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date: 19 May 2019

(p. 562) (p. 563) Index

(p. 562) (p. 563) Index

Aachen see Aix-la-Chapelle
Abbeville112
Absolute monarchy1, 4, 6, 12–38, 101, 110, 114–15, 116, 133, 145, 159, 212, 221, 236, 388, 411, 419, 467, 469, 490, 498, 500, 508, 541, 542, 556, 558
Academies94, 116, 117, 133, 179, 374, 375, 377, 379–82, 393, 396–400, 444
-française128, 437
Acquaviva, Claudio321
Adams, Christine129
Adams, John522, 526, 535
Addison, Joseph436
Africa252, 256, 262, 263, 267, 268, 269, 313, 452, 514, 523, 526, 527, 530
Agriculture3, 6, 67, 77, 112, 131, 168, 170, 201, 203, 207, 210–11, 213, 236–51, 253, 254, 255, 267, 268, 275, 448, 529, 560
Aguesseau, Henri François d’94, 329
Agulhon, Maurice375, 384
Aigrefeuille223, 224
Aiguillon, Duke d’230
Aix-en-Provence29, 93, 94, 112, 172
Aix-la-Chapelle54, 532
Albany527
Albizzi, Francesco322–3
Alembert, Jean Le Rond d’132, 221, 378, 380, 441, 444
Alençon112
Alet297
Alexander VII326
Allen, Robert459–60
Allgemeine Shulordnung364, 365
Alps5, 40, 173, 208, 277, 501
Alsace210, 224, 230, 240, 242, 244, 247, 348, 478
Althusius, Johannes148
America253, 256, 258, 262, 263, 268, 270, 321, 339, 432, 442, 452, 515, 522–39, 557
Amis des Noirs272
Andalucia500
Angivillier, Charles Claude d’394–5
Angran de Fonpertuis76–7
Anjou113, 228, 240, 244
Annales184, 236, 237, 238
Anne, Queen296, 510, 511, 515
Annual Register43
Anticlericalism432
Antoine, A.244
Antwerp170, 256
Anzin120
Apennines173
Apostilidès, Jean-Marie390
Aquinas, Thomas320
Aragon87
Archaic, Marquisat d’223
Arcq, Chevalier d’134
Arkwright, Richard453, 460
Armies17, 22, 48, 51, 59–74, 78, 79, 81, 85, 97, 115, 116, 117, 153, 186, 253, 358, 363, 451, 541
Arnauld, Antoine318, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328
Articles of Confederation535
Artisans127
Artois93, 103
- Count d’380
Asia202, 252, 256, 257, 258, 262, 269, 321, 450, 453
Assignats476
Astell, Mary368
Atheism242, 345, 347, 444
Atlantic66, 81, 83, 130, 206, 252, 255, 256, 257, 259, 260, 267, 272, 278, 514, 522, 523, 525, 527, 530, 559
Atterbury, Francis512
Augsburg286, 546
- Peace of337
- War of the League of see War, Nine Years
Auge, Pays d’245
Augustinianism97, 290, 318, 319–20, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 328
(p. 564) Aulard, Alphonse224
Aunis226
Austria12, 31, 42, 43, 45, 46, 52, 53, 55, 59, 62, 66, 67, 69, 70, 72, 79, 81, 83, 86, 90, 115, 161, 287, 289, 294, 299, 345–6, 358, 359, 363, 364, 365, 366, 442, 443, 502, 541, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548
Auvergne93, 173, 224, 226, 227, 243
Avignon4, 297, 384
Bacon, Francis458
Baden-Württemberg84, 168, 233, 291, 365, 549, 551
Baëcque, Antoine de399
Bailey, Colin390, 402
Bailyn, Bernard525, 533
Baius, Michael320, 321
Baker, Keith418–9
Balkans432
Ballooning451
Baltic66, 204, 252, 253
Bancroft, George525
Bañez, Domingo321
Ban et arrière-ban220
Bangor296
Bank; banking89, 90
- of England31, 89, 102, 155
Baptists341
Bar4
Barbados268
Barcos, Martin de328
‘Baroque state’14, 30–2, 323
Basan, Pierre François400
Basedow, Johann369
Bastier, Jean227
Bastille78
Bath514
Bauer, Samuel369
Bavaria79, 86, 168, 289, 541, 542
Bayeux171
Bayle, Pierre313, 344, 376, 436, 440
Bayonne147
Béarn243
Beaucaire255
Beauce241
Beauharnais, Alexandre de270
- Eugène de502
- Mme de379
Beaumarchais, Pierre Caron de130, 136, 402, 434, 439, 443
Beaune241
Beaumont, Christophe de330, 331
Beaumont, Gustave de513
Beaupuis231
Béaur, Gérard246
Beauvais113
- sur Matha227
Beccaria, Cesare378, 434, 437, 439
Beeman, Richard527
Behaim, Bartel174
Beik, William227
Belfanti, C. M.456
Belgium86, 233, 322
Bell, David415, 419
Belle-Isle, Duke de115
Bély, Lucien377
Benedict XIV298, 299, 347
Benedictines327, 379
Bergeret de Grancourt, Jacques Onésyme401
Berlin48, 292, 436, 437, 544
Bernadotte, jean Baptiste Jules46
Berry104, 113, 241, 244
Bertin, Rose190
Bertrán, Felipe294
Bérulle, Pierre de324
Besançon93, 94, 116, 228, 274, 365, 366
Bien, David158
Birdzell, L. E.454
Birmingham249, 454
Birth control172, 186, 187, 201, 214, 215, 557
Bishops95, 98, 115, 142, 143, 154, 291, 292, 294, 296, 297, 300, 305, 306, 308, 310, 324, 326, 327, 329, 472, 473, 524, 534, 549
Bismarck, Otto von500, 540, 548
Black, Joseph458
Black Death see Plague
Blackstone, William509
Blanning, Tim388
Blasphemy Act341
Bloch, Marc236
Blois117, 324
(p. 565) Bluche, Frédéric497, 499, 501
Blum, Jerome233
Bocage, Mme du379
Bodin, Jean21, 411, 413, 492
Bohemia59, 277, 285, 290, 322, 345, 358
Boileau, Nicolas412
Boisot, Family94
Bolingbroke, Henry21
Bologna299
Bon de Saint-Flocel423
Boncerf, Pierre François228
Books417
Bordeaux; Bordelais113, 129, 142, 151–2, 206, 225, 226, 259, 260, 267, 270, 348, 382, 383, 431
Bosse, Abraham397
Bossuet, Jacques Bénigne16, 411
Boston526, 529, 533
Boucher, François395, 399, 400
Boucher d’Argis, Antoine Gaspard221
Boudon, Jacques Olivier490, 496
Boufflers, Countess de378
Bouhier, Family94, 381
Boulainvilliers, Count de136, 221
Boulonnais104
Boulton, Matthew454, 457
Bourbons14, 42, 48, 49, 50, 52, 55, 66, 69, 75, 76, 90, 236, 261, 291, 292, 296, 297, 299, 323, 325, 331, 391, 395, 402, 467, 468, 469, 481, 490, 494, 497, 500, 518, 522, 541, 559
Bourbonnais244
Bourdieu, Pierre129, 377
Bourgeoisie5, 26, 27, 30, 127–40, 142, 143, 147, 160, 208, 227, 243, 376, 377, 383, 410, 417, 475, 476, 478, 507, 560
Bourginiat, Elisabeth399
Bouton, Cynthia186
Bowring, Sir John518
Boyne516
Braganza298
Brandenburg12, 287
Braudel, Fernand184, 253, 259, 450
Bray, Pays de245
Brazil83, 256, 268
Breton Club230
Brewer, John76
Bridewell178
Brienne, Etienne Charles Loménie de71, 292, 300, 444, 494
Bright, John55
Brionnais244
Bristol278, 292
Brittany14, 26, 29, 93, 94, 95, 100, 101, 103, 113, 185, 210, 226, 232, 239, 243, 244, 256, 292, 359, 478
Brown, Howard491, 502
Brumaire490, 494, 499
Brussels322, 328
Buchorn544
Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc de116, 382, 440
Bureaucracy13, 28, 32, 67, 101, 161, 359, 364, 366, 388, 400
Burgundy14, 21, 26, 93, 94, 95, 100, 101, 103, 104, 184, 223, 226, 228, 229, 242, 292
Burke, Edmund5, 43, 300, 434, 443, 517
Burke, Peter388, 390, 393, 438
