–9
concept, defining 679
culture, bound to 468
deflation 694–7
English, widespread use of 676–7
European law, translating 700–4
familiarity and foreignness 697–700
French, preservation of 695–6
I-language 685
issues 676
law, relationship with 507–9, 511
legal phenomenon lacking exact equivalent 678
multiplicity, effect of 693
next generation, in 689–91
non-national, growth of 694–7
perfectability, faith in 692
plurilinguism 679–82, 691
post-war comparative law, and 682–6
private 685–6
similarity and differences, study of 685
translation 678–81
universalism 676
universalist perfection, quest for 691
untranslatables 680, 693
Lasser, Mitchel 341
Latin America
Critical Legal Studies 820–1
democratic constitutionalism in 1227
private international law conference 1378
Latin America, comparative law in action, in 298–300
authority and challenges of 295–8
colonial period 263–7
eclecticism 293–5
influence of 300
Portuguese empire 266
topics of 263
US law, influence of 293
Latin American Association of Integration (ALADI) 292
Latin American law
banking sector, reform 286
civil law, codification of 273–4
codification efforts 270–84
common law, influence of 285–8
complexity of 300
conflicts, approach to 1373
Constitutions 267–70
education 288
first legal structures 263–4
foreign law, authority of 295–8
foreign law, copying 271–2
French law, as variation of 262
habeas corpus provisions 270
independence and codification 267–85
neglect of 262
originality, lacking 263
Pan-Americanism versus Ibero-Americanism 289–90
Spanish legal order 264–5
sub-regional integration 292–3
summary of development 285
unification 288–93
United States, growing interest of 286
Latin American studies 122
Latour, Bruno 809
Latvia, Constitution 231
Law and Economics movement 125–6
(p. 1419) Law Commissions 169
law
geographical, institutional and social contexts of 31
purpose of 307–8
Lawson, F. H. 164–5
Lebanon
Constitution 625–7
federalism 628
population of 625
Lee, R. W. 142, 149–53, 158, 160–2
legal anthropology
Barotse, study of 653–6, 658
comparative law, in 671–2
customary law, influence on perceptions of 651
development of 651–6
evolutionism 652
functionalism 652–6
legal change
determining factors 336
factors of 455–61
legal culture, and 718–21
scope of 461–2
through borrowing, factors influencing 489–93
vagueness of notion 462
legal consciousness 828–30
legal culture
analytical significance of 724
boundaries, transcending 728
bounded unity, reference to 725
causal power 719
comparative law, emphasis in 733–4
components of 715–17
crude concept of 802–3
defining 717–18
difference, celebrating 726–33
disaggregating 733–6
epistemological framework 723
European 713–15
European legal integration 729–31
fields of similarity, as 713–18
globalization 731–3
historical understanding 720
idea of 710
identification and interpretation 721–8
Japanese 802–3
law inside 711–13
legal change, and 718–21
legal parochialism, and 731–3
literature, primary importance of 734
multiculturalism 727–9
scope, fixing 710
separate integrity, protection of 724
socio-legal studies 796–9
ultimate values 734
usefulness, negative view of 725
legal families 387
administrative law, comparison of 1266–7
attribution of systems to 480
building blocks of 873
categorization into 422
challenge to idea of 422
classification criteria 437–9
classification into 433
division into 596
divisions 761
Eurocentrism 434–6
family trees approach, and 481
legal systems, of 761
legal tradition, as variant of 426
meaning 480
movement away from concept 436
procedural 1329–35
religious influences on 741–2
static concept, as 426–9
taxonomic objective 423–6
teaching 433
theory of 874
untenable classification into 481
legal formants, theory of 115, 127–9, 391
legal history
common mistake 763–8
comparative law, in service of 768–72
comparative law, supporting study of 754
Continental 754–8
English 758
origins of 754–9
recent writing 761
(p. 1420) Roman texts, influence of 757, 762
separate discipline of 772
legal knowledge
character and effects of 778
élite 807–8
emerging work 804–13
own right, subject in 812
