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date: 08 July 2020

(p. 27) Innovation in the Making

Introduction to Part I

Most innovations occur in firms or other types of organizations. The contributions in this section survey our current knowledge on the organizational structure and context of the process of innovation. Chapter 2, by Lazonick, provides a historical perspective on the development of innovative firms, from the small and medium-sized firms of the First Industrial Revolution through the multi-divisional diversified industrial firms of the US and Japan in the twentieth century to the current debate on the “New Economy” and network-based business models. Powell and Grodal deal more extensively with the role of networks in innovation in the subsequent chapter. Chapter 4, by Pavitt, discusses innovation processes within firms, and uses an extensive survey of the relevant literature to provide an analytical perspective on the factors affecting the performance and management of innovation within the large firm. A complementary chapter by Lam (Chapter 5) focuses on firms' experiences with organizational innovation. Finally, Chapter 6 by Smith deals with an indispensable prerequisite for the study of innovation, the measurement of innovation-related activities, particularly in firms.