Büsching79
Bush, Michael158
Bushman, Richard L.529
Bute, Earl of87
Butler, Jon526
Cadiz256, 260
Caen171, 249
Cahiers de doléances1, 3, 105, 120, 121, 152–3, 225, 229–30, 272, 274, 318
Calais241
Calas affair95, 343, 511
Calendar472, 492–3
Callières, François de39
Calonne, Charles Alexandre de31, 493, 494
Calvin, Jean; Calvinism148, 287, 291, 320, 337, 338, 340, 344, 345, 363, 510, 546
Cambacérès, Jean Jacques Régis de97
Cambrésis243, 246
Cambridge241, 366, 508
Camisards339
Campbell, Peter388
Campe, Joachim Heinrich361, 369, 370
Campo Formio, Peace of42, 543
Canada271, 531
Canossa297
Canterbury292, 296
Capetians14
Capitalism5, 90, 118, 127, 129, 130, 131, 135, 138, 143, 144, 151, 161, 188, 227, 233, 400, 410, 476, 514
Capital punishment481
Capitation27, 100, 102, 116, 117, 121, 147, 209, 214
Caplan, Jay392
Capuchins176, 303
Cardwell, D. S. L.458
Caribbean173, 256, 261, 269, 270, 271, 278, 514, 527
Carnot, Lazare40
Carrera de Indias257
Carthusians290
Cartwright, Edmund453
Castile88, 289, 292, 298
Castlereagh, Viscount54
Casuistry305
Catalonia385
Catherine II275, 276, 443
Causses241
Caux, Pays de226
Cemeteries310, 314, 330
Censorship305, 341, 410, 415, 416, 417, 435, 436, 438, 441–2, 443, 445, 470, 494, 512, 513, 557
Centralization11, 13, 25, 26, 154–5, 229, 346, 468, 469, 494, 500, 502, 508, 544
Cercle social444
Cévennes339
Ceyssens, Lucien319, 332
Chalons, Academy of362
Châlons sur Marne241, 328, 367–8
Chamlay, Marquis de63
Champagne93, 223, 229, 246
Champion, Justin344
Channel, English88, 127, 239, 241, 257, 340
Champs Elysées377
Charlemagne14, 18, 491, 492, 540, 544
Charles I41, 286, 292, 296, 508, 517, 518, 533
Charles II61, 508, 511
- of Spain292
Charles III45, 294, 298
Charles V337
Charles VI287, 288
Charles X482, 499
Charles XI67
Charles XII72
Charleston527
Charles Emmanuel III228
Charolles94
Chartres128
Chartier, Roger358, 365, 388, 391
Chateaubriand, François Auguste René de491, 494
Chaulnes, Duke de26
Chauvelin, Germain-Louis115
- Abbé159
Chérin, Louis Nicolas Henri148
Chesapeake257, 526
Chevet, Jean-Michel246
China451, 453, 460
Chivalry3, 119, 120, 121, 151, 290, 384
Choiseul, Duke de71, 298
Choudhury, Mita190, 191
Church4, 14, 15, 18, 20, 23, 87, 88, 142, 153, 167, 176, 190–1, 202, 210, 215, 230, 232, 243, 247, 253, 285–301, 309, 314, 325, 358, 364, 374, 417, 432, 438, 477, 480, 482, 483, 493, 523, 540, 543, 558
Cisalpine Republic501
Civil Code481, 482, 496–9
Civil Constitution of the Clergy4, 319, 332, 472–3
Clark, J. C. D.506–7, 517
Class142–4, 145
Classics16, 96, 158, 293, 503, 556
Clement VIII322
Clement IX327
Clement XI299, 328
Clement XII299
Clement XIII298
Clement XIV298–9
Clergy3, 4, 5, 23, 25, 95, 104, 127, 134, 135, 141, 159, 170, 177, 286–301, 303, 304, 306–8, 311–12, 314, 344, 348, 381, 472–3, 475, 496, 497, 523, 551
- Assembly of150, 154, 155, 296–7, 300, 326
(p. 567) Clermontois179
Cleves287
Clientage13, 26, 27, 28, 541
Clubs374, 386, 470, 474, 479, 513, 514
Cobban, Alfred130, 144, 225, 227
Cochin, Augustin376
Code475, 481, 482, 494, 496, 497, 498, 499
- Noir268
Colbert, Jean-Baptiste17, 22, 25, 65, 70, 91, 155, 192, 225, 270, 380, 393, 297, 415, 450
Colbiørnsen, Christian444
Collé, Charles279
Cologne322, 323
Colonies6, 79, 83, 85, 87, 112, 257, 258, 261, 262, 263, 268, 270, 271, 273, 442, 516
- Thirteen263, 515, 516, 522–39
Colquhoun, Patrick137
Commerce6, 24, 49, 77, 112, 117, 118, 127, 131, 170, 206, 209, 213, 214, 227, 238, 252–66, 267, 382, 400, 402, 411, 448, 449, 475, 514, 529, 531
Commines, Philippe de413
Commission des Réguliers289–90
Committee of Public Safety50, 51, 494
Common lands101, 215, 227, 228, 229, 233, 240, 242, 243, 246, 477, 551
Compagnonnages479
Comtat Venaissin4
Conciliarism18, 21
Concordat300, 332, 443, 474, 492, 493, 494
Condé26, 100
Condillac, Etienne Bonnot de116, 441, 444
Condorcet, Antoine de Caritat de116, 272, 444
Confession305, 307
Confraternities177, 179, 185, 310–11, 374, 375, 385, 493
Congress System54, 55
Connecticut524, 527
Conscription51, 59, 64, 65, 66, 69, 73, 275, 468, 494, 495, 496
Constantine286, 300
Constantinople44, 259
Constituent Assembly1, 2, 3, 4, 48, 49–50, 78, 179, 219, 220, 230, 231, 272, 273, 349, 467, 468, 471, 477, 479, 481–2
Consumer revolution151, 154, 184, 188, 189, 190
Constitution1, 2, 3, 11, 12, 20, 21, 28, 30, 50, 77, 99, 105, 156, 332, 349, 469, 473, 518, 519, 536, 543, 548
Consulate489–505
Conti, Prince de378
Contraception see Birth control
Convention51, 232, 273, 444, 469, 472, 477, 478, 480
Copernicus, Nicholas449
Copyright438
Cornart, Valentin380
Coronation14, 286, 291, 490, 491, 492
Corporation Act300, 341, 510–11
Corporations3, 4, 12, 16, 18, 20, 28, 105, 130, 141–66, 255, 331, 398, 411, 416, 472, 476, 479, 496, 541, 550
Corruption25, 28, 32, 95, 118, 194, 215, 422, 442, 517, 534, 535, 541
Cortes29
Corvée85, 150, 223, 224, 274, 477
Cossacks275, 276
Cotton des Houssayes, Jean-Baptiste117
Councils, royal22–3, 30, 93
Counter-Reformation see Reformation, Catholic
Counter-revolution5, 473, 483, 495, 497
Cour-Cheverny324
Court; courtiers13, 14, 15, 22, 27–8, 29, 31, 32, 45, 70, 97, 103, 115, 117, 118, 135, 147, 153, 154, 212, 269, 290, 291, 319, 376, 377, 390, 393, 395, 396, 397, 400, 402, 410, 413, 414, 416, 417, 419, 421, 437, 456, 490, 491, 494, 517, 523, 545
Court de Gébelin, Antoine383
Coyer, Gabriel François117, 135–6, 368
Coutura, Johel383
Crécy395
Crompton, Samuel453
Cromwell, Oliver41, 341, 498, 515
Croquants29,
Crow, Thomas391, 398
Crowston, Claire185, 189, 190, 193
Crouzet, François252
Croÿ, Duke de120
Crozat, Antoine128
Cugnot, Nicolas Joseph459
‘Cultural turn’388, 526
Custom2, 4, 19, 96, 155, 240, 245, 248, 275, 310, 525, 551, 557, 558
Customs barriers3, 255
Damiens, Robert François331
Dancing311
Danton, Georges-Jacques40, 130
Darby, Abraham459
Darnton, Robert132, 391
Daughters of Charity176, 191
Daughters of the Holy Infant327
Dauphiné14, 93, 94, 103, 104, 243, 343
Davenant, Charles78
David, Jacques Louis398, 399, 401
David, Paul456
Davis, Natalie Zemon185
Debt17, 18, 19, 31, 75, 78, 90, 114, 151, 160, 192, 248, 270, 363, 414, 472, 511, 549
Dechristianisation300, 432, 472
