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date: 05 July 2020

(p. 587) Subject Index

(p. 587) Subject Index

accident investigations 166–7
accountability, and information search 254
action:
and autonomy from decision 424–7
deviance amplification 426–7
dynamic nature of action 425–7
post‐decision equivocality 424–5
and decision making:
assumption of isolability 420–1
assumption of sequentiality 419–20
relationship between 421
and decision outcomes 421
as retroactive interpretation 422–3
and decisions as retrospective explanation of 421–2
and information overload 71
and rationality/irrationality 11
action research 508
adaptive decision making 9–10
adaptive structuring:
as cognitive decision aid 198–200
collective mind 200
information processing 199–200
mental models 198–9
recognizing anomalies 199
sensemaking 198, 199
and comprehension 208
and High Reliability Organizations 200
Big City Police Department 205–7, 208
fire department's Incident Command System 201–2, 208
Pediatric Intensive Care Unit 202–5, 208
and information integration 208
and malleable decision making processes 208
advanced beginners, and stages of expertise 68
affect:
and affective personality 334–5
and appraisal theories 326
and cognition 312–15
affect as information hypothesis 330–31
anxiety 331–2
complexity of relationship 335
creativity 333
influences on 330–4
memory and attention 331–2
sadness 331–2
work performance 333–4
and communicative function 336
and components of 325
and future research on 336
and high activation emotions 427
and influence of cognitive processes 326
and information processing 331–2
and meaning of 325
and negative affect 326
information processing 331
and organizational decision research 14–15
and positive affect 326
creativity 333
heuristic processing 331, 332–3
and psychometric representation of 325–6
and reaction to work events 328
categorization 326–7
coping 328–30
emotional associations 327–8
goal‐related inferences 327
and regulation of affective experience:
action vs state orientations 348
coping 328–40
implications for work conditions 330
and research methods 336–7
and scenario planning 578–80
and state affect 325
interaction with trait affect 334–5
and strategic decision making 332
and trait affect 325, 334
interaction with state affect 334–5
affect heuristic 291
and risk judgments 522
age, and individual decision making 347–8
agency, and decision making 236
agenda setting 428
agreeableness, and personality measurement 350
aircraft carriers 197
Alcatel 40
Amazon 102
(p. 588) ambiguity, and organizational decision making 292
American Management Association 117
analogous reasoning 49
and decision making 466
analytic hierarchy process (AHP) 535
analytical decision making:
and problem structure 315–16
loose structure 317–18
tight structure 316–17
anchoring and adjustment:
and behavioral decision theory 291
and cognitive bias 45
and intuitive judgment 305
and numerical estimates 538
anonymity, and group decision making 106, 107, 108
anxiety 331–2
appraisal theories 326
appropriateness, logic of 497
argumentation, and decision making 466
Ashby's Law of Requisite Variety 126
Atari, and boom and bust dynamics 34, 47
attention, and competing issues 429
attribution errors, and boom and bust dynamics 44
augmentation:
and decision making 98–9
and technology, information gathering 100–1
authority migration 201
autocorrelations 81–2
automaticity:
and expert decision making 219
and individual decision making 342, 343
availability heuristic 291, 468
and intuitive judgment 305
and risk judgments 521–2, 538
and scenario planning 575–6
aviation industry:
and accident investigations 167
and disaster planning 160, 163
Aviation Safety Action Partnership (ASAP) 160
away days, see strategy workshops
Bayes' theorem 85, 289–90
and failures to follow 290
BCG 500, 501
behavioral decision theory 8–9, 214, 300–1
and criticisms of 293, 300–1
and development of 287
and features of managerial decision making:
ambiguity 292
incentives 292
longitudinal context 292
repeated decisions 293
and goals of 290–1
and heuristics and biases paradigm 289–90
Bayes' theorem 290
decision heuristics 291
and high consequence low probability events 297–300
and impact of 300
and implications for organizational decision making 293–4
and individual choice behavior 288
and judgment 290, 291
and managerial decision making 292–3
and methodology 300
and organization theory 288
lack of cross‐pollination 300
and prediction and planning 294–5
cognitive aspects 295
large engineering projects 296–7
managerial predictions 296
and prospect theory 289
disposition effect 293–4
and research areas 291
and roots of 287–8
Bhopal disaster 156
and lack of coordinated response 164
bias, and decision making 236
behavioral decision theory 291
boom and bust dynamics 43–4
anchoring and adjustment 45
(p. 589)
attribution errors 44
inside view 45–6
organizational reinforcement of 46
collective benefits 52
and de‐biasing training 468
heuristics 141
individual differences 349
information processing in groups:
attending to information 369–71
cohesiveness of group 371–2
majority/minority influences 372–3
intuitive judgment 305, 310, 319
and large scale engineering projects 296–7
organizational reinforcement of 46
scenario planning 573–4, 575–7
trait approach to 349
Big City Police Department, and adaptive structuring 205–7, 208
Black‐Scholes formula 385
boom and bust dynamics 33–4, 51–2
and capacity expansion 34
and collective benefits of 52
and decision biases 43–4
anchoring and adjustment 45
attribution errors 44
inside view 45–6
organization reinforcement of 46
and difficulty of managing 34
and examples of 34–5, 40
Atari 34, 47
EMI CT scanners 35–7
Lucent Technologies 37–40
Worlds of Wonder 34, 47–8
and experimental research on 40–3
capacity investment decisions 41–3
deficient mental models 41–3
misperceptions of feedback 40–1
pricing decisions 43
product launch simulation 40–3
and impediments to learning 46–8
causal ambiguity 47–8
length of time between cycles 47
and prevalence of 33
and product lifecycle 36–7, 40, 50–1
and strategies for moderating 48, 51
adopting ‘outside view’ 50–1
formation of schemata 48–50
and typical managerial behavior 34
bounded rationality 6, 10, 308, 400
and cognitive perspective 403
and individual decision making 99–100
and managerial decision making 497
and misperceptions of feedback 40
Bristol Royal Infirmary 161
Brooklyn bridge 296
call centers, and performance monitoring 117, 119–21
