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date: 15 July 2020

(p. 632) Index

(p. 632) Index

Note: Bold entries refer to boxed features.

Abramovitz, Moses 366
and catch-up 523, 524, 525
and economic growth 489, 490, 516
and technological congruence 535
absorptive capacity 508, 561
and catch-up 20
and educational level 341 n16
and firm size 333
and industry-university links 234
and innovation 11
and inward investment 338
and knowledge transfer 77
and low- and medium-tech industries 417
and networks 67
acquired technology 156–8
Actor-Network Theory 74
adaptation, and organizational change 116, 133–5, 137–9
adhocracy model 120
and organizational learning 127–32
and radical innovation 119, 128, 132
Silicon Valley 127, 129, 130
and spaghetti organization 131
Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) 48
aerospace, and collaborative networks 59
Aghion, P 502, 503, 506, 509
Agricultural Research Laboratory (Denmark) 601
Agricultural University (Copenhagen) 601
Airbus 622
Alcoa 363
Alderman, N 308
Almeida, P 328
ambidextrous organizations 119, 136, 141 n4
American Research and Development 251
American Telephone and Telegraph 364
Andreesen, Marc 370
Aoki, M, and J-form 127
Appelbaum, E 587–8
Apple 368
architectural innovation 21 n5, 141 n4
Argentina, and catch-up 525–34, 553–4
Argyris, C 125–6
Arrow, Kenneth 148, 212, 279, 491, 613
Arthur, WB 463, 472
Arundel, A 169, 281
Asheim, Bjørn, and regional systems of innovation 184, 300
asset-augmenting activity, and multinational enterprises 327–9, 329–30, 332, 334, 337
asset-exploiting strategies, and multinational enterprises 326–9, 329–30, 333, 334
Australia 428
and patent laws 189
and university funding 210
and vocational and technical education 194, 195
Austria:
and collaborative networks 197
and universities 215, 219
and vocational and technical education 194, 195
ba, and organizational knowledge creation 125
Baden-Württemberg 301–2, 307
Bandai 416
Bank of England 254–5
Bank of Japan 42, 621
banking system:
and credit creation 244
and industrialization 517
and Japanese industrial organization 41, 42, 45, 519
Barras, Richard 440
Bathelt, H 310
Batt, R 587–8
Baumol, WJ 523–4, 581
Baxter, William 274
Bayer 323
and foundation of research laboratory 362
Bayh-Dole Act (USA, 1980) 209–10, 276
effects of 229–31
(p. 633)
international emulation of 227, 232
origins of 228–9
Belgium:
and multinational enterprises 326
and university-industry links 219
Belleflame, C 441
Ben-David, J 215, 235 n8
Benetton 425, 426
Berger, A 254
Bernal, J D 604, 616
Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works 270, 271
bibliometrics 87, 150, 152, 153, 221
biomedical sector:
federal support for 371
and patents 228, 229
and university research 221, 223
biotechnology industry 555–6
and collaborative networks 60, 65, 66, 67, 247
and entrepreneurial regional innovation system 304–5
and geographical clustering 291
and informal networks 71–2
and international linkages 334
and knowledge sharing 75
and knowledge spillover 297
and patents 229, 616
post-war development 371–2
and science, technology, and innovation policy 602
and university research 94, 221, 391, 392, 397
Boulton, Matthew 357
Boyer, R 580, 581
Braczyk, H, and regional systems of innovation 12, 184
Brazil, and catch-up 525–34
Breschi, S, and sectoral innovation systems 183–4, 200
British Rail 442
British Telecom 437
‘Brooks Report’ (OECD) 603
Brown, J S 309
Brown, S L, and organizational change 137
Bruland, Kristine 464
Brusco, Sebastiano 37
Brynjolfsson, Eric 473
Burgleman, R A, and strategic adaptation 137
Burns, T, and organizational types 118
Burt, R S, and networks 61
Bush, Vannevar 8, 212, 604–5, 619
business cycles 6, 242, 248, 249
and clusters of innovation 15
and economic development 244
‘buzz’:
local 310, 311