Decimalization470
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen2, 4, 158, 272, 348, 349, 467–8
Deffand, Marie du377, 379
Defoe, Daniel370, 439
Deism342, 345, 347, 472
Delumeau, Jean304
Democracy158, 159, 221
Demography6, 66, 72, 129, 130, 168–9, 170, 172, 184, 186, 201–18, 240, 246, 267, 448, 449, 519, 526, 527, 530, 545, 557, 560
Denmark12, 51, 81, 85, 233, 277–8, 292, 436, 439, 442, 443, 444
Departments468
Depont family223
Descartes, René440
Desmaretz, Nicolas90
Despotism13, 18, 21, 27, 30, 32, 99, 116, 156, 221, 330, 419, 423, 497, 541, 552
Dessau361
De Vries, Jan189
Dewald, Jonathan158, 226
Deyon, Pierre189
Dickens, Charles137
Dickson, Peter76
Diderot, Denis49, 132, 152, 160, 221, 362, 363, 399, 402, 421, 431, 434, 437, 441, 444, 445
Dijon94, 101, 103, 104, 381–2
Dinan, Susan191
Diplomacy39–58, 71
Diplomatic Revolution42
Directory41, 47, 48, 469, 480, 494, 499, 501
Disease167, 172, 179, 202, 203, 206, 240, 382, 526
Divine right18, 21
Divorce481
Dominicans320
Dorsanne, Antoine329
Dovecotes219, 220, 229, 230
Doyle, William113, 118, 144, 152, 227, 469,493, 508
Dress47, 118, 131, 138, 154, 190
Dreyfus, Alfred349
Droit de seigneur136
Dubos, jean Baptiste136
Duclos, Charles Pinot118
Du Barry, jeanne Bécu, Countess401
Dublin300, 434, 516
Dubois, Alexandre308
Dubos, Jean Baptiste417
Duby, Georges142
Duguet, Jacques-Joseph327, 330
Dumouriez, Charles François48
Dupâquier, Jacques206
Dutch Republic4, 5, 41, 42, 45, 63, 66, 68, 78, 81, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88, 90, 101, 103, 161, 168, 176, 178, 271, 254, 255, 288, 293, 300, 322, 342, 344–5, 432, 435, 436, 438, 442, 454, 517
Dutton, H. I.455
East India Company150
Economists3- see also Physiocrats
Edgeworth, Maria360
- Richard360
Edinburgh434, 515
Elbe274
Electors, imperial245, 545
Elias, Norbert28, 375
Elizabeth I515
Emden148
Emigrés43, 47, 247, 474–5, 478, 535
Empire, First384, 467, 489–505
Ems, Punctuation of299
Encyclopédie49, 75, 116, 132, 152, 159, 160, 221, 380, 431, 433, 439, 441, 445
Enghien, Duke d’52
England see Great Britain
Englund, Steven501, 503
Enlightenment32, 42, 48, 49, 50, 76, 91, 116, 130, 132, 133, 136, 175, 177, 178, 179, 192, 193, 228, 245, 286, 287, 294, 308, 314, 343, 344, 345, 347, 358, 359, 361, 362, 363, 368, 369, 374, 376, 380, 382, 412, 416, 417, 418, 419, 422, 431–447, 457, 459, 475, 500, 523, 540, 542, 543, 547, 549, 551, 559
Ensenada, Marquès de la87
Epstein, S. R.455
Equality2,
Erastus, Thomas296
Erlangen294
Estates-General1, 3, 4, 15, 29, 30, 32–3, 79, 93, 97, 98, 99, 100, 110, 113, 119, 121, 134, 150, 157, 160, 215, 230, 300, 306, 424, 469
Etemare, Jean Baptiste327–8, 330
Evreux, Yves d’320
Excise511, 513
Exclusif (see Mercantilism)
Factums415–6
Fairchilds, Cissie172
Family Compacts49
Famine168, 171, 359
Farge, Arlette185
Farmers-General see Tax farmers
Fathers of the Christian Schools362, 367
Favart, Marie Justine377
Favier, Jean-Louis421
Febronius; Febronianism299
Febvre, Lucien242
Federalism525, 535, 536
Felbiger, Johann Ignaz364
Ferdinand of Aragon346
Fénelon, François deSalignac de la Mothe-21, 103, 368
Ferguson, Adam439
Fernandez de Portocarrero, Cardinal292
Fernan Nuñez, Count de374
Feudalism2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 29, 79, 110, 119, 120, 130, 144, 219–235, 248, 273, 274, 448, 451, 467, 477, 491, 507, 508, 517, 523, 524, 525, 543, 556, 558
Fielding, Henry519
Filleau, Jean325
Finances4, 24, 28, 61, 75–92, 155, 414
Fisheries256
Flanders230, 240, 242, 318, 323, 328
Fleury, André Hercule de292, 329, 330, 388
Florence79, 389
Flour War186
Fontaine, Laurence189
Fontainebleau389
- Edict of338, 366
Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier de437
Forster, Robert118, 184, 227, 244
Fort, Bernadette398
Fossil fuels448, 449, 459
Fouché, Joseph496
Fouquet, Nicolas389, 402, 415
Fragonard, Jean Honoré400–01
Franche Comté104, 113, 153, 223, 226, 228, 240, 274
Francis I15, 389, 491
Francis II346, 543, 547
Franciscans290, 298, 324
Franke, August364
Frankfurt255, 549
Franklin, Benjamin532
Franklin, William529
Franks21, 98
Frederick II59, 66, 67, 70, 72, 73, 81, 175, 275, 277, 363, 542, 543
Frederick William I67, 175, 363
Frederick William III48, 52
Freedom see Liberty
French Revolution1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 14, 26, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49, 54, 55, 75, 76, 78, 88, 102, 103, 110, 111, 112, 118, 121, 127, 129, 130, 131, 132, 134, 137, 138, 141, 143, 144, 145, 148, 152, 153, 154, 159, 161, 167, 180, 183, 194, 210, 215–16, 219, 220, 221, 225, 227, 229, 232, 233, 239, 247–9, 252, 253, 256, 260, 261, 262, 263, 268, 269, 270, 273, 276, 278, 279, 295, 296, 300, 309, 310, 318, 332, 334, 341, 342, 348–9, 362, 383, 384, 385, 392, 402, 410, 419, 431, 435, 442, 444, 445, 446, 467–486, 489, 490, 494, 495, 496, 497, 499, 500, 501, 502, 515, 516, 522, 523, 534, 540, 544, 545, 548, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560
Freiburg-im-Breisgau365
Fréron, Elie Catherine437
Freschines247
Frick Collection401
Fronde29, 98, 142, 210, 324, 339, 541
Fructidor48, 470, 474, 499
Fumaroli, Marc389, 390
Furet, François130, 221, 227, 357, 358, 376, 470
Gabelle24, 29
Galicia345
Gallet, Jean222, 229
Gallicanism20, 98, 290, 298, 303, 326, 327, 328, 331, 473, 474, 492, 493
Garonne240, 241, 267
Gascony93, 226
Gâtinais241
Gaul221
Gazier, Augustin332
Geertz, Clifford390
Gender6, 130, 183–97, 410, 417, 418, 433, 471, 526, 528
Généralités24, 25
Geneva90, 160, 359, 369, 431, 434
Genlis, Stéphanie Félicité de379
Genoa81, 83, 90
Geoffrin, Marie Thérèse192, 376, 377, 378, 379
George I296, 510, 512
George II512
George III512
Georgia530
Gerberon, Gabriel327, 328
Gerle, Christophe Antoine472
Germany4, 5, 12, 64, 66, 69, 84, 85, 86, 136, 142, 161, 168, 169, 170, 176, 178, 210, 233, 285, 291, 299, 337, 358, 360, 361, 362, 365, 369, 370, 432, 435, 437, 438, 442, 491, 500, 526, 540–54, 559
Gibson, Edmund285
Girondins498
Gisors112
Glasgow458
Glorious Revolution155, 291, 506, 508–9, 511, 514–15, 532, 535
Godart de Belbeuf, Family94
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von442, 544
Goldie, Mark518