‘Tayloristic’ approach 122
Cape Cod canal 296
career decisions, and individual differences 350–1, 352–3
Carnegie School:
and cognitive perspective 403
and organization theory 288, 469
categorization:
and affect 326–7
and work group diversity 363–4
centralization, and crisis management 181–2
Challenger space shuttle disaster 3–4, 161, 165–6, 297, 541
chunking theory 217, 309
CIA 84, 85, 87
classical decision making (CDM) 212–13
cognition:
and affect 312–15
affect as information hypothesis 330–31
anxiety 331–2
complexity of relationship 335
creativity 333
future research 336
influences of 330–4
memory and attention 331–2
research methods 336–7
sadness 331–2
work performance 333–4
and dual‐process theories 14, 311–12
and emotion 325
cognitive bias, see bias
cognitive blocking 107
cognitive continuum theory, and intuitive judgment 315
cognitive dissonance 143
cognitive experiential self theory (CEST) 311
cognitive processes:
and influence on affect:
categorization 326–7
emotional associations 327–8
goal‐related inferences 327
and regulation of affective experience 328–30
implications for work conditions 330
cognitive psychology 254
cognitive science, and organizational decision research 9
cohesiveness, and group diversity 371–2
collapse dynamics, see boom and bust dynamics
collective mind 12–13, 200
Columbia space shuttle disaster 4, 156, 165, 166, 297
commitment:
and escalation of 258–9, 426
and group decision making 373–5
commodification, and rational decision theory 408–10
compensatory linkages, and issue interconnectedness 431
competence, and stages of expertise 68
competitive advantage, and unreliable data 92–3
complexity, and organizational environment 177, 197
conditional reasoning 497–8
conditioning 328
and behavior 273
confirmation bias 541
confirmation trap 291
conflict, and work group diversity 363
conjunction fallacy 575
conscientiousness, and personality measurement 350
consultants:
and commodification of rationality 408–10
and control loss 502–4
(p. 590)
and functions offered by 501–2
and growth in demand for 499
explanation for 502–4
and inability to assess success of 504
and knowledge produced by 500–1
and managers:
communication barrier 504–5
communication between 496
impact on decision making by 504–5, 510
information asymmetry 505
and methods of 500–1
and roles of 500
context:
and disaster planning 196–7
and intuition and intuitive judgment 315
and limitations on rationality 141–3
and naturalistic decision making 213, 214
and sensegiving 238
and sensemaking 65–6
and teaching decision making 469
control:
and alternatives to 123–6
leadership and employee self‐concepts 127–9, 129–30
and call centers 119–21
‘Tayloristic’ approach 122
and cybernetic controls 117, 118–21, 129
assumptions underlying 119
feedback loops 119
inappropriate application 121
and electronic monitoring, growth of 117
and employee reaction to 122–3
and feedback loops 119, 124
and illusion of 121–3, 468
and leadership 118, 126–9
and negative impact of 116–17, 122, 126, 130
and resource dependence reduction 123–4
and self‐control 124
and trust environment 125
and violation of ‘ideal self’ 125–6
control loss, and demand for consultants 502–4
coping, and regulation of affective experience 328–30
cost overruns, and large scale engineering projects 296–7
creativity:
and intuitive judgment 318–19
and positive affect 333
crisis management decision processes:
and behavioral decision theory 297–300
and consequences of crises 185–8
conflict and solidarity 186
healing social trauma 188
learning opportunities 186–7
post‐crisis reform 187–8
reactions to crisis 185–6
and definition of crises 174–5
and disruption 175
and emergent crises 175–6
and ‘fit’ with crisis type 176, 181–5, 189–90
centralization 181–2
diversity of information sources 183–4
information processing pathologies 183–4
legitimacy and trust 182–3
management group composition 184
political considerations 185
speed of response 185
and organizational environment 188–90, 196–7
complexity 177
emergency units 177–8
impact of 177
institutional capacity 178
past experience 177
volatility 176–7
and organizational resources 175–6
and social construction of crises 175
and types of crises 178–81
caused by error or intention 178–9
conflictual elements 180
human or natural causes 178
size of 180
social fragmentation 181
speed of development 179–80
speed of response 185
transmission mechanisms 179 see also High Reliability Organizations (HROs)
CT scanners, and boom and bust dynamics 35–7
culture, and decision making 134
dominance of cultures 138
ideological notions of culture 134
implications of 138–9
limitations on rationality 134, 149
bias 141
corporate culture 147
cultures as 144–9
heuristics 140–1
literature on 139–44
memory 141
national culture 145
organizational context 141–3
organizational cultures 148–9
physical and biological 143
routines 145
rules 143
shared typifications 143
(p. 591)
situational determinants 143–4
world views 146–7
multiple dimensions of culture 135
national culture:
changes in 138, 147–8
diversity within 138
Franco‐German comparison 136
French culture 135–6
occupational cultures 136–7
organizational cultures 137–8
changes in 148
cultural change 139
differentiation perspective 137, 139
group think 138
integration perspective 137, 138–9
limitations on rationality 148–9
segmentation perspective 137–8, 139
cybernetic controls 118–21, 129
and alternatives to 123–6
leadership and employee self‐concepts 127–9, 129–30
and assumptions underlying 119
and call centers 119–21
‘Tayloristic’ approach 122
and electronic monitoring, growth of 117
and employee reaction to 122–3
and feedback loops 119, 124
and illusion of control 121–3
and inappropriate application 121
and negative impact of 116–17, 122, 126, 130
and organizational control 117
and performance monitoring 117
and rationality 117
and trust environment 125
and violation of ‘ideal self’ 125–6
data:
and acquisition of 81
and dealing with unreliable data:
acting incrementally 89–90
anticipating inaccuracy 89
competitive advantage 92–3
creating robust organizations 88–90
educating and informing 91–2
feedback 89
information technology 91–2
recognizing and correcting errors 90
and perceptual inaccuracy 77–80
environmental uncertainty 78, 83
noticing errors 77–8
objective data 78–9
organizational properties 78–80
perceptual bias 79
sensemaking errors 77, 78
and prediction inaccuracy 80–3
autocorrelations 81–2
and reaction to inaccurate/unreliable 83