social, political and economic phenomena, constituting 809
legal language, cultural fluency in 306
legal method
building block of theories, as 873
comparative law as tool of 875–6
comparative studies of 889–96
discipline of comparative law, significance for 871–6
future direction 896–7
general studies 890–1
history of legal system, reference to 891
legal systems compared 896–7
legislation on 886–9
pointillist treatment 888
practice, in 886–9
sources of law, links with questions of 870
supranational systems, of 897
terminology 885–6
theories of 886–9
legal pluralism 483, 727–9
behaviour, attention to 668
centralism, and 666–8
customary law in age of 670–1
interlegality 794
new debates 793–5
normative orders, assumption of validity 670
research, value of 668–70
reservations 670
semi-autonomous social field 667
socio-legal studies 787–8, 793–5, 805–7
weak and strong 667
legal positivism 463, 645
legal profession
globalization 789–90
Islamic 614–22
legal reasoning, socio-legal studies 804
legal rules and systems, analysis in context 308
legal scholarship, comparative 574
legal science, methods in 133
legal systems
actual ties between 760
assumptions 883
beyond Europe and the Americas 785–6
contract law, influences of 904
differences in rules, puzzling 768
economic purpose, unity of 766–8
existence of 763–4
foreign influence on 533–6
grouping 761
idea of 761
instrumentally rational 780
philosophical principle, unity of 764–6
similar rule adopted by 769–71
unifying principles, search for 764–8
legal traditions
boundaries and systemic features, absence of 432
classification criteria 437–9
identification of 425
legal, formal definition of 428
movement towards concept of 436
normative information, as 428
teaching 432
legal transplants 121, 170–1, 306
accelerated rate, at 586
ambiguity 455
Civil Codes, diffusion of 515–16
classical cases 444–55
comparative study of 442
Critical Legal Studies critique 827–8
crude concept of 802
cultural context 468–9
debate 795–6
economic analysis 847
effects, empirical evidence of 460
explanations of 530–1
fit with local context 472–3
force, application of 473
imposition 456–7
initial innovation 454
institutions requiring 459–61
law and authority 463–5
(p. 1421) law and society 465–70
legal change, factors of 455–61
legal positivism 463
lessons of 470–4
mixed legal systems 453
mixed legal systems, creation of 487–9
paradigm, as 443
patterns of change and continuity, coexisting with 461
prestige motivating imitation 457–8
reformulation of thesis 809
socio-legal studies 795–6
specific examples 453–5
study of 474
terminology 443–4
transaction costs 848
unsettling, being 463–70
Legaré, Hugh 185
legislation
application and interpretation, literature on 893
comparative studies of 892–4
economic analysis 859–61
statutory interpretation, rules of 888
legocentrism 692
Lévy-Ullmann, Henri 44–5, 143, 151, 167, 194, 197, 494
Lex Dei quam praecepit Dominus ad Moysen 7–8
Lieber, Francis 183, 185
linguistics, comparative 320–5, 1294
Linnaeus 423
Lipstein, Kurt 156
Lislet, Louis 186
Liszt, Franz von 348
Livermore, Samuel 183
Llewellyn, Karl 84, 276
Locke, John 26
Lombard laws 9, 12, 25
Louisiana Code of Procedure 186
Louisiana Digest 448
Luhmann, Niklas 358–9
Lupoi, Maurizio 1089–90, 1093
Lyon-Caen, Antoine 52
Macdonell, Sir John 136, 138, 141, 155
Macmillan, Lord 152–3
macrocomparison 387–8, 439
Maine, Sir Henry 132, 135–6, 138, 147, 187, 778
maintenance claims 1085–6
Mairal, Hector 297
Maitland, Frederic William 139, 758
Markensis, Basil S. 170, 172, 535
marriage
African customary law 649
age for 1108–9
civil versus religious tradition 1116
completion of 17–18
consent of fathers to 27–8
domestic conflict norms 1386
downgrading 1114–15
Islamic law 633, 636–7
legal, future of 1119–21
legal obligations of 1111–12
marital property 17–18
Roman and canon law 11–12
same-sex partners, between 1117–19
social purposes of 1112–13
state's secular interests in 1116–17
today's and tomorrow's debates 1114–24
yesterday's debates 1113–14
mass claims 1357–61
Mattei, Ugo 129
Max Planck Institutes 89