Goldstein, Claire389, 390, 395
Goncourts, Edmond and Jules de395
Goodman, Dena188, 192, 193, 418, 419
Gordon, Daniel417, 418, 419
Göttingen39, 443
- University of294, 365, 547
Götz von Berlichingen544
Goubert, Pierre144
Gouges, Olympe de471
Goupil de Préfelne, Guillaume François Charles231
Grain trade3, 171, 203, 204, 213, 227, 229, 230, 245, 253, 254, 418
Granada298, 346
Grand Orient383, 385
Grand Tour377
Great Awakening530
Great Britain6, 12, 18, 19, 20, 29, 31, 41, 45, 49, 53, 64, 65, 66, 68, 70, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 83, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 101–2, 117, 130, 137, 142, 155, 158, 167, 168, 169, 171, 178, 189, 210, 241, 242, 249, 254, 255, 256, 257, 262, 270, 271, 272, 274, 285, 286, 287, 290, 292, 295, 340–2, 358, 360, 362, 364, 365, 366, 378, 380, 410, 418, 421, 432, 436, 441, 445, 450, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 459, 506–21, 522, 523, 524, 525, 527, 529, 532, 534, 535, 542, 544, 556, 560
(p. 571) Great Fear180, 230
Greece440, 449
Grégoire, Henri332, 349, 438
Grell, Ole Peter176
Grenoble177, 365, 368
Grenville, George87
Greuze, Jean Baptiste397, 399
Grimm, Friedrich Melchior von116, 377
Groethuysen, Bernardt137
Grub Street193
Guadeloupe268, 269, 271, 471
Guerre, Martin186
Guibert, Jacques de73,
Guilds3, 147, 148, 151, 155, 157, 170, 185, 188, 193, 310, 374, 397, 400, 454, 455–6, 478–9
Guillotin, Joseph Ignace476, 481
Guimard, Marie Madeleine401
Guizot, François137
Gunpowder Plot286
Gullickson, Gay189
Gustavus III442
Gutenberg452
Guyenne226, 243, 244
Guyton de Morveau, Louis Bernard360, 368
Gypsies337
Habbakuk, H. J.461
Habermas, Jürgen133, 156–7, 375, 376, 386, 391, 409–11, 412, 416, 417, 418, 422, 423
Habert, Isaac325
Habsburgs43, 45, 46, 52, 59, 86, 89, 101, 274, 276, 277, 287, 297, 299, 300, 345, 442, 443, 541, 542, 543, 545, 556
Hafter, Daryl184
Hainault223
Haiti see Saint Domingue
Halévi, Ran376
Halle, University of294, 364
Hamann, Johan Georg438
Hamburg52, 260, 434, 437
Hamilton, Alexander536
Hanley, Sarah415
Hanover84, 86, 365, 517, 542, 543, 544
Hanoverians296, 512, 515
Harcourt, Family26
Harley, Robert292, 512
Hartz, Louis525
Harvard526
Haskell, Francis388
Hatzfeld, Melchior von59
Haugwitz, Friedrich Wilhelm89
Haute Guyenne104
Haute Marne478
Helvetic Republic233
Helvétius, Claude Adrien177, 376, 383, 441
- Mme.376
Hénault, Charles Jean François379
Henry II15, 25, 389
Henry III15
Henry IV14, 15, 29, 389
Herbert, Sydney221
Herder, Johann Gottfried von438, 440, 544
Hessen-Cassel84–5, 90, 542
Hesse Darmstadt361
Hessels, John320
Hispaniola268
Hoadly, Benjamin296
Hobbes, Thomas21, 160, 440
Hoffman, Philip239
Hohenzollerns542, 544
Holbach, Paul Thiry, Baron d’116, 177, 376, 378, 439, 441, 444
Holland see Dutch Republic
Holy Roman Empire see Reich
Honour70, 112, 115, 117, 118, 120, 121, 136, 141, 143, 145–6, 155, 159, 417
- Legion of491, 492
Hontheim, Nikolaus von299
Hornblower, Jabez Carter455
Hostages, Law of474, 475
Hotman, François21, 98
Howard, John444
Hudson River524, 534
Huet, Valérie498, 503
Hufton, Olwen188–9
Huguenots21, 291, 297, 300, 303, 338–9, 343, 348
Humboldt, Alexander von365
Hume, David78, 434, 439, 441, 444
Hundred Days501
Hungary12, 86, 120, 276, 277, 300, 345, 545
Hunt, Lynn130
Hunting148, 219, 225, 226, 232
Hutchinson, Thomas529
(p. 572) Ile Bourbon269
Ile de France228, 269
Illegitimacy188
Illyria500
Index347
India85, 252, 459
Indian Ocean269
Industrialization189, 448–66
Infanticide202
Innocent X325
Innocent XI297, 327
Innocent XIII298
Inquisition298, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 326, 332, 346–7
Intendants23, 25, 26, 27, 30, 100, 101, 103, 104, 154, 158, 238, 239, 246, 383, 468, 494
Ireland289, 300, 318, 324, 432, 442, 508, 509, 511, 514, 515, 516, 517, 526, 527, 531
Isabella of Castile346
Italy12, 42, 60, 66, 81, 84, 86, 103, 142, 161, 176, 191, 318, 322 346, 432 358, 359, 389, 401, 438, 490, 500, 501, 502, 507, 559
Jabineau, Henri331, 332
Jacobins295, 469, 470, 479, 480, 497, 498, 543
Jacobites294, 510, 512
Jamaica532
James I291, 515
James II61, 291, 341, 508, 509–10, 511, 514, 515
Jamestown525
Jankow59, 60
Jansen, Cornelius319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 328
Jansenism21, 30, 97, 98, 297, 298, 308, 313, 314, 318–36, 339–40, 343, 348, 349, 419, 423, 424, 437, 492, 493
Jaucourt, Louis de116
Jefferson, Thomas536
Jessenne, Jean-Pierre232
Jesuits289, 294, 298–9, 304, 305, 318, 319, 320, 321, 323, 324, 326, 327, 328, 331, 359, 360, 362, 364, 365, 366, 424
Jews230, 318, 337, 341, 342, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 471, 472, 513, 547
John V288
Johnson, James400
Joly de Fleury, Guillaume-François329
Jones, Colin132, 133, 153, 176, 388
Joseph I (Portugal)298
Joseph II275, 277, 287, 287, 294, 297, 299 300, 345, 346, 364, 379, 542
Josephine, Empress270
July Monarchy137
Juxon, William292
Kamen, Henry346
Kammerling-Smith, David411
Kanefsky, J. W.452
Kant, Immanuel357, 410, 416, 433, 437, 440, 443
Karlskirche288
Kaunitz, Wenzel Anton379
Kay, John453
Kertzer, David187
Kettering, Sharon388
King, Gregory79, 137, 167
Konstanz549
Korneleimünster549
Kwass, Michael116
La Barre, Jean François Lefevre de511
Laborde, Jean-Joseph147
Labrousse, Ernest238–9, 243
La Bruyère, Jean de414
La Chalotais, Louis René de Caradeuc de360, 368
Lacombe, Claire471
Lacretelle, Pierre-Louis de194
Lafare, Marquis de229
Lafayette, Gilbert de Motier de272
La Font de Saint-Yenne399
L’Aigle, Count de115
La Live de Jully, Ange Laurent de402
Lambert, Claude Guillaume97
Lambert, Anne Thérèse de377
La Mettrie, Julien Offray de439, 441
Lamoignon de Basville, Chrétien François de97
Lamothe, Daniel de129
Landes, Joan192
Languedoc26, 93, 95, 101, 103, 104, 113, 210, 221, 229, 292, 343
(p. 573) Lanza, Janine185
La Reynière, Laurent Grimod de377–8
La Rochefoucauld, Family115, 179–80, 273
La Rochelle224
Larrière, Noël de331
Lateran Council306
Latin44, 148, 293, 303, 359, 365, 366, 379, 438
Latin America5, 7, 173, 536, 559
Laud, William292
Laurens, Henry534
L’Averdy, Clément Charles François de79, 97, 178
Lavoisier, Antoine247, 272, 440
Law, John31, 310, 419, 511
Laxism305, 323, 326, 327