and reaction to unreliable data
acting incrementally 87–8
gathering more data 83–4
playing to the audience 86–7
reverting to ideology 85–6
seeking certainty 84–5
uncertainty avoidance 83
and scepticism about 83
data mining, and individual decision making 100, 102
data warehouses:
and dealing with unreliable data 92
and individual decision making 100–1
decentralization, and Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) 203–5
decision analysis 404
and applications 404
and axioms of 401–2
and commodification of rationality 408–10
and convention of rationality 407–8
and performance of rationality 406–7
and rationality 400
and stages of 401
and tools of 410–12 see also structured decision making
Decision Analysis Affinity Group 409
decision conferencing, and group decision making 544–6
Decision focus Inc 409
decision outcomes:
and action's autonomy from decisions:
deviance amplification 426–7
dynamic nature of action 425–7
post‐decision equivocality 424–5
and allocation of responsibility 423–4, 432
as consequence of actions 421, 432
and decision making 421
assumption of isolability 420–1
assumption of sequentiality 419–20
conventional approach to 419
as retroactive interpretation 422–3
and interactions between decisions 427–32
issue interconnectedness 430–2
sets of issues 428–9
streams of issues 429–30
and reinterpretation of the past 433
Decision Research 409
Decision Support Systems (DSS):
and individual decision making 100
decision types 102–4
effectiveness 103–4
(p. 592)
information gathering 100–1
information use 101–2
Decision Techtronics 545
decision trees 539–40
Defense Intelligence Agency (USA) 84
Delphi, and group decision making 541–4
comparison with statistical groups 542–3
principles for use of 543–4
deviance amplification 426
Devil's Advocate 90
Disaster Incubation Model (DIM) 209
and decision making 197
disasters, and decision making 156
and behavioral decision theory 297–300
context of 196–7
developing decision making practices 167–8
data gathering 168
internal experimentation 169
organizational environment 168–9
Disaster Incubation Model 197
in midst of disaster 163
coordination 163–5
decision making practices 165–6
planning for 155–6
post‐disaster investigations 166–7
under threat of disaster 157
constraints 157, 158
data gathering complications 161–3
disincentives to report problems 162
encouraging error reporting 162–3
explaining away potential dangers 161–2
interpreting warning signals 159
learning from small failures and near misses 160–1
overconfidence 158
planning for the unexpected 157–9
professional norms as hindrance 162
simulations 158–9
dispatchers, and Big City Police Department 205–7
disposition effect 293–4
disruption, and crises 175
diversity, and group decision making 361–2
access to information 364–5
factors encouraging sharing of 367–8
group size 367–8
identity salience 367–8
information sharing 365–6
information sharing in heterogeneous groups 366–7
commitment to decisions 373–5
information processing biases 369
attending to information 369–71
cohesiveness of group 371–2
majority/minority influences 372–3
positive and negative effects of 362–4
doll manufacturing, and using options in practice 391–5
dramaturgical power 241
dread, and risk judgments 523–4
dual‐process theories:
and cognition 14
and intuition/rationality dichotomy 460
and intuitive judgment 311–12
dynamic decision making, and boom and bust dynamics 40–3
early model adoption, and Big City Police Department 206
eBay 102
ecological rationality 10, 310
Eerie canal 296
efficient markets, and technology 101
electronic monitoring, see monitoring
elimination by aspects heuristic 535
EMI, and boom and bust dynamics 35–7
emotion:
and expert team effectiveness 224–5
and organizational decision research 14–15 see also affect
emotional associations 326–7
Empire State building 296
enactment, and uncertainty reduction 257
engineering, and prediction and planning 294–5, 296–7
cognitive aspects 295
Enron:
and leader façades 449
and limitations on rationality 147
and reputational façade 447, 448
entrepreneurship, and cognitive bias 295
environmental uncertainty 78, 83
equivocality, and decision making 424–5
error recognition, and dealing with unreliable data 90
escalation of commitment 258–9, 426
Estonia (ferry) 156
European Union, and risk communication 519
experience:
and intuition 459
and learning 284
and naturalistic decision making 213
(p. 593) experimentation:
and limited experimentation:
optimality of 275–6
superstitious behavior 276–8
and perceived costs of 271–2
and sources of incidental 282–3
expert systems 102
expertise:
and attributions of 370–1
and expert decision making 215–16
automaticity 219
contextual cues 217
diagnostic feedback 218
guided practice 218
knowledge base 217
memory skills 219
pattern recognition 217–18
self‐monitoring 219–20
situation assessment 218–19
and expert team effectiveness 220
adaptability 222–3
clarity of roles 223
cooperation and coordination 225
emotional factors 224–5
feedback 224
nature of teams 220–2
shared mental models 222
shared vision 223–4
strong leadership 224
and information overload 66
and naturalistic decision making 13–14, 213, 214, 215
and stages of 67, 68–9
extraversion, and personality measurement 349
façades, organizational 449–50
as buffers 438
and characteristics of 438
and construction of 443
conforming to norms 443
satisfying social expectations 443–4
use of ‘state‐of‐the‐art’ techniques 443
and decision making 438
and functions of 438–9
and leader façades 448–9
and meaning of 437–8
and multiple facets 443
and progressive façades 445–6
adaptive role 446
appearance of ‘state‐of‐the‐art’ management 446
consequences of 446–7
hiding failure to change 446
innovation 446–7
and rational façades 444
allows disorder and mess 444–5
consequences of 444–5
uncertainty reduction 445
and reputational façades 447
consequences of 447–8
illegitimate actions 448
innovation 447–8
living up to 447
risk‐taking 448
and Sogenious Labs case study 439–43
failure:
and business projects 77
and explanations of 82–3
false analogy 468
fault trees 538, 539
FBI, and fingerprint identification 56–8
feedback:
and cybernetic controls 119, 124
and dealing with unreliable data 89
and deviance amplification 426–7
and expert decision making 218
and expert team effectiveness 224
and misperceptions of 40–1
financial options 384
and Black‐Scholes formula 385
and doll manufacturer example 392
and operating core stability 390