McNair, A. D. 153, 156
Merton, Robert K. 352–3, 358
method of agreement 397
method of difference 397
methodological eclecticism 362
Mexican amparo 269
microcomparison 387–8, 407
Middle Ages
Early and High 8–12
Later 12–15
Mill, John Stuart 318, 331, 397, 399
Mittermaier, Carl Joseph Anton 1303–6
mixed legal systems 453
best rules, selection of 493–507
birth of awareness of 478
change through borrowing, factors influencing 489–93
civil law and common law, mixes of 484–5
(p. 1422) classificatory criteria 481
comparative law, relevance to 486–509
concept of 480–6
conclusions 510–11
evolutionary approach 506
exporting quality 502–5
factors influencing value 494–8
fit with local context 496
foreign law, ease of introducing 493
formation 489–93
historical and comparative perspective 499–502
improving quality 499–502
influences on 484
interaction of components 483
judiciary, role of 504
language, relationship with 507–9, 511
legal borrowing and transplants 487–9
minimum characteristics 484–5
narrow approach 478
patterns of change, predicting 505–7
pragmatism 498
private law in Europe, development of 502–7, 511
quality of 493–507, 510
reversal of fortunes 478
solutions of problems 559
sub-groupings 482–3
use of term 478, 485–6
mobile equipment, international interests in 1066
modern law, character of 780
Moens, Gabriel 53
Montesquieu, Baron Charles de 23, 26–9, 39–40, 385, 465–6, 776, 1294
Montmorency, J. E. G. de 136, 155–6, 158
Moore, Sally Falk 667
Morandière, Julliot de la 44
Moroccan family code 636–7
mortgages
European-wide uniform 1067
German law 1067
Mosaic law 8
Muir Watt, Horatia 61
Müller, Friedrich Max 326
multiculturalism 727–9
national courts
comparative influence on 525–7
comparative law in 518–24
comparative reasoning in 527–33
domestic disputes, voluntary recourse to foreign law in 519–24
foreign materials, use of 518–19
national legislatures, comparative law and 515–18
nations and laws, link between 146
natural law 182, 186, 1293
natural law school 23–32
Nelken, David 580, 602–3
neoliberal legal forms 810
Nicaraguan Civil Code 283
Nicholas, Barry 164–5
OʼHiggins, Bernardo 271
obligations, law of 91
comparative approach 101
European 549
French 145, 147
Islamic 629–31
Japanese, in 241
South African 150
Ocampo Dávila, José Gabriel 276, 279, 282
Official Development Assistance 254
Ombudsmen 1278
organ transplants 171
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
competition law report 1216
Convention on Corruption 377–8
Oriental despotism 615
Osterhammel, Jürgen 400–1
pacta sunt servanda, principle of 926
Palestine, indigenous community 626
Palmer, Vernon 484–5
Pan-Americanism 289–90
Panama, Commercial Code 282
Panormitanus 17
Paraguay, Civil Code 282
Paris Congress see Congress of Paris
parol evidence rule 920–1
pater familias, liability of 1029
(p. 1423) personal representative, role of 1095–6
personality rights, infringement of 1020–3
persons and things, divide between 810–11
Peru
Civil Code 274, 294
Commercial Code 272
Pickering, John 183
Pithou, Pierre 20
Plato 396–7
Poland
Civil Code 223
civilian heritage 223
constitutional law 231
law in 217–18
legal scholarship 222–3
Stalinism in 222
Pollock, Sir Frederick 132, 139, 152, 769, 870
Portuguese empire, legal order 266
Pothier, Robert Joseph 23, 29–31, 182, 770
Pottage, Alain 810–12
Pound, Roscoe 176, 180–1, 183–4, 187, 199–200, 202, 207, 348–9, 361
precedent, comparative research 895
primogeniture, law of 13–14
Principles of European Contract Law 56–7, 60, 103, 763, 903, 948–9
contents of 560–1
fundamental breach, doctrine of 965–6
international comparative and collaborative effort 562
preparation 560
purposes and perspectives 563–4
Restatements of American Law, inspired by 562, 576
scope of 560
UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts compared 566–7
Principles of European Family Law 103, 566
Principles of European Insolvency Law 566
Principles of European Tort Law 103, 564–6, 1025
Principles of European Trust Law 566, 1093
Principles of Transnational Civil Procedure 568, 1345–8
privacy, rights of 1020–3, 1254