Lazarists324
Lebrun, Charles François497
Lebrun, Pierre312, 400, 423
Le Chapelier, Isaac Guy Marie479
Lee, William452
Lefebvre, Georges233, 243, 247, 478
Legislative Assembly50, 231, 232, 242, 272, 444, 481
Legouz, Family94, 382
Le Havre267, 385
Leipzig254, 434, 544
Lemarchand, Guy220
Lemonnier, Antoine Charles Gabriel376
Léon, Pierre262
Leopold I543
Leopold II43, 346
Le Paige, Louis-Adrien21, 98, 331, 332
Le Puy-en-Velay384
Le Roy, David398
Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel237, 388, 393
Le Tellier, Michel61, 327
Lesbianism194
Lespinasse, Julie de377, 378, 444
Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim434, 437
Lessius322
Lettres de cachet32, 493
Letrosne, Guillaume François159, 221
Levant257, 258, 259
Levasseur, Thérèse193
Lhodiesnière, Bertrand467, 483
Liancourt, Duke de325, 326
Liberalism157, 445, 482, 483, 501, 540, 552
Liberty2, 3, 32, 50, 143, 156, 157, 161, 214, 221, 223, 279, 338, 348, 442, 444, 467–8, 494, 498, 499, 502, 532, 533, 534, 535, 540
Licensing Act341
Lille383
Lilti, Antoine377, 420
Limagne241
Limoges243
Limousin240, 243, 244
Linguet, Simon Nicolas Henri221
‘Linguistic turn’526
Linnaeus438
Lipsius, Justus21
Lis, Catharina170
Lisbon256
Lit de justice14, 94, 96, 98
Literacy358–9, 360, 363, 364, 366, 367, 370, 417, 434, 557
Liverpool278
Loans24, 31
Locke, John21, 293, 342, 360, 368–9, 370, 440, 533
Locquain, Jean394
Loire86, 241, 242, 244, 249, 389
Lombardy443, 502
London260, 267, 271, 288, 381, 434, 435, 514, 516, 532
Longaunay, Marquise de230
Lorient255, 257, 260
Lorraine52, 168, 223, 240, 241, 243, 246, 348
Lougee, Carolyn192
Louis XIII96, 97
Louis XIV12, 17, 21, 22, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 44, 60, 63, 65, 78, 97, 98, 100, 102, 103, 115–16, 152, 155, 192, 207, 210–11, 220, 221, 254, 268, 289, 290, 297, 303, 306, 309, 327, 328, 329, 338, 339, 388, 389, 390, 392, 393, 396, 411, 413, 414, 416, 417, 419, 423, 492, 494, 503, 507, 541
Louis XV22, 43, 76–7, 85, 88, 100, 101, 115, 147, 178, 290, 294, 298, 308, 313, 329, 331, 384, 395, 421, 468
Louis XVI22, 31, 40, 41, 46, 50, 75, 89, 99, 103, 116, 156, 193, 228, 230, 274, 290, 297, 300, 348, 394, 395, 444, 468, 482, 494, 498
Louis XVIII482, 490, 492
(p. 574) Louisbourg531, 532
Louis le Grand259
Loutchisky, J.243
Louvain320, 322, 323, 327
Louveciennes401
Louvois, François Michel Le Tellier, Marquis de17, 61
Louvre402
Loyseau, Charles19, 143, 148, 152, 160
Luc, Jean-Noël227
Lucas, Colin119
Luther, Martin; Lutheranism287, 288, 292, 295, 320, 337, 360, 363, 546, 551
Luxury136
Lyon; Lyonnais26, 93, 113, 128, 168, 185, 188, 206, 249
McConville, Brendan529, 532
McMahon, Darrin344, 422
Mabillon, Jean43, 412
Mably, Gabriel Bonnot de21, 116, 136, 221, 422
Macaulay, Catherine368
Machault d’Arnouville, Jean Baptiste de87, 297
Machiavelli, Niccoló73
Machon, Louis98
Macon94
Madrid46
Mafra288
Maggiolo, Louis357–8
Main543
Maine240, 244
Mainz547
Maintenon, Françoise d’Aubigné, Marquise de413
Malebranche, Nicolas313, 412
Malesherbes, Guillaume Chrétien de Lamoignon de444
Malplaquet62,
Malthus, Thomas Robert237, 557
Mandeville, Bernard439
Mansfield, William Murray, Lord341
Marat, Jean-Paul134, 380, 476
Maréchaussée23
Maria Theresia277, 345, 359, 364, 379
Marie-Antoinette31, 41, 43, 46, 190, 191, 193, 194, 421
Marigny, Abel François Poisson, Marquis de397, 398, 401
Marin, Louis390
Markoff, John222, 224, 230, 232
Marlborough, Duke of63, 72
Marmontel, Jean François378, 420–1
Marriage146, 172, 186–8, 192, 193, 194, 201, 202, 204, 214, 215, 223, 270, 274, 292, 293, 339
Marseille206, 260
Marshall, T. H.146
Martens, Georg Friedrich von31
Martens, Karl von39, 40, 55
Martinique268, 269, 271, 278, 471
Marx, Karl137
Marxism5, 127, 128, 130, 133, 138, 143, 144, 227, 228, 410, 476
Mary II510
Maryland257, 524, 526, 527
Massachusetts524, 529, 535
Massiac Club272
Massif central208, 224, 226, 242, 244
Maultrot, Gabriel Nicolas21, 330, 332
Maupeou, René Charles de115
Maupeou, René Nicolas de22, 30, 32, 97, 157, 331, 418, 421, 443, 493
Maurepas, Count de99
Maurists43
Mauritius see Ile Bourbon
Maury, Jean Siffrein349
Maximum261
Mayer, Arno J.523, 559–60
Mayhew, Jonathan533
Maza, Sarah191
Mazarin, Jules19, 25, 29, 155, 292, 324, 325, 390
Mazauric, Simone380
Mediterranean206, 210, 241, 252, 260, 450
Meignen, Louis262
Meissen453
Melton, James Van Horn418, 422
Mendelssohn, Moses443
Mercantilism49, 75, 81, 225, 254, 257, 270, 271, 455, 456, 460, 527, 557
(p. 575) Mercier, Louis Sébastien401, 402, 409, 417, 421, 434, 439
Merlin de Douai, Philippe Antoine231
Merovingians491
Mesliand, Claude384
Methodism295
Methuen Treaty254
Metternich, Klemens Wenzel von47
Metz383
Mexico83, 256
Mey, Claude21, 331
Mézières artillery school365
Migliorini, Luigi Mascalli491, 501, 503
Mignet, François Auguste Marie137
Migration113, 169, 172–3, 175, 206, 207, 208, 211, 215, 242, 277, 309, 449, 454, 455, 527, 528, 530
Migré227
Milan364, 435, 502
Miller, John341
Milling451
Mining112, 452, 459, 514
- Ecole des Mines365
Mirabeau, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti de50, 272, 498
Mirabeau, Victor de Riqueti de103, 135
Mississippi89, 90
Mitterrand, François403
Mokyr, Joel457–9, 460
Molé, Family94
Molesmes229
Molina, Luis de; Molinism321, 322, 323, 325, 327
Molière, Jean-Baptiste Pocquelin de135, 377
Mombello502
Monasteries4, 230, 274, 289–90, 472, 492
Monopolies3, 24, 144, 149, 150, 193, 225, 232, 255, 257, 261, 269, 270, 455, 477
Montauban231
Montendre, Marquisat de226
Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat de21, 84, 88, 89, 99, 103, 116, 136, 156, 157, 221, 271, 413, 431, 434, 439, 493
Montfort549
Montgolfier brothers451
Montmorency, Duke de230
Montpellier103, 131, 383
Moraley, William525, 529
Morellet, André378
Morgan, Edmund S.528
Moriceau, Jean-Marc245
Morineau, Michel262
Morrill, John341
Mouchy, Duke de115
Mousnier, Roland142–4, 145, 154
Münster60
Musées374, 380, 382–3
Musgrave, Elizabeth185
Muslims346, 483
Musson, A. E.457
Nancy86, 223
Nantes113, 206, 260, 267, 269
- Edict of14, 21, 30, 291, 338, 339, 340, 344, 366, 393, 394
Naples86, 298, 347, 359, 435