and value of 385
fingerprint identification, and FBI error 56–8
fire department, and adaptive structuring 201–2, 208
firm performance:
and diversity 363
and superstitious behavior 276–7
foolishness 7
forecasting, see predictions
formal‐empiricist paradigm, and decision making research 212–13
framing 239–40
and behavioral decision theory 289, 291
and definition 237
and individual choice behavior 288
and power dynamics 242
and sensemaking 236–7
France, and national culture 135–6
changes in 147–8
Franco‐German comparison 136
garbage‐can decision making 11, 288, 400, 420–1, 469
GE, and CT scanners 35, 36
gender, and individual decision making 346–7
Germany, and national culture 136
(p. 594) goal‐related inferences, and affect 327
Golden Gate bridge 296
Goseck Circle 98
Greater Manchester Police (GMP) 194–5
as High Reliability Organization 195
group decision making 540
and access to information 364–5
factors encouraging sharing of 367–8
group size 367–8
identity salience 367–8
information sharing 365–6
information sharing in heterogeneous groups 366–7
and anonymity 106, 107, 108
and commitment to decisions 373–5
and decision conferencing 544–6
and Delphi method 542–4
comparison with statistical groups 542–3
principles for use of 543–4
and diversity 362
positive and negative effects 362–4
and effectiveness of 364
and group memory 107
and groupthink 255, 259, 469, 540–1
group cohesiveness 371
organizational cultures 138
and information processing biases 369
attending to information 369–71
cohesiveness of group 371–2
majority/minority influences 372–3
and scenario planning 546–7
and social influence 106
and technology 104–5
group configuration 105
information gathering 105–7
information use 107–8
limitations of 107–8
process loss 104–5
and transactive memory 106–7
Group Support Systems (GSS), and decision making 104–5
anonymity 106, 107, 108
features of 107
group configuration 105
and group memory 107
information gathering 105–7
information use 107–8
limitations of 107–8
groupthink 255, 259, 469, 540–1
and group cohesiveness 371
and organizational cultures 138
Guadalupe Dunes oil spill 164–5
Helene Curtis 92
heuristics:
and behavioral decision theory 8, 289–90, 291
and benefits of 144–5
and bias in decision making 141
and complex decision environments 44
and decision making 140–1, 235
simplification of 254
and ecological rationality 10, 310
and fast and frugal 310–11
and individual decision making 100, 534–5, 538
and intuitive judgment 305, 310–11, 319
differences from 311
and meta‐heuristics 310
and risk communication 521–3
and sensemaking 236
and strategic decision making 332
High Reliability Organizations (HROs) 195
and adaptive structuring 200
Big City Police Department 205–7, 208
as cognitive decision aid 198–200
collective mind 200
fire department's Incident Command System 201–2, 208
information integration 208
information processing 199–200
mental models 198–9
Pediatric Intensive Care Unit 202–5, 208
recognizing anomalies 199
sensemaking 198, 199
and contribution of research on 196
and decision making context 196–7
and decision making practices 166
and effective decision making 196
and error‐free operation 195
and operating environments 197
high stakes decision making 155–6
and common practices 156
and disasters 156
and studies of 156 see also disasters, and decision making
hindsight heuristic 291
history, and decision making 469
homo oeconomicus 413 n1
and normative rationalist perspective 401–3
and rational decision making 400
Hurricane Charley 298
Hurricane Ernesto 299
Hurricane Floyd 298
Hurricane Katrina:
and behavioral decision theory 298–9
and disastrous response to 164
(p. 595)
and high stakes decision making 156
and ‘Hurricane Pam’ exercise 159
and New Orleans levees 158
hurricanes, and behavioral decision theory 298–9
hypocrisy, and decision making 11
IBM, and limitations on rationality 147
ICI 10
identity:
and information sharing 367–8
and sensemaking 243
ideology, and incidental experimentation 283
image construction, and leader façades 449
Imagination Lab Foundation 475, 476 see also serious play
implicit learning, and intuition 459
impossibility theorem 402
improvisation 243
inaccurate data, see data
incentives, and organizational decision making 292
Incident Command System (ICS), and adaptive structuring 201–2, 208
indecision 92–3
individual decision making:
and decisions involving risk/uncertainty 538–40
decision trees 539, 540
decomposition methods 538–9
heuristics 538
limitations of formal methods 539–40
simulations 539
and decisions with multiple objectives 535–7
decomposition methods 535–6
formal structured models 535–7
heuristics 535
limitations of structured models 537
SMART method 535–6
and heuristics 100, 534–5
and information processing perspective 234–5, 254
and model of 343
and nature of 342
and self‐regulatory model of 354–5
and technology 99–100
computers 100
decision types 102–4
information gathering 100–1
individual differences, and decision making 342, 343–7, 354–5
biases and errors 349
career decisions 350–51, 352–3
gender 347–8
internal self‐regulation 348–9
definition 349
selective attention 348
life‐span development 351–3
personality 349–50
and behavior 351
self‐regulatory model of 354–5
situation fit 350–51
Indosuez Bank 447–8
information overload:
and action 71
and adjustment mechanisms 59
and capability development 71
and capacity constraints 59
and complication 63
and computational perspective 61
and decision making 70–1
and definition 58–9
and expertise:
as antidote 66
stages of 67, 68–9
and FBI's error in fingerprint identification 56–8
and information processing perspective 61
assumptions of 61–2
and interpretation 62–3, 65, 71
and interruptions 60, 67, 69
response repertoire 69–70
and learning 71
and nature of 72
and organizational design 61
and perceptual errors 80
and problematic quality of information 59
and scarcity of research on 60–1
and sensemaking 64–6, 71, 72
context 65–6
and symptoms of 59
and thrownness 64–6
and time pressures 59–60
information processing:
and affect 331–2
and crisis management 183–4
and group diversity 369
attending to information 369–71
cohesiveness of group 371–2
majority/minority influences 372–3
and individual decision making 234–5, 253
and information overload 61
assumptions behind approach 61–2
and interpretation 62
(p. 596)
and organizational design 61
and organizations 12
and overload 58–9
and sensemaking 199–200
information sharing, and group decision making 365–6