private international law see also conflict of laws
basic orientation and goals 1374
choice-of-law norms 1375–7
comparative element 1370–1
comparative law, relationship with 1364–95 see also comparative conflicts law
Europeanization of 1389–92
foreign law, dealing with 1365
foreign law, information about 1381–2
International Conventions, interpretation of 1387–8
making of law 1377–80
qualification 1384–7
routine norms, construction of 1384–7
subject matter of 1364
private law
comparative projects 590–2
comparative, communitarization of 575–7
constitutionalization 1047
dynamic areas of 1045
Europe, development in 502–7, 511
Europeanization see Europeanization of private law
public law distinguished 1262
unification, task of 540–1
promissory estoppel, doctrine of 909
property
autochthonous populations, land claims by 1045
private, justification of 30–1
purpose of 26
right to 26
theft 1045
property law
American Restatement 1065
change, systems open to 1048
civil systems 1051–7
codification 1044
comparative see comparative property law
dynamism of 1050
economic context, in 1050
emission rights 1064–6
feudal remnants 1057–9
four economic freedoms, influence on 1046
legal relationships, concerning 1062
legislation 1049
licences 1064
national, regional and global, osmosis of 1065–8
objects of 1062–4
Scots 1058
security purposes, transfer of ownership for 1049
static description 1048
tenure and estate, concepts of 1057–9
uniform, potential 1068
public law
common good, promotion of 1262–3
concerns of 1262
core relations of 1263
private law distinguished 1262
Pufendorf, Samuel von 23–6
Pugliese, Giovanni 113
punishment theory 1309–10
pure economic loss, liability for 1015–20
Quain Chair of Comparative and Historical Law 155–7, 159, 161
Radbruch, Gustav 345, 683
rationality, types of 780
reception
Civil Codes, diffusion of 447–51
classical cases 444–55
common law, diffusion of 451–3
comparative study of 442
Critical Legal Studies critique 827–8
cultural context 468–9
fit with local context 472–3
imposition 456–7
law and authority 463–5
law and society 465–70
legal change, factors of 455–61
lessons of 470–4
meaning 443
mixed legal systems 453
patterns of change and continuity, coexisting with 461
prestige motivating imitation 457–8
Roman law, of 445–7
specific examples 453–5
statutes 443, 452
unsettling, being 463–70
regionalization 38
Reimann, Mathias 394
religion
Buddhism 743, 748
civil, impact on law 743–5
comparative 325–31
Confucianism, and 743–4, 748–9
definitions 743
descriptive process of 328–9
dharma, belief in 743
diverse legal families of law, influences on 741–2
Hinduism 743
incomparability, claim to 327–8
interrelationship with comparative law, overview of literature 739–41
law, dimensions of 745–6
origins, reconstruction of 318
positivistic comparison 327
religious law and secular law distinguished 742
scientific treatment of 326
tertia comparationis 330
world, and world law 746–50
Renaissance, in 754
research in comparative law
fields of interest 91–3
increasing importance 89
methodological foundations 90–1
steps in 306
Restatements of American Law 562, 576
restatements, usefulness of 536
restitution, law of 95
Roberts, Simon 163
Roman jurists 5
(p. 1425) Roman law 5–6, 9
authentic, recovery of 755
canon law compared 10–12
enforcement of contract, background 907–8
English law, comparison of 135–6
France, in 19–20
French Civil Code, influence on 596
fundamental role of 164–5
German legal history, in 595–6
Italy, in 109
modern law, influence on 762
Portuguese empire, in 266
reception of 445–7
research and education 226
study of 754–5
United States, in 182
Roman-Dutch law 156, 163
Romania, comparative law in 224
Rotondi, Mario 110–11
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 776
Rudden, Bernard 165
rule of law
Islamic law 620–2, 638
notion of 1271–2
socio-legal studies 790–2
rules, link to effects 396–9
Rüthers, Bernd 85
Rylands v Fletcher, rule in 1031–2
Sacco, Rodolfo 113–15, 117, 126, 128–9, 390–1, 442, 688, 761
Said, Edward 820
sale of goods
comparative law see comparative sales law
English law 957–60