Napoleon42, 47, 51–2, 53, 54, 167, 239, 248, 270, 278, 300, 309, 403, 436, 450, 468, 469, 470, 471–2, 474, 475, 476, 480, 481, 482, 489–505, 540, 544, 551, 558–9
- III468, 479
Narbonne95
- Viscount de378
Nassiet, Michel214
Nationalism560
Native Americans528, 530, 531, 532
Navies31, 60, 64–5, 66, 70, 72, 79, 81, 85, 271, 450
Necker, Jacques31, 75, 77, 79, 102, 177, 410, 419
Necker, Suzanne192, 377, 378
Neo-classicism14, 32,
Netherlands see Dutch Republic
Neuchâtel434
Neugebauer, Wolfgang358
Newbery, John361
Newcomen, Thomas452, 458, 460
New England514, 526, 527, 529, 530, 531, 534
Newfoundland256
New Hampshire524
New Jersey529, 532, 534
Newton, Isaac75, 344, 378, 380, 440
Nice42
Nicolai, Friedrich436
Nicolas, Jean229, 384
Nicole, Pierre313, 314, 327
Niderst, Alain389
Nijmegen44
Nivelon390
Nivernais241
Noailles26, 328, 329
Nobility2, 3, 4, 5, 11, 17, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26–7, 32, 33, 42, 44–5, 48, 55, 68, 70, 71, 94, 95, 97, 99, 104, 110–126, 127, 129, 130, 134, 135, 137, 141, 143, 144, 147, 148, 151, 152–3, 154, 155, 158, 160, 170, 184, 185, 192, 193, 201, 209–10, 211–12, 215, 230, 243, 247, 277, 290, 339, 365, 380, 386, 409–10, 417, 419, 469, 472, 474–6, 482, 490, 491, 492, 493, 496, 497, 506, 517, 523, 525, 536, 551, 556, 558, 560
Nootka Sound49
Nördlingen549
Normandy26, 29, 93, 94, 103, 104, 112, 113, 171, 187, 226, 227, 240, 241, 244, 245, 249, 385, 467
North, Douglass C.84, 455
North Sea206, 241
Northumberland, Duchess of267
Norway292
Notables476, 496
Notables, Assembly of104, 424
Notre Dame403, 491
Nouvelles ecclésiastiques329–30, 332, 437
Nova Scotia532
Nu-pieds29
Nuremburg174
O’Brien, Patrick76, 84
O’Callaghan, John324
Octavian498, 503
O’Gorman, Frank506–7
Orange, House of41
Oratorians324, 327, 329, 362, 366
Orcibal, Jean332
Orders3, 6, 141–66
Orléans; Orléanais93, 113, 241, 255
-Duke d’329, 378, 468
Ormesson, Family94
Orry, Philibert79, 85
Orthodoxy285, 345
Osnabrück60, 287
Otto I540
Ottomans44, 51, 53, 81, 84, 285, 545
Overijssel86–7
Oxford294, 366, 508
Ozouf, Jacques357, 358
Oz-Salzberger, Fanny438, 439
Pabón, Jesus499, 500
Paillet, Joseph400
Paine, Thomas434, 443, 444, 522, 535
Palais Royal378
Palmer, Robert R.343–4
Pamiers297
Pamphlets31, 117, 132–3. 134, 221, 340, 398, 399, 470, 512
Pancoucke, Charles-Joseph132
Paraguay359
Pardailhé-Galabrun, Annick403
Parent, Antoine458
Paris22, 23, 29, 30, 31, 46, 47, 50, 51, 52, 85, 86, 93, 95, 96, 97, 98, 116, 118, 128, 134, 135, 142, 147, 155, 160, 180, 184, 185, 186, 188, 192, 193, 206, 215, 226, 228, 230, 242, 243, 245, 246, 249, 259, 267, 268, 269, 272, 293, 294, 310, 324, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 348, 374, 376, 377, 378, 379, 381, 382, 383, 386, 389, 392, 393, 403, 410, 414, 415, 417, 419, 421, 435, 469, 470, 479, 495, 496, 514
Pâris, François de330
Pâris-Duverney, Joseph128
Parker, David221
Parker, Geoffrey451
Parlements14, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, 93–100, 103, 104, 105, 112, 116, 130, 147, 151–2, 155, 157, 160, 228, 268, 274, 295, 298, 323, 324, 325, 328, 329, 330–1, 340, 343, 348, 366, 380, 402, 415, 431, 474, 495
Parliament (British)31, 61, 77, 89, 99, 155, 158, 210, 278, 366, 455, 509, 511, 512, 514–15, 516, 517, 518, 523, 532
Pascal, Blaise305, 326, 412
Patents454–6
Patriotism22, 31, 115, 118, 120, 153, 159, 300, 400, 402, 436, 478, 535
Patronage13, 26, 27, 69, 100, 101, 103, 115, 184, 192, 295, 388–408, 411, 417, 438, 456–7, 533, 541
Paul V322
Paulette15, 94
Pays d’élection24, 88
Pays d’états24, 27, 87, 93, 100–108, 115, 155, 292
Peasants2, 29, 77, 85, 95, 116, 120, 128, 129, 137, 160, 167, 170, 171, 184, 186, 203, 206, 210, 213, 215, 219–35, 236–51, 253, 255, 274, 277, 303, 307, 339, 348, 358, 362, 403, 474, 477–8, 480, 523, 524, 546
Pecquet, Antoine39, 45
Peel, George453
Peerage3
Pelham, Henry90
Pellisson, Paul413
Pennsylvania524, 525, 527, 529, 532, 534
Périgord29, 226, 231, 244
Périgueux231
Perpignan385
Peter the Great44, 64,
Peter Leopold of Tuscany294, 299
Philadelphia529, 530
Philanthropy179, 384
Philip V297, 328
Philosophes48–9, 116, 136, 192, 297, 298, 343–4, 345, 348, 349, 362, 363, 396, 422, 424, 433, 437, 441, 442, 444
Phrygian bonnet471
Physiocrats3, 75, 159, 221, 225, 228, 245, 246
Picardy112, 120, 174
Piedmont12, 81, 89, 358, 362
Pietism294, 363, 364
Pilati, Carlanatonio247
Pilâtre de Rosier, Jean François383
Pilgrimages312, 315
Pitt, Wiliam, the younger83, 300
Pius V320
Pius VI294, 297
Pius VII474, 492, 493
Place Vendôme393–4
Plague168, 201, 203, 204, 207, 449, 557
Plumb, J. H.370
Plumard de Danguel, Louis-Joseph117
Pluquet, André Adrien374
Poggi, Gianfranco146
Poitou226, 244, 343
Poland53, 81, 84, 99, 275, 379, 443, 542
Pombal, Marquês deí298
Pomerania168, 275
Pompadour, Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de115, 298, 393, 395–6, 397, 402, 421
Pondicherry183
Poniatowski, Stanislas-August379
Pontchartrain, Family22
- Lake183
Pont-Saint-Pierre226, 227
Poor Laws178, 513–14
Pope; papacy4, 14, 15, 18, 46, 97, 290, 294, 297–9, 319, 322, 323, 325, 342, 359, 472, 473, 491, 559
Popular religion302–17
Population see Demography
Pornography417
Port au Prince183
Portocarrero, Fernandez292
Port Royal324, 325, 326, 328, 330, 332
Portsmouth456
Portugal46, 83, 173, 176, 254, 256, 268, 288, 298, 358, 359, 366
Posner, Donald396
Postel-Vinay, Gilles245
Postmodernism445–6, 548
Potier de Novion, Family94
Potosí256
Potsdam292
Potter, David411
Poulot, Dominque374
Prague59, 434
Presbyterians341, 510, 511, 515, 516, 524
Press132, 341, 412, 432, 434–5, 443, 453, 470, 482, 507, 512, 517
Priestley, Joseph440
Primogeniture151, 186, 475, 482, 496, 536
Privateering60, 70
(p. 578) Privilege2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 18, 22, 26, 31, 45, 68, 76, 77, 79, 87, 89, 94, 97, 99, 103, 105, 114, 116, 120, 121, 128, 129, 130, 135, 138, 141, 144, 148, 150, 152, 155–6, 157, 158, 159, 160, 170, 185, 193, 212, 214, 215, 220, 230, 231, 285, 286, 291, 294, 295, 297, 300, 308, 323, 325, 331, 348, 381, 403, 454–5, 467, 468, 469, 471, 474, 475, 476, 477, 491, 508, 511, 523, 524, 536, 540, 546, 550, 556, 558, 559
Property2, 23, 29, 188
Prostitution188, 411