factors encouraging sharing 368–9
group size 367–8
heterogeneous groups 366–7
identity salience 367–8
information technology:
and dealing with unreliable data 91–2
and decision making 98 see also technology
innovation:
and ideology 283
and incidental experimentation 282–3
and incremental actions 89–90
and organizational façades 446–7
and positive affect 333
and reputational façades 447–8
and stage‐gate process 263
inside view:
and boom and bust dynamics 45–6
and prediction and planning 295
instinct, and intuition 459
Institute of Nuclear Power Operation 167
Institute of Safe Medication Practices 169
International Society on Multiple Criteria Decision Making 409
interpretation:
and information overload 62–3, 65, 71
and organizational decision research 12–13
interruptions, and information overload 60, 67, 69
response repertoire 69–70
intuition and intuitive judgment:
and accuracy of 309
and adaptability 309–10
and approaches to 305–7
and basis of 319
and bias 305, 310, 319
and cognitive continuum theory 315
and context 315
and contribution to management 308
and creativity 318–19
and definition difficulties 458–9
and domain specificity 315
and dual‐process theories 311–12
and emotion 312–15
and experience 306, 459
and future research on 319–20
and heuristics 305, 310–11, 319
differences from 311
fast and frugal 311
and instinct 459
and managerial decision making 498
and nature of 319
and organizational decision research 14
and organizational environment 309
and problem structure 315–16
loose structure 317–18
tight structure 316–17
and process of 306
and rationality 308–10, 318
and somatic aspects of 314
and tacit knowledge 319
and teaching decision making 458–60
Iran 88
Iraq, and US invasion of (2003) 84, 85, 86–7, 88, 93
Iraqi National Congress 84
irrationality, and action taking 11
isolability, and decision outcomes 420–1
issues, and decision making:
issue interconnectedness 430–2
compensatory linkages 431
lateral linkages 430
precursive linkages 430–1
sequential linkages 430
sets of issues 428–9
streams of issues 429–30
ITT Corporation, and Devil's Advocate approach 90
iTunes 102
JDS Uniphase, and boom and bust dynamics 34
John Brown Engineers and Constructors 387
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) 168–9
Journal of Multi‐criteria Decision Analysis 410
judgement and decision making (JDM) 213
Jungian personality types 350
kleroterion 98
Kvaerner ASA 387
language, and role of 243
lateral linkages, and issue interconnectedness 430
leadership:
and control 118, 126–9
and employee self‐concepts 127–9, 129–30
and expert team effectiveness 224
and leader façades 448–9
(p. 597) learning:
and crisis management 186–7
and experience 284
and expert team effectiveness 222–3
and impediments to, boom and bust dynamics 46–8
and implicit learning 459
and information overload 71
and superstitious behavior 273–8
legitimacy, and crisis management 182–3
lexicographic ranking heuristic 535
life‐span development, and decision‐making 351–3
Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO) 426
loss aversion:
and behavioral decision theory 291
and disposition effect 294
Lucent Technologies, and boom and bust dynamics 37–40
Madrid train bombings (2004) 56–8
Management Analysis Inc 409
management consultants, see consultants
management researchers:
and knowledge production:
collaboration 508–9, 511
nature of scientific system 506–8
obstacles to 508–9
relevance gap 506–7
and managers:
communication between 496, 506
impact on decision making by 510
managers:
and consultants:
communication barrier 504–5
communication between 496
control loss 502–4
functions offered by 501–2
impact on decision making 504–5, 510
inability to assess success of 504
information asymmetry 505
knowledge produced by 500–1
reasons for demand for 502–4
and decision making by 496–8
closed system 497
conditional reasoning 497–8
impact of consultants 504–5, 510
impact of management researchers 510
incremental changes 497
intuition 498
uncertainty 497
and management researchers:
collaboration 508–9, 511
communication between 496, 506
impact on decision making 510
knowledge produced by 506–9
Manchester, and bomb explosion 194–5
Marshall Space Flight Center 3
Mayfield, Brandon 56–7
meaning:
and influencing 239–40
and power dynamics 241–2
media, and role in crises 182–3
memory:
and expert decision making 219
and limitations on rationality 141
and multiple trace memory theory 312–13
mental errors, and decision making 467–8
mental models:
and boom and bust dynamics 41–3
and collective mind 200
and definition 581 n1
and expert teams 222
and inertia 568
and misperceptions of feedback 40
and organizational decision research 9
and scenario planning 568
and sensemaking 198
Mental Models Approach (MMA), and risk 525–6
metatraits 353
Millennium Challenge ′02 211–12
mindfulness 13
mindguarding 541
Mobil‐Com 448
model migration, and Big City Police Department 206–7
model resetting, and Big City Police Department 207
monitoring:
and alternatives to 123–6
leadership and employee self‐concepts 127–9, 129–30
and call centers 119–21
‘Tayloristic’ approach 122
and cybernetic controls 118–21, 129
assumptions underlying 119
feedback loops 119
inappropriate application 121
and electronic monitoring, growth of 117
and employee reaction to 122–3
and expert decision making 219–20
and feedback loops 119, 124
and illusion of control 121–3
and leadership 126–9
and negative impact of 116–17, 122, 126, 130
and self‐control 124
and trust environment 125
and violation of ‘ideal self’ 125–6
(p. 598) Morton Thiokol 3–4
multiple trace memory theory 313–14
myths, and rationality 407
narrative, and decision making 466, 491
NASA:
and Challenger disaster 3–4, 161, 165–6, 297, 541
and Columbia disaster 4, 156, 165, 166, 297
and decision‐making environment 2
and engineering/management disagreements 3–4
and information interpretation 159
and intraorganizational conflict 2–3
and performance targets 2
and risk 3
and structural complexity 2
National Hurricane Centre 298, 299
National Security Agency (USA) 84
National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) 167
natural disasters, and high stakes decision making 156 see also disasters, and decision making
naturalistic decision making (NDM) 212, 213, 225–6
and context 213, 214
and definition 213, 225
and expert decision making 215–16
automaticity 219
contextual cues 217
diagnostic feedback 218
guided practice 218
knowledge base 217
memory skills 219