and localized knowledge circulation 297–8
call centers 438, 439
Calvert, J 220
Canada:
and research and development intensity 155
and universities 195, 216, 217, 218, 232
and vocational and technical education 195
Canon 101, 141
capital markets 135, 254, 306, 502, 613
capitalism:
differential impact of 514
evolutionary nature of 260
and innovation 18, 572
intellectual 277–8
varieties of 132, 205 n24, 305
Carlsson, B, and technological systems of innovation 183
Carr, E H 190
carrier industries 417
Caselli, F 473
catch-up 516
and absorptive capacity 20
and convergence 514–15, 523
cross-national comparisons 537–8
access to foreign technology 533
and education 525–30, 553–5
factors affecting 531–4
and foreign direct investment 530–1, 533
and Gross Domestic Product 525
and research and development 530
and developing countries 520, 523, 525, 535, 536, 537
and developmental state 516, 534
and diffusion 514, 516
and education 521, 525–30, 533, 537, 538, 553–5
European, pre-World War I 516–18
explanations of 523–4
favorable post-war conditions 523
and infrastructure 518, 523, 535, 537
and innovation 19, 515, 519–20
obstacles to 624
and patent system 275, 284
and policy 534–7
role of government 374, 521, 552
and service sector 535
Singapore 518, 520–1
and social capability 523, 524
South Korea 518, 520–1, 522
(p. 634)
strategies 518
Taiwan 518, 520–1
and technological congruence 523, 524
and trade liberalization 521–2
Celera, and Human Genome Project 56, 57
Celestica 49
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) 193
CERN 369, 370, 622
Chandler, Alfred 262 n3
continuity thesis 106
and growth of industrial enterprise 39
and Japanese challenge 40
and M-form company 418
the managerial revolution 32, 38
and organizational design 102, 117
Chang, Ha-Joon 534–5
change:
drivers of 414–15
demand differentiation 415–16
technology 416–17
and innovation process 102, 104–7
and organizational innovation 133
incremental view of 134–5
punctuated equilibrium 133, 135–6
strategic adaptation 137–8
resistance to 107–8, 134
chemical industry:
and Second Industrial Revolution 359–60, 362–6
sectoral structure 392–3
Chenery, H B 488
Chesnais, Francois 603
Chiaromonte, F 500
Child, J, and strategic adaptation 137
Chile, and catch-up 525–34
China, and catch-up 525–34, 554
Christopherson, S 306
Cisco Systems 47–8, 49, 107
Civil Aeronautics Board (USA) 477
clusters:
and biotechnology 304–5
geographical 291
and innovation 14, 15, 18, 20
and innovation diffusion 6
inter-sectoral 398
regional 225–7, 299, 300, 302
temporal 498–9
Coca-Cola 415
Coe, D T 507–8
cognition 20
and organizational innovation 123–4
and organizations 116, 139, 140
shared 125, 126
Cohen, W M 417
Coleman, W 473
collaboration, see networks
Community Innovation Survey (CIS) 148–9, 166, 616
criticism of 168–9
innovation definition 164
and measurement of innovation 162–5
and organizational interaction 196–7
results from 165–8
and service sector:
innovation in 446, 447
research and development 437
sources of information for innovation 448
usefulness of 169–70
Company Reporting Ltd 437
Compaq Computer 48
comparative advantage 407
and competitiveness 545
Denmark 409–10
and developing countries 428–9
and France 557
and globalization 553
and Japan 621
and United States 555–6
compensation theory, and employment 572, 580–2
competence building:
and education 192, 194–5
and labor market institutions 614
and systems of innovation 190–2, 194–5, 617
competition, technological:
and innovation 14–15
and product-life-cycle theory 15–16
competitive advantage 545, 559
and economic system 305–6
and institutional frameworks 305–7
and Japan 43, 45, 129
and regional innovation systems 311
sources of 419, 560, 562
competitiveness:
and capability construction 544, 561
definition 544
and diffusion 548
and employment 569
at firm level 559–60, 561–2
