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date: 12 July 2020

(p. xii) List of Figures

(p. xii) List of Figures

  1. 1.1 Scholarly articles with “Innovation” in the title, 1955–2004 2

  2. 3.1 Strong and weak ties 61

  3. 3.2 Structural holes and redundant ties 62

  4. 3.3 Network typology 64

  5. 3.4 Knowledge codification and innovation 76

  6. 6.1 USPTO utility patents 1965–2002 159

  7. 6.2 The SPRU innovation database: The intersectoral flow of innovations 163

  8. 6.3 Defining technological innovation—Community Innovation Survey (CIS) 164

  9. 6.4 Resources devoted to innovation activities in 1996 166

  10. 8.1 Universities' performance share of total national R&D, 1981–99 216

  11. 8.2 R&D performed by the higher education sector as a percentage of GDP 217

  12. 8.3 Share of higher education R&D financed by industry, 1991–2000 218

  13. 8.4 US research university patents as a percentage of all domestic-assignee US patents, 1963–99 230

  14. 8.5 Technology field of US “research university” patents, 1960–99 231

  15. 17.1 Diffusion of electric motors in US manufacturing 467

  16. 17.2 Diffusion of major innovations in the United States 468

  17. 18.1 Long-run growth in the world economy 488

  18. 18.2 Approximate chronology of technological revolutions 498

  19. 18.3 The Jones critique 507

  20. 19.1 GDP per capita growth 1960–2001 527

  21. 19.2 Third-level enrollment in relation to age group, 20–24 years old (1965–95) 528

  22. 19.3 Ratio of first university degrees in natural sciences and engineering to 24-year-olds in the population, 1999 (all values in %) 529

  23. 19.4 R&D as percentage of GDP, 1960s and 1990s 531

  24. 19.5 US patenting per million inhabitants (log scale) 532

  25. 21.1 Share of new products in sales and employment change 574

  26. 22.1 Relationship between science, technology, and innovation policy 615

  27. 22.2 The scientific and technological architecture of Europe, 2001 622