pattern recognition 217–18
self‐monitoring 219–20
situation assessment 218–19
and expert team effectiveness 220
adaptability 222–3
clarity of roles 223
cooperation and coordination 225
emotional factors 224–5
feedback 224
nature of teams 220–2
shared mental models 222
shared vision 223–4
strong leadership 224
and expertise 213, 214, 215
and organizational decision research 13–14
as process oriented 214
and recognition primed decision model 214–15
and research characteristics 214
and task environments 213–14
near accidents:
and data gathering 168
and disaster planning 160–1
interpreting information 161–2
Netflix 102
neuroticism, and personality measurement 350
New Orleans:
and levees 158
and response to Hurricane Katrina 164
North Korea 88
noticing, and perceptual errors 77–8
novices, and stages of expertise 68
nuclear industry:
and disaster planning 159, 160–1
and event review process 169
and information sharing 167
occupational cultures 136–7
Office of Special Plans (USA) 84
‘one‐armed bandit problem’ 274
openness, and personality measurement 350
options:
and management of 386–8, 395
and nature of 384
and operating core stability 389–90
and organizational development 390–1
and using options in practice:
continuing discussions about 389
development of 388–9, 391
distinctions between 389
doll manufacturing example 391–5 see also real options reasoning (ROR)
order, and transience of 65
organization theory:
and accommodation of rationality 405
and development of 288
and rejection of rationality 403–4
and stagnation of 405
organizational cognition 234, 235, 244
organizational cultures 137–8
and cultural change 139, 148
and differentiation perspective 137, 139
and group think 138
and integration perspective 137, 138–9
and limitations on rationality 148–9
and segmentation perspective 137–8, 139
organizational decision research 234–5
and benefits of 4–5
and classical decision making approach 212
and formal‐empiricist paradigm 212–13
and implications of 5
and nascent themes in:
emotion 14–15
(p. 599)
intuition 14
naturalistic decision making 13–14
and naturalistic paradigm 213
and organizational perspective 403–4
and persistent themes in:
adaptive decision making 9–10
behavioral decision theory 8–9
interpretive perspectives 12–13
mental models 9
political context 10–11
rational decision makers 5–8
and rationalist perspective 213
and sociological perspective 244–5
organizational perspective, and decision making 403–4
outranking 535
‘outside view’:
and boom and bust dynamics 50–1
and prediction and planning 294
overconfidence bias 291
and entrepreneurship 295
and large scale engineering projects 296–7
overload, see information overload
overshoot dynamics, see boom and bust dynamics
pattern recognition, and expert decision making 217–18
Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), and adaptive structuring 202–5, 208
perceptions:
and environmental uncertainty 78
and inaccuracy of 77–80
and limitations on rationality 143
and noticing errors 77–8
and objective data 78–9
and organizational properties 78–80
and perceptual bias 79
and prediction‐inaccuracy 80–3
and sensemaking errors 77, 78
performance monitoring, and cybernetic controls 117
performance targets, and NASA 2
performativity, and rationality 400, 408
personality:
and behavior 351
and individual decision making 349–50
and modelling of 349–50
Pervasive Decision Support (PDS) 109–11
and adapting to use of 110
and boundaries of use of 111
and organizational realities of use of 110
and systems integration skills 110–11
pigeons, and superstitious behavior 273, 274, 276
planning:
and behavioral decision theory 294–5
cognitive aspects 295
managerial predictions 296
and large scale engineering projects 294–5, 296–7
plausibility paradox, and scenario planning 577–8
playfulness 7 see also serious play
police department, and adaptive structuring 205–7, 208
policies, and decision making 469
politics:
and decision making 250–1, 469
prescriptive contingency model 253
and definition 251–2
and organizational decision research 10–11
and rationality 251 see also socio‐political processes
positivity bias 576
Post‐It Notes 388
power:
and framing 242
and influencing meaning 239–40, 241–2
and sensemaking 236
and sensewrighting 238–9
as socially situated activity 242
and symbolic power 241
and types of power 241
precursive linkages, and issue interconnectedness 430–1
predictions:
and autocorrelations 81–2
and behavioral decision theory 294–5
cognitive aspects 295
managerial predictions 296
and inaccuracy of 80–3
probability trees 538–9
problem structure, and intuitive judgment 315–16
loose structure 317–18
tight structure 316–17
procedural rationality 251, 402
and decision routines:
balancing with political components 263
modulation over time 264
performative aspect of 264–5
and reduction of uncertainty 256–8, 260
and requirements for 253, 256
and socio‐political processes, interdependence of 254–5, 266
procedures, and decision making 469
process loss, and group decision making 104–5
(p. 600) product lifecycle, and boom and bust dynamics 36–7, 40, 50–1
proficiency, and stages of expertise 68–9
profitability, and strategic planning 78
prospect theory 141, 288
and behavioral decision theory 289, 291
and disposition effect 293–4
radio frequency identification (RFID) 102
rational choice theory 400
rationality:
and Bayes' theorem 289–90
and bounded rationality 6, 10, 40, 99–100, 308
and commodification of 408–10
and cybernetic controls 117
and decision analysis 401–2, 404
applications 404
and decision making 250
and decision making research 213
and deconstruction of 400, 405
and definition 251
and intuitive judgment 308–10, 318
and lack of action 11
and limitations on 134, 149
bias 141
corporate culture 147
cultures as 144–9
heuristics 140–1
literature on 139–44
memory 141
national culture 145
organizational context 141–3
organizational cultures 148–9
physical and biological 143
routines 145
rules 143
shared typifications 143
situational determinants 143–4
world views 146–7
as myth 407
and normative rationalist perspective 401–3
and organization theory:
accommodation by 405
rejected by 403–4
and organizational decision research 5–8
and organizational environment 309
and performance of 400, 406–7
rationality as commodity 408–10
rationality as convention 407–8
rationality as tool 410–12
and politics 251
and problem structure:
loose structure 318
tight structure 314–17
and procedural rationality 251, 402
and reconstruction of 412