at industry level:
capabilities 551, 552
demand conditions 551
and education 553–5
and industrial leadership 551
institutions 551, 552
inter-company networks 551
(p. 635)
and technological specialization 554–7
and innovation 87, 122, 545, 546, 561, 583
and innovation policy 612, 618
and intellectual property rights 266, 274, 275, 276
and Japanese policy 621
measurement of 544
as national goal 544
at national level:
and capital accumulation 547, 548–50
and currency values 546
and innovation 546–50
and international trade 545–7
and technology gap 547
and prices 546, 581
and product and process innovation 573
at regional level 294, 301, 303, 557–9
research opportunities in 562–3
revival of interest in 543–4
and science parks 226, 303
sources of 561
and speed to market 425
and United States 620–1
Computer Associates International 48
computer industry:
and coevolutionary processes 397
post-war development 368–71
sectoral structure 393
and standard setting 68
Computer Research Associates 368
Conlisk, J 500–1
Constant, E, and knowledge production 97
consultancy, and systems of innovation 191
contingency theory, and organizational structure 117–21
contract manufacturing 99
control, and ownership 38
convergence:
and catch-up 514–15, 523
conditional 506
cross-country 554–5, 557
and growth rates 505
and intellectual property rights regimes 273
technological 91–2, 99, 337
Cooke, P, and regional innovation systems 184, 300–5
Cooperation in science and technology (COST) 622–3
cooperative movement, Denmark 601
core competence 93, 126, 134
Cornwall, J 491, 523
corporate change 418–21
corporate finance 250–5
Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC) 228–9, 274, 277
craft labor, and innovation 35–7
Cray Systems 368
creative destruction 32, 105, 115, 126, 359, 382, 503
credit:
and innovation 242, 243, 244
rationing of 521
Crevoisier, O 311
critical technology 349–50
cross-shareholding, and Japanese industrial organization 42
currency, and competitiveness 546
da Vinci, Leonardo 5
Darby, M 297, 607
David, Paul 213, 463, 473–4
Dawkins, Richard 495
decision-making:
and adoption of new technology 465–6
and finance 246
in firms 39, 42
and innovative investment 257–8
organizational 123, 124
and radical innovation 108
and scientific knowledge 606
DeFillippi, R 127, 130
Dell Computer 48, 49
demand, and sectoral innovation systems 391
Denmark 428
and collaborative networks 197
and comparative advantage 409–10
and cooperative movement 601
and innovation policy 614
and national system of innovation 199
and patent laws 189
and research and development 194
and vocational and technical education 194
developing countries:
and catch-up 520, 523, 525, 535, 536, 537
and diffusion 460
and education 553–4
and employment 583
and foreign direct investment 332, 338
and intellectual property rights 271, 273, 275, 284
and low- and medium-tech industries 410, 428–9
and science, technology, and innovation policy 601, 626
development blocks 389, 429
developmental state, and catch-up 516, 534
(p. 636) diffusion 478–9
and adoption decision 465–6
and American agricultural industry 602
and catch-up 514, 516
and clusters 6
and communities of practice 309
and competitiveness 548
conceptual frameworks 461–5
and consumer heterogeneity 466–7
and consumer learning 467
as creative process 15
and Danish cooperative movement 601
definition 459–60
and developing countries 460
and economic growth 486, 500, 508
and employment 573, 582–3, 589, 590
and feedback effects 460, 462, 464, 470, 479
in First Industrial Revolution 353, 355
government fostering of 428
and government policy 614, 625
and imitation 21 n3
and immigration 600
and incremental innovation 311, 504
informal channels of 558
and information and communications technology 582, 584, 590, 617
and innovation 15, 21 n3, 150