fundamental breach, doctrine of 964–6
implied terms 958
Nachfrist procedure 962, 964–5
national law reform 960
seller's liability 955–60
termination of contract as remedy 960–6
uniform law see uniform sales law
Saleilles, Raymond 43, 75, 133, 246, 350, 373, 540, 776
sales, law of 94, 951–2
sales of goods, codification 80–1, 939–54
Salomon, Max 345, 356
same-sex relationships 1117–19
Savigny, Friedrich Carl von 72, 108, 146, 187, 466, 715, 766, 1368
Scandinavia, sales law in 951–2
Schacht, Joseph 610
Schlesinger, Rudolf B. 113, 686–9
School of African and Oriental Studies 163
Schuster, Ernest 159
science of language 322
Scots legal system 145
secular-rational model of law 745–6
Selden, John 23–4
Semper, Gottfried 318
similarity
comparative enquiries, steps of 406–19
complex enquiries 399–401
concept of 311
difference, and 312–14
differences, contemporary debate 394–6
explaining 416–17
presumption of 395–6
problems and results, of 388
superficial 390
Slovenian Constitutional Court 231
Smalley-Baker, C. E. 157
Smith, Munroe 189, 197
Smith, H. A. 159
Smith, Sir Thomas 167
social change 331–5
social control, law as system of 800
social Darwinism 424
social facts, constitution of 811
social sciences, comparative 332
social security schemes, coordination with tort law 1039–40
socialist legal culture, defence of 224–5
Society of Comparative Legislation 132, 138–41, 153–5
Society of Public Teachers of Law 143, 151, 158–9, 161
socio-legal studies
comparative law, rapprochement with 777
consensus items 799–803
East Asian comparative law, engagement with 786
(p. 1426) emerging work 804
free trade regimes, effects of 793
global legal forms, national and local effects of 792–3
heterogeneous field of 777
law and development projects 790–2
law and society, stark distinction between 800–1
legal culture 796–9, 802–3
legal harmonization projects 790–2
legal pluralism 793–5, 805–7
legal profession, globalization of 789–90
legal transplants 795–6, 802
normative and descriptive argument, distinction between 801–2
rapprochment 789–99
rule of law, and 790–2
tradition of 776
traditional distance from comparative law 783–5
transnational focus 799–800
trenches and towers 808
US Law and Society Association 783–4, 791–2
Weber, shadow of 778–83
sociology, functionalism of 360, 365
sources of law
binding character 878–9
building block of theories, as 873
case law, studies of 894–5
catalogues of 881
comparative law as 875–6
comparative studies of 889–96
custom 895–6
different objects, used to describe 878
discipline of comparative law, significance for 871–6
doctrinal writings 895
establishing 877–85
formal 877
future direction 896–7
general studies 890–1
hierarchy of 880
history of legal system, reference to 891
legal method, links with questions of 870
legal systems compared 896–7
legislation on 880–2
legislation, comparative studies of 892–4
purpose of 870
social reality 883–5
specific, studies of 891–6
supranational systems, of 897
terminology 877–80
theories of 882–3
types of 877
South Africa
apartheid in 664
Constitution 532
constitution, drafting 1236–7
democracy, establishment of 1228
sovereignty 15
criminal law's connection with 1288
offence, over 1290
Soviet Law and State 221
Spencer, Herbert 347
Spinoza, Benedict de 683
Sraffa, Angelo 110–11
Stalinism 220–2
state sovereignty 588–9
statutes of limitation 1384–5
Steiner, George 692–4
Story, Joseph 179, 183–4
strict liability 1029–34
structuralism, Critical Legal Studies critique 825–7
Study Group on European Civil Code 56, 102, 546, 569, 948–9
subrogation
German law equivalent 984
insurance law example 985
non-contractual 973
unjustified enrichment and 984–6
succession law
African customary 654–5
changes in 1097
comparative research into 1073
death, transfer of estate on 1094–6
debts, transfer of liability for 1094
economic and social context, analysis in 1072
(p. 1427) economic factors influencing 1079–80
executor, role of 1095–6
focus areas 1086–7
forced succession, law of 1077, 1085–6
freedom of testation, principle of 1084
German 96
German Civil Code 1076