and re‐evaluating status of 405
and simplistic approach to 404
and social construction of 400, 405–6, 412–13
and substantive rationality 402
and teaching decision making 456–8
and tools of 411–12
real options reasoning (ROR):
and claims for 383
and development of 384–6
and imposition of discipline 386
and limitations of 388, 395–6
and management of options 386–8, 395
analogous reasoning 387–8
and operating core stability 389–90
and option abandonment 386
and organizational development 390–1
and organizational flexibility 385–6
and using options in practice:
continuing discussions about 389
development of 388–9, 391
distinctions between 389
doll manufacturing example 391–5
and vagueness of 385
and value of real options 384–5
Black‐Scholes formula 385
reasoning:
and decision making 466
and mental mistakes 468
recognition primed decision (RPD) model, and naturalistic decision making 214–15
reflective thought, and teaching decision making 460–1
relational demography, and diversity 362
representativeness heuristic 291, 468
and intuitive judgment 305
and risk judgments 521
responsibility, and attribution of 423–4, 432
retrospective analysis:
and Challenger disaster 4
and perceptions 80, 81
risk:
and increasing public concerns 518
and management of 517
and structured decision making 538–40
risk communication 517–18, 528–9
and challenge of 529
and definitions of risk:
dread aspect 523–4
qualitative aspects of risk judgments 523–4
subjectivity in 524–5
unknown aspect 523–4
and heuristic forms of thinking 521–3 (p. 601)
affect heuristic 522
availability heuristic 521–2
cognitive systems 522
importance of 522–3
representativeness heuristic 521
and Mental Models Approach 525–6
and misperception of quantitative risk 518–19
overcoming 519–21
and objectives of 528–9
and social amplification of risk framework 528
and stakeholder involvement 526
and trust 526–8
and values 528
risk‐taking:
and age 347–8
and reputational façades 448
rites of passage:
and communitas 558
and ritual 557–8
and strategy workshops 559–61
ritual:
and characteristics of 556, 557
and definitions 556
and differentiation 557
and liturgy 557
and organizational culture 555
and rites of passage 557–8
strategy workshops 559–61
communitas 558
and ritualization 556–7
and ritualized action 557
and social change 556
and social functions of 556
and symbolism 558–9
role switching 201
routines:
and complex decision environments 44
and components of 263
and decision making 251, 266
and definition 252
and modification of 264
as organizational memory 145
and ostensible aspect of 261–3
balancing rational and political components 263
modulation over time 264
and performative aspect of 264–5
and procedural planning 260
and review 260
and strategic decision making 260–1
Royal Dutch Shell (RDS):
and Sakhalin Island 76–7
and scenario planning 568, 573
rules, and limitations on rationality 143
rules of thumb:
and behavioral decision theory 8
and complex decision environments 44 see also heuristics
Rwanda 180
sadness 331–2
Sakhalin Island 76–7
SARS epidemic 177
SAS Institute 91
satisficing principles 291
scenario development 491
scenario planning 565–6
and adaptive change 568
and affective dimensions 578–80
impact of negative affect 578–9
management of 581
overpowering of cognitive effects 579–80
and anchoring/restricting of thought 574–5
bias towards single scenarios 573–4
cognitive factors 574–5
motivational factors 574
and bias:
attenuation of 575–6, 581
exacerbation of 576–7
and claimed benefits of 566
and cognitive effects 568–9
anchoring 569
dangers of single scenarios 569
influence on judgment 569
and combating cognitive inertia 567–8
and effect on uncertainty and confidence 570–3, 580
differentiating uncertainty and confidence 571–2
generating vs receiving scenarios 572
timing of scenario analysis 572–3
and forecasting 567
and group decision making 546–7
and limitations of 566
and limited evidence for success of 568
and maximizing cognitive change 580–1
and meaning of 566
and plausibility paradox 577–8
and popularity of 566
and scenario construction 566–7
bias 576–7
and scenarios as cognitive devices 567
and strategic planning 567
schemata:
and moderating boom and bust dynamics 48–50
and self‐representation 126–7
(p. 602) selective attention 348
self‐categorization, and diversity 362
self‐concepts 126–7
and individual decision making 354–5
leadership and activation of 127–9, 129–30
self‐regulation, and decision making 348–9
sensation seeking 350
sensegiving 236
and context 238
and definition 236
and sensemaking 236, 237
and sensewrighting 239
sensemaking 12
and context 65–6
and decision making 244
and definition 235–6
and framing 236–7
and identity 243
and information overload 64–6, 71, 72
and information processing 199
and mental models 198
and perceptual errors 77, 78
and political aspects 237
and power dynamics 236
as process 237
and sensegiving 236, 237
sensereading:
as active process 239
and sensewrighting 242–3
mutually constitutive 239
sensewrighting:
and decision making 244
and meaning of 237–8
and power dynamics 238–9
and sensegiving 239
and sensereading 242–3
mutually constitutive 239
and unintended aspects of 239
September 11 terrorist attacks:
and post‐disaster investigation 167
and response to 163
sequential linkages, and issue interconnectedness 430
sequentiality, and decision outcomes 419–20
serious play 476–7
and case descriptions 475–6
and facilitation practices:
assumptions underlying 477
conversing with sponsors 477–8
designing the process 478–9
following up 483
process of serious play 479–83
and future research on 490–1
and outcomes of:
findings not generalizable 484
impact on social relationships 484–5
longer‐term outcomes 486–7
negative outcomes 485–6
new insights 484
positive emotions 485
positive outcomes 484–5
power dynamics 486
and reflections on:
3-D medium of communication 487
adaptive potential 490
democratization 489
emotional constraints 488–9
inclusion of all participants 487–8
overcoming defences 488
playful mode 487
potential for misuse 489
power dynamics 489
projective aspect 488
Siemens, and CT scanners 35
signal detection theory 298–9
Silicon Valley, and occupational cultures 137
simple multiattribute rating technique exploiting ranks (SMARTER) 535
simple multiattribute rating technique (SMART) 535–6
simulation heuristic 291
simulations, and disaster planning 158–9 see also scenario planning
situation fit, and individual decision making 350–51