and Internet 370
and interpersonal communication 465
and ‘learning by observing’ 459
and linear model of innovation 479
measurement of 616–17
modeling of 465–8
and multinational enterprises 318, 323, 327
and networks 59, 73, 335, 391
and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 602
as part of innovation process 460
of patent system 269, 270–1
and patents 279, 280
and QWERTY controversy 463
rate of 459, 460, 466–7
determinants of 468–79
and regional innovation systems 312 n5, 558
research opportunities 479–80
and science, technology, and innovation policy 599, 626 n1
and sectoral systems of innovation 381, 384, 391–3, 399
and service sector 617
and skills 624
and software industry 398
and systems of innovation 183, 184, 186, 189, 190, 200, 201
and technological revolution 249
and technology transfer 479–80
and Third Industrial Revolution 367, 369
and universities 211–12
Digital Equipment Corporation 251, 368
digitalization 96, 97, 105
discontinuity, and organizational change 133, 135–6
Dosi, G 497, 500
Dow 365
Downie, J 543, 560
Du Pont, and foundation of research laboratory 363
Duchin, F 582
Duguid, P 129, 309
Duisberg, Carl 362
Dvorak keyboard layout 463
Eaton, J 508
economic development:
and business cycle 244
and entrepreneurship 32
and innovation 14, 241, 248, 255
and universities 209, 210
and regional development 225–7
economic growth:
differential rates of 19, 20
and diffusion 486, 500, 508
and endogenous growth theory 250, 255, 488, 501–5
critique 506–7
empirical work on 505–8
origins of 490
and evolutionary theory 488–9, 492–3, 495, 505
evolutionary philosophy 496–7
formal growth models 499–501
and innovation clusters 498–9
non-formal theorizing 497–9
technological trajectory 497–8
extensive 351
factors affecting 487
and finance 250, 255–6, 258–9
and government policy 492
and growth accounting 488–9, 490
historical rates of 487–8
and imitation 19
and innovation 18–19, 20, 492
intensive 351
and investment 501–2, 549
and ‘long-wave’ 499
neoclassical model 488, 492, 493, 497, 500
and patent system 284
and Post-Keynesianism 489–90
(p. 637)
research opportunities in 508–9
and science, technology, and innovation policy 603, 604–5, 608, 612, 621, 626
and sectoral mix 488
and significant innovations 493–4
sources of 18–19
and spillover effects 490–1
and structural change 487–8
and technological change 255, 488–92
and technology 350, 492
and total factor productivity 488, 489
traditional economics approaches 488–92
and universities 211, 212, 232
economic sociology 117
Edquist, Charles, and national systems of innovation 186, 212
education:
and absorptive capacity 341 n16
and catch-up 521, 525–30, 533, 537, 538, 553–5
and competence building 192, 194–5
and competitiveness 553–5
and developing countries 553–4
and First Industrial Revolution 35
and innovation 192
and management 39
and science, technology, and innovation policy 606, 610
as strategic asset 210 see also universities
Eisenhardt, K M 68, 127
and organizational change 137
electronics industry, and Third Industrial Revolution 367–9
Emilia-Romagna 37, 300
employment, and impact of innovation 7, 568, 571–2, 573–5, 589
and adjustment to 571
and compensation theory 572, 580–2
and competitiveness 569
and developing countries 583
different perspectives on 569–71
and labor market 591
and national system of innovation 590
and organizational innovation 573, 576, 590
and process innovation 572–3, 579, 583, 590
and product innovation 569, 573–5, 579–80, 583, 590, 592 n3, 593n9
and quality of employment 583–4, 588–9
impact of organizational change 587–8
skill-biased technical change 584–7, 590
wage polarization 587, 590
and quantity of employment 575–6
firm level 576–9
industry level 579–80
macroeconomic level 580–2
simulation studies 582–3
and research and development 364, 591–2