Protestantism4, 14, 21, 22, 30, 142, 174, 176, 179, 285, 286, 288, 296, 303, 318, 320, 327, 338, 339, 340, 343, 345, 346, 348, 349, 365, 366, 386, 393, 437, 471, 472, 507, 510, 531, 541, 546, 551
Provence14, 93, 104, 177, 229, 243, 343, 384
Provincial estates24, 26, 27, 29, 31, 367
Prussia12, 43, 48, 52, 53, 59, 61, 62, 63, 66, 67, 70, 73, 79, 81, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 211–12, 233, 275, 276, 277, 287, 292, 358, 360, 363, 365, 366, 368, 443, 541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547, 548, 549, 551
Public sphere31–2, 100, 110, 116, 133, 156–7, 340, 343, 375, 376, 391, 393, 399, 403, 409–428, 434, 443, 445, 458, 470, 476, 508, 518, 559
Publishing305, 417, 435–7, 438–9, 518
Pucelle, René329
Pufendorf, Samuel von145–6
Pugachev, Emilian276, 359
Pullan, Brian176
Pyrenees5, 40, 173
Quakers341
Quebec173
Quesnel, Pasquier327, 328, 329, 330
Quincy, Josiah526
Radischev, Alexander276
Railways216, 255, 451, 560
Raison d’état21, 49
Ramsay, David534
Ranum, Orest413
Rapley, Elizabeth190
Rastadt46, 47
Ratabon, Antoine397
Rationality2, 21, 559
Raymond, Lord Chief Justice295
Raynal, Guillaume Thomas49, 271–2, 276, 444
Rebellion116, 158, 208, 229, 276, 277, 534, 546
Reddy, William144
Reformation44, 142, 285, 289, 291, 295, 318, 337, 338, 340, 366, 449, 546, 557
- Catholic96, 153, 175, 176, 191, 298, 304, 306, 312, 315, 319, 339
Regalianism297–9
Réguis, François Léon308–9
Reich6, 15, 44, 52, 81, 84, 85, 86, 88, 286, 290, 295, 300, 318, 337, 338, 345–6, 435, 443, 540–554, 559
Reichstag542
Reims491
Remonstrances96–7, 98, 99, 104, 157, 415
Renaissance389, 440, 557
Renauldon, Joseph221, 222, 223
Rennes86, 93, 94, 103
Representation2, 11, 12, 15, 16, 31, 32, 33, 68, 366, 469
Republicanism4, 21, 28, 32, 41, 51, 138, 159, 160, 292, 338, 344, 445, 468, 470, 472, 479, 508
Reubell, Jean François49, 50
Réunion see Ile de France
Revisionism6
Revolt29
Reynolds, T. S.451
Rhine5, 40, 42, 263, 274, 540, 543, 544, 551
Rhode Island524, 527
Richardson, Samuel439
Richelieu, Cardinal17, 19, 27, 155, 292, 324, 380, 390, 412, 414, 419
- Marshal Duke de377, 379
Riesenberg, Peter158
Rights, Declarations of2, 4, 158, 272, 348, 349, 467
Ripert de Montclar, Family94
Ritter von Riegger, Paul Joseph299
Ritterakademiern365, 369
Roads31, 245
Roannais244
(p. 579) Robespierre, Maximilen49, 349
Robey, J.462
Robien, Christophe Paul de94
Robinson, John292
Roche, Daniel375
Rochester295, 512
Rococo396
Rodez231
Roggero, Marina358, 361–2
Rolland d’Erceville, Bathélemy Gabriel368
Romans136, 159, 271
Roman Catholicism4, 14, 18, 97, 176, 285, 291, 295, 297–9, 318–336, 338, 339, 343, 349, 347, 372, 482, 483, 496, 508, 509, 511, 516, 532, 541, 547, 551, 557
- Tridentine287, 298, 303, 320
Romanticism544
Rome15, 30, 46, 160, 297, 318, 319, 320, 321, 325, 327, 328, 329, 340, 401, 440, 449, 493, 503, 508, 545
Rosenberg, N.453
Rossbach70
Rostow, W. W.452
Roubaud, Pierre Joseph André75
Rotterdam344
Rouen86, 94, 98, 112, 113, 117, 185, 238, 382
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques21, 49, 136, 156, 160, 177, 187, 190, 192, 193, 360, 368, 369–70, 418, 422, 431, 434, 437, 439, 445
Rousselot de Surgy, Jacques Philibert75
Roussillon210, 384, 386
Royal Society380, 381
Royal touch14
Royer-Collard, Pierre Paul137
Rumbold, Sir George52
Russell, William249
Russia7, 12, 44, 64, 66, 69, 73, 79, 81, 83, 84, 85, 99, 170, 212, 233, 274, 275, 276, 277, 279, 285, 339, 358, 432, 443, 500, 540, 560
Ryswick44
Sabatier, Gérard393
Sachsen-Hildburghausen549
Saenredam, Pieter Jansz288
Sagy230
Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin332
Saint-Cyran, Jean Duvergier de Hauranne, Abbé de323–4
Saint Denis491
Saint-Domingue252, 257, 260, 261, 263, 268, 269, 270, 272, 276, 278, 279, 383, 471
Saint Florentin, Count de398
Saint François de Sales305
Sainte Geneviève313
Saint-Germain, Count de71,
Saint Helena501, 503
Saint-Jacob, Pierre de228
Saint Jacques, rue403
Saint Jacques du Haut Pas327
Saint-Lambert, Jean François de116
Saint Lawrence531
Saint Louis290
Saint Luke337
Saint-Magloire327
Saint-Malo113, 259
Saint Médard313, 330
Saint-Merry327
Saint-Mexme-les-Champs153
Saint Paul286, 288
Saint-Paul de Fenouillet384
Saint-Seurin d’Uzet224
Saint-Sulpice293, 325
Saint-Simon, Duke de152, 338, 393
Saint Vincent, Robert de348
Saint Vincent-de-Paul176, 177, 324, 366
Saint Wenceslas290
Saintonge223, 226, 231
Salamanca294, 321, 322
Sale, Jean Baptiste de la310
Sale of offices see Venality
Salic law20
Salzburg299
Sanois, Count de193–4
Sansculottes479
Saône241
São Tomé256
Sardinia40, 81, 277, 288, 359, 365
Sangentson, Carolyn400
Saulx-Tavanes, Duke de154
Savery, Thomas452
(p. 580) Savoy12, 42, 84, 85, 89, 90, 228, 233, 277, 359, 360, 384
- Prince Eugene of63, 72
Saxe, Maurice de63
Saxe-Weimar, Bernhard of68
Saxony358, 365, 453, 542, 543
Schiller, Friedrich443, 544
Schirach, Gottlob Benedikt von443
Schlözer, August Ludwig von361, 443
Schmidt, Georg347
Schumpeter, Joseph78
Schwartz, Robert171
Scientific revolution344, 393, 457
Scotland291, 293, 432, 437, 508, 510, 511, 514, 515, 516, 526, 534, 560
Scott, Joan194
Scrofula14
Secrétaires du roi113
Secretary of state22
Sedaine, Michel-Jean398, 402
Seiferheld, Georg Heinrich361
Seine241
Senez329
Sennely-en-Sologne171
September massacres473
Serenius, Jacob438
Serna, Pierre497, 499
Serry, Jacques Hyacinthe327
Servan de Gerbey, Joseph159
Servants168, 185, 417, 436, 469
Seville260
Seyssel, Claude de16, 18
Shakespeare, William439
Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of21
Sieges62–3, 72
Sieyès, Emmanuel Joseph48, 76, 134, 469, 501
Silesia52, 66, 81, 87, 90, 256
Simmel, Georg375
Simon, Richard440
Slavery6, 7, 192, 223, 256, 258, 260, 261, 263, 267–74, 449, 471–2, 514, 525, 527, 528, 535, 557, 558, 559, 560
Smeaton, John458
Smith, Adam75, 271, 274, 276, 440, 511
Smuggling77, 83, 150, 174, 261, 270
Soanen, Jean329
Sociability179, 192, 37–387, 419, 434, 470
Social contract21
Social welfare479–80
Societe de Charite maternelle180
Sologne171, 241, 307
Sonenscher, Michael158
Sonnenfels, Joseph von358
Sorbonne294, 295, 324, 328
Sorel, Albert40, 41, 42
South Carolina527, 529, 534