social amplification of risk framework (SARF) 528
social identity theory 369
social influence, and group decision making 106
social systems 496
socio‐political processes 251–2
and decision making under uncertainty 253
and decision routines:
balancing with rational components 263
modulation over time 264
performative aspect of 264–5
and procedural rationality, interdependence of 254–5, 266
and reduction of uncertainty 257–8, 260
spreading activation, and intuitive judgment 313
stage management 243
stage‐gate process 263
standard operating procedures (SOPs):
and evolution of 177
and volatile environments 176–7
state affect 325 (p. 603)
and interaction with trait affect 334–5
State Department (USA) 84
status characteristics theory 370
storytelling 491
strategic decision making 251, 252
and escalation of commitment 258–9
and heuristics 332
and procedural rationality 252, 254–5, 256
reduction of uncertainty 256–8
and routines 260–61
ostensible aspect of 261–4
performative aspect of 264–5
and socio‐political processes 252, 254–5
reduction of uncertainty 257–8
under uncertainty 251, 255–6
focusing on goal uncertainty 258–9
focusing on means uncertainty 259–60
in practice 254–5
prescriptive contingency model 253
prescriptive dynamic model 256–8
reduction of 256–8
strategic management, and developments in 15
strategic planning, and profitability 78
strategic practitioners 245
strategy workshops:
and case description 553–5
and emotional aspect 563
and encouragement of ‘blue skies’ thinking 561
and incorporation stage 562–3
and lack of realized change 553, 561, 562
and lack of research on 553, 561
and prevalence of 552
as rites of passage 559–61
and role of 562
and significance of event 561–2
stress, and crisis management 183–4
structuration 139
structure elaborating 201
structured decision making 547–9
and group decision making 540
decision conferencing 544–6
Delphi 542–4
scenario planning 546–7
statistical groups 542–3
and individual decision making 535–8
decision trees 539, 540
decisions involving risk and uncertainty 538–40
decisions with multiple objectives 535–8
decomposition methods 535–6, 538–9
formal structured models 535–7
heuristics 535, 538
limitations of formal methods 539–40
limitations of structured models 537
simulations 539
SMART method 535–6
subjectively expected utility (SEU), and maximization of 213
substantive rationality 402
superstitious behavior 271–2
and confirmation bias 274
and desired outcomes 272
and experimentation:
limited 272, 276–8
sources of incidental 282–3
and intelligent adaptation 275
and justification of 274–5
and meaning of 271
in organizations 274
and perpetuation of 272
and sources of organizational 278
external trends 279–80
performance trends 279
regression to the mean 280
spurious correlations 279–80
treatment effects 281–2
and superstitious learning 273–4
Swatch, and boom and bust dynamics 34
Sydney Opera house 297
symbolic power 241
symbolism, and ritual 558–9
system resetting 201
Tacit 109
tacit knowledge 312
and intuitive judgment 319
Task Technology Fit 103
teaching decision making 455, 470
and descriptive approach 456
and difficulties with 455
and extended contingent process 462–3
action‐oriented thought 462
contingency models 463
functional models 462
and intuition 458–60
and intuition/rationality dichotomy 456
and mental activities 465–7
and mental mistakes 467–8
and normative approach 456
and organizational context 469
and rational model 456–8
difficulties with 457–8
simple conceptualization of 457
and reflective thought 460–1
and situation types 464–5
(p. 604) technology:
and decision making 97–8
adapting to use in 110
augmentation 98–9
boundaries of use in 111
implications for 108–11
organizational realities of use in 110
Pervasive Decision Support 109–11
pervasive role in 109
systems integration skills 110–11
and definition 97
and group decision making 104–5
group configuration 105
information gathering 105–7
information use 107–8
limitations in 107–8
and individual decision making 99–100
computers 100
decision types 102–4
information gathering 100–1
information use 101–2
integration technologies 102
Task Technology Fit 103
Tensor Corporation, and boom and bust dynamics 34
Thorn Electrical Industries 36
Three Mile Island 180, 297
3M Company 89–90, 387–8
thrownness, and information overload 64–6
time overruns, and large scale engineering projects 294–5
time pressures:
and decision quality 60
and information overload 59–60
TiVo 102
Trafalgar House Group 387
trait affect 325, 334
and interaction with state affect 334–5
traits:
and cognitive bias 349
and decision making 466–7
and definition 350
and metatraits 353
transactive memory 106–7
treatment effects, and superstitious behavior 281–2
trends, and superstitious behavior 279–80
trust:
and crisis management 182–3
and reduction in deviance 125
and risk communication 526–8
uncertainty:
and competitive advantage 92–3
and dealing with unreliable data:
acting incrementally 89–90
anticipating inaccuracy 89
creating robust organizations 88–90
educating and informing 91–2
feedback 89
information technology 91–2
recognizing and correctingerrors 90
and disaster planning 158
and environmental uncertainty 78, 83
and heuristics 140–1
and information 61
and limits of rationality 308
and managerial decision making 497
and organizational decision making:
in practice 254–5
prescriptive contingency model 253
and reaction to unreliable data:
acting incrementally 87–8
gathering more data 83
playing to the audience 86–7
reverting to ideology 85–6
seeking certainty 84–5
and reduction of:
focusing on goal uncertainty 258–9
focusing on means uncertainty 259–60
reduction of 256–8
and scenario planning 570–3
and strategic decision making 251, 255–6
in practice 254–5
prescriptive contingency model 253
prescriptive dynamic model 256–8
and uncertainty avoidance 83
unconscious thought theory (UTT) 318
Unilever 92
United States, and invasion of Iraq (2003) 84, 85, 86–7, 88, 93
University of Texas Medical School 283
unknown, and risk judgments 523–4
unreliable data, see data
US Navy 197
US Small Business Administration 295
value focused thinking 537
Vietnam War 179
volatility, and organizational environment 176–7
Walmart 102
warning signals, and disaster planning 159
work performance, and affect 333–4
World Trade Center 296
world views, and limitations on rationality 146–7
World Wide Web, and individual decision making 100–1
WorldComm 448
Worlds of Wonder, and boom and bust dynamics 34, 47–8