Hague Conventions 1081–2
harmonization, scope for 1073, 1075–7
inheritance contracts 1086–7
Islamic 634–5
non-discrimination provisions, effect of 1087
non-probate transfers 1079–80
personal representative, role of 1095–6
regionality 1076
social factors influencing 1077–9
social function 1072
Southern Africa, in 669
static image 1096
testate and intestate, division into 1073
true nature of 1072
trusts see trusts
will substitutes 1079–80
wills see wills
WLSA work on 669
supra-national legal orders, emergence and impact of 1388–94
supranational courts 604
surrogate motherhood 1121–2
Swiss Civil Code 451, 518, 532, 537
Swiss Code of Obligations 451
Swiss Institute of Comparative Law 89–90
Switzerland
Civil Code 74
delict, law of 92–3
European law, statutes following 101
Federal Code of Civil Procedure 97
German solutions, adoption into law 97
legislation, analysis of 98
university institute of comparative law, absence of 89
Talmudic law
religious authorities, competence of 746
Tanase, Takao 802–3
Taruffo, Michele 129
taxonomic comparative law
classification criteria 437–9
comparison and conflict 429–34
exclusionary tendency 435
project 423–6
stasis, and 426–9
Teixeira de Freitas, Augusto 276–8
Teubner, Gunther 808–9
Theodosian Code 9, 21
Theses of Trento 117–20, 125
Thibaut, Anton Friedrich Justus 72
Tiv, disputes among 656
Torrens title 454
Torrens, Sir Robert Richard 454
tort law
comparative see comparative tort law
criminal law, relationship with 1010–12
dignitary injuries, liability for 1020–3
European 564–6
fault liability 1023–9
French Code Civil, philosophy of 1006
German 95
insurance, and 1035–41
Islamic 629–32
moral wrongdoing, liability for 1023–4
no-fault schemes 1036–9
objective standard of care, dominance of 1024–6
private law, as dynamic area of 1045
pure economic loss, liability for 1015–20
rules-based model 1006
Rylands v Fletcher, rule in 1031–2
social security schemes, coordination with 1039–40
strict liability 1029–34
trade unions 1145, 1155–6
transnational uniform law 606
transplant, legal see legal transplant
Trento Common Core of European Private Law Project 557–8, 594, 689, 762, 902, 1046
(p. 1428) trusts
civilian and mixed jurisdictions, in 1089–91
common law concept 1387
common law institution, as 1088–9
Continental Europe, institutions in 1091–3
definition 1090
divided title under 1088, 1090
European law 566
European theme, as variation on 559
foreign law, governed by 1093
Hague Convention 1082
law, comparative study of 571
model for introduction of 1090
Scotland, in 1090
South Africa, in 496, 1091
will, created by 1087
Tulane College of Law 198–9
Tunc, André 46
Turkey
Swiss Civil Code, introduction of 532, 537
Twelve Tables, law of 515
Ulpian 6
UN Commission on Trade and Development
competition law report 1216
UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods 81, 100, 377, 770, 903
applied comparative law, as product of 938
comparative law, and 941–2
damages, rules on 942
fundamental breach, doctrine of 965
scope of 941
seller's right to cure, whether recognizing 964
states in which in force 939
success of 940, 954
UNCITRAL 94
Arbitration Rules 1349
conflicts issues, conventions on 1378
creation of 540
global dimension of work 456
impact of 541
Model Law on Arbitration 292, 1348–9, 1351
UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods, working group to modify 941
unemployment insurance 1144
UNESCO conference of experts 205
UNIDROIT
Cape Town Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment 1066, 1069
creation of 540
foundation of
global dimension of work 456
impact of 541
international sales, committee for elaboration of law of 940
joint ALI/UNIDROIT Civil Procedure Project 1345–8
Principles of Transnational Civil Procedure 1345–8
UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 44, 57, 60, 120, 129, 566–7, 762, 770, 903
application of 953
fundamental breach, doctrine of 966
scope of 953
unification
boundaries of EU, beyond 567–8
comparison as tool for 290
economic, social, political and cultural factors, similarity of 409
harmonization 386, 385
Latin American law 288–93