Sovereignty2, 16, 19, 21, 60, 75, 99, 146, 152, 156, 160, 161, 184, 211, 221, 411, 468, 509, 518
Spain12, 18, 29, 45, 49, 50, 60, 66, 69, 81, 83, 85, 86, 87, 90, 173, 176, 244, 257, 259, 268, 269, 278, 290, 292, 294, 297–8, 318, 328, 346–7, 358, 359, 366, 374, 438, 456, 490, 500, 502, 531
Spartacus271
Speenhamland178
Spinoza, Baruch344–5, 440
Spoy229
Staël, Germaine de297, 498, 502
Stamp Act435, 532, 533
Ständestaat11, 146
Steele, Richard436
Stendhal (Henri Beyle)502, 503
Stockholm434, 438
Strasbourg287
Stuarts341, 515, 527
Sturm und Drang443, 544
Sullivan, R. J.455
Sully, Duke de91
Sumptuary laws151
Superga288
Supreme Being473
Surgeons153
Suspects, Law of474
Sutherland, Donald232
Swabia544, 551
Swart, Koenraad151
Sweden12, 51, 59, 63, 67, 81, 84, 85, 99, 171, 292, 295, 435, 438, 439, 442
Swift, Jonathan439
(p. 581) Switzerland5, 41, 51, 103, 160, 194, 285
Symonds, Rev. John241
Tackett, Timothy119, 120, 121
Taille24, 26, 313
Talleyrand496
Talon, Family94
Tamburini, Pietro347
Taxation2, 16, 17, 19, 20, 24–5, 26, 27, 31, 50, 60, 61, 67, 76–7, 78, 79, 83, 84, 85–6, 87, 88, 97, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 116, 117, 121, 147, 150, 158, 159, 160, 192, 212, 213, 215, 219, 222, 229, 232, 237, 246, 248, 255, 275, 276, 288, 292, 296, 297, 413, 468, 469, 474, 491, 495, 511, 517, 523, 532, 543, 551, 556, 559
Tax farmers24–5, 31, 88–9, 147, 150, 153, 154, 155, 376, 386, 401, 402, 524
Taylor, George V.144, 152
Technology448–66
Templeman79
Terray, Joseph Marie90, 97, 493
Terror261, 270, 277, 469, 470, 473, 474, 483, 494, 496, 499
Test Acts296, 300, 341–2, 510–11, 610–11
Testelin397
Textiles169, 449, 453, 460, 531
Theatre7, 94, 267, 386, 396, 402, 413, 420, 421, 470, 514
Thermidor51, 469, 498
Theroigne de Méricourt471
Thiers, Adolphe137
- Jean Baptiste312
Third Estate3, 33, 75, 94, 95, 104, 105, 113, 114, 119, 120, 121, 130, 134, 135, 141, 144, 151, 160, 170, 229, 274, 332, 469
Third Republic258, 470, 476
Thirteen Colonies see Colonies, Thirteen
Thomasius294
Thomism327
Tindal, Matthew242
Tithe4, 219, 220, 224, 226, 226, 230, 231, 233, 248, 289, 467, 477, 523
Titles3, 26, 46, 54, 143, 154, 210, 474, 475, 491, 492, 493, 524
Tocqueville, Alexis de1, 4, 5, 11, 17, 25, 154, 156, 229, 419, 469, 490, 493–4, 498, 508, 513, 517, 518, 526, 560
Toland, John242
Toledo292
Toleration4, 14, 286–7, 300, 337–53, 432, 444, 510
Toleration Act341, 342
Torgau62
Torstensson, Lennard59
Torture481
Toulouse; Toulousain93, 94, 95, 103, 112, 184, 223, 227, 228, 343, 384–5
Touraine151
Tournai308
Toussaint l’Ouverture, François Dominique278
Toutain, J.- C.239, 246
Toys361, 368
Translation438–40
Transylvania277
Trent, Council of190, 293, 298, 303, 320, 321, 322
Triangular trade269, 270
Tridentine Catholicism287, 298, 303, 320
Trinitarianism287, 290
Turbilly, Louis François Henri de Menon, Marquis de228
Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques20, 75, 116, 156, 157, 160, 243, 444
Turin40, 46, 288
Turkey see Ottomans
Tuscany81, 294, 299, 365
Ukraine275
Unigenitus97–8, 99, 294, 308, 328–9, 330, 331, 332, 340, 419
Unitarians341, 345
United Provinces (see Netherlands)
United States2, 28, 41, 51, 472, 560
Universities143, 147, 293–4, 364, 365, 547
Urban VIII322, 323
Urbanization206–7, 208, 215
Urbarium277
Ursulines191, 304, 367, 368
Utrecht44, 53, 531
Valenciennes241
Valois14
Van Kley, Dale340
Vardi, Liana158
Vauban, Sébastien Le Prestre de63, 245
Vaux-le-Vicomte389, 395, 396, 402
Velay229
Venality2, 3, 13, 15, 20, 24, 25, 28, 71, 87, 90, 94, 95, 99, 113, 117, 118, 119, 132, 147, 151–2, 155, 156, 209, 214, 215, 219, 220, 230, 412, 415, 476, 556, 558
Vendée478, 496, 500
Venice41, 81, 175, 259, 295, 347, 454
Venturi, Franco358
Vergennes, Charles Gravier de115
Verri, Alessandro378
- Pietro378
Versailles28, 55, 79, 99, 104, 114–15, 116, 117, 134, 147, 175, 184, 193, 219, 290, 389–96, 397, 398, 417, 419
Viala, Alain380
Victor Amadeus II288
Vidal de la Blache, Paul Marie Joseph237
Vienna43, 46, 288, 297, 298, 345, 359, 379, 544, 547
- Congress of39, 40, 53–4, 544
Villèle, Joseph de482
Vincennes395
Vingtième27, 87, 88, 89, 100, 116, 117, 121, 158
Vintimille, Charles Gaspard du Luc de329
Virginia257, 525, 526, 527, 529, 531
Vitet, Louis397
Volga276
Volney, Constantin François49
Voltaire, François Marie Arouet de95, 117, 130, 136, 274, 340, 343, 344, 347, 379, 380–1, 396, 421, 431, 437, 439, 444, 445, 493
Vows4
Wages202, 205, 207–8
Wailly, Charles de397
Wales516
Wallenstein, Albrecht68
Walpole, Robert512, 513, 533
Warburton, William296
Ward, W. R.286
Warnke, Martin388
Wars4, 12, 14, 16, 17, 22, 23–4, 31, 43, 50, 51, 78, 151, 232, 261, 271, 358, 413, 506, 511, 512, 531, 532
- American Independence31, 42, 72, 77, 83, 84, 85, 86, 102, 271, 443, 509, 511, 516, 526, 535
- Austrian Succession89
- First World559, 560
- French Revolutionary51, 59, 71, 78, 91, 262, 480, 519, 543, 558
- Dutch44, 64, 254, 297
- Hundred Years24
- Napoleonic71, 170, 262, 450, 519
- Nine Years78, 394, 531
- of religion29, 168, 210, 341, 345, 419, 449
- Polish Succession298
- Seven Years49, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 89, 292, 358, 359, 360, 363, 364, 365, 366, 456, 531, 549
- Spanish Succession84, 87, 298, 541
- Thirty Years59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 68, 73, 168, 171, 210, 287, 288, 294, 323, 337, 345, 541, 543, 546, 548
- 1812536
Warsaw233, 379
Watt, James452, 458
Watteau, Antoine392
Webb, Sidney and Beatrice515
Weber, Max13, 145
Wedgwood, Josiah453, 457
West Indies256, 258, 269, 275
Westminster512, 514, 515, 518
Weston, James249
Westphalia45, 345, 541, 542, 543
- Peace of170, 285, 286, 337–8
Whaley, Joachim345
Whiteboys289
Whitefield, George530
Wicquefort, Abraham von39
William III76, 287, 291, 341, 342, 510, 511
Wirt, William535
Witchcraft315, 480
Wolff, Christian294
Wollstonecroft, Mary368, 434
(p. 583) Woloch, Isser501–2
Wood, Gordon S.523, 529
Woolston, Thomas295, 341
Workhouses178–9
Wren, Christopher288
Wrightson, Keith170
Wrigley, Richard422
Young, Arthur232, 239–40, 241, 242, 243, 244, 247, 267
Yale365
Ypres319
Yves d’Evreux303
Zimmerman, E.79, 81, 84
Ziskin, Rochelle393
Zurich160