private law, of 540–1
universalizing function 376–8
Uniform Commercial Code 84, 291, 959, 963
uniform law, interpretation of 100
uniform sales law
Africa, harmonization in 949–51
comparative law influence 938
Convention relating to a Uniform Law of International Sales 940
Convention relating to a Uniform Law on the Formation of Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 940
development of 939–54
European Union, harmonization within 942–9
existing body of 938
Hague Law of International Sales 940
national law, and 954
projects 939
Scandinavia, in 951–2
unification, process of 966–7
United States
foreign law, courts referring to 523–4
United States, comparative law in
academic comparatists 188–90
American republic, as old as 176
during 1930s 202–4
European legal research and conferences, involvement in 196
firm establishment 204–11
focus, shift of 186
foreign interests 196–7
formative era, in 180–6
historical jurisprudence 186–90
organization 212
organized 190–204
origins of activities 177
post-war period, in 204–4
scepticism and assessment 209–11
Supreme Court, in 178–80 see also US Supreme Court
vibrancy 209
Universal Congress of Lawyers and Jurists, 1904 192–4
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 684
universalism 676
unjustified enrichment 552–5, 559
autonomous 997
basic elements of 973
civil law remedies 987
common law and civil law, differences in 972–5
common law remedies 988–90
common-law countries, developments in 971, 995
comparative analyses 971
comparative lawyers, contribution of 1001–2
creation of proprietary rights to combat 991
differences in law, anatomy of 972–5
discretionary remedialism 989–90
disgorgement of benefits obtained by act of defendant 977–81
encroachment, claim based on 996, 999
English approach, defects of 998
English law, acknowledgement in 995
failed contracts, winding up 981–3
German law 970–1
independent cause of action, as 994
measuring enrichment 991–2
multi-party, uncertainties of 992–4
new thinking on 970
obtruding benefit on another 983–4
organization of law 995
performance/transfer, claim based on 996
personal versus proprietary remedies 987–91
public law contract, conferral of benefit in 986
recognition as cause of action 970
remedial 997
Restatement of the Law of Restitution 994
restitutio in integrum, historical basis of 981
scope of liability 975–92
situation in which enrichment arises, importance of 999
specific reason to found claim 997
subrogation, and 984–6
taxonomy for 994–1001
unowed payment, reversal of 975–7
Wilburg's typology 996
(p. 1430) work of liability 975–86
Uruguay
Civil Code 281
commercial and civil law 279
US Constitution 269, 1226, 1236, 1239–40
use of foreign law to interpret 179–80
US Declaration of Independence 181
US Supreme Court
comparative law in 178–80
foreign law, referring to 524
foreign legal systems, influence on 179
judicial review 1242–4
Uzbekistan, Islamic law 248
Vélez Sarsfield, Dalmacio 279–81, 283
Venezuela
foreign codes, adaptation of 282
Versailles Treaty 76–9
Vesey-Fitzgerald, S. G. 137, 148–50, 155, 157, 161
vicarious liability 1029
victims, role of 1310–11
Vinogradoff, Paul 137, 152, 156
Vogenauer, Stefan 341
Vyshinsky, A. Y. 220
wage payment 1144
Walker, James 185
Walton, F. P. 132, 144–6, 152, 154, 161–2, 478
Watson, Alan 171, 353, 442, 467–8, 487, 515, 718–22, 757, 762, 795, 826
Weir, Tony 170
Weiss, André 45
welfare state 1146–7
Whitman, James 392
Wigmore, John 200–3
wild animals, treatment of 12, 24–5, 29–30
wills
content of 1087–93
execution, formalities for 1073
freedom of testation, principle of 1084
international 1081
notarial 1073–4
public international law instruments 1081–2
substitutes 1079–80
Treaty of Washington 1081
trusts see trusts
types of 1073
witchcraft, evidence of 660
Wolff, Christian 23–4
Women and Law in Southern Africa 668–70
worker privacy 1141
World Bank 254, 351, 459
world law, development of 746–50
World Trade Organization 459
Wortley, B. A. 141, 157, 167, 170
Wróblewski, Jerzy 222
Wylde, Sir John 491
Zimmermann, Reinhard 102, 172, 502–3, 715, 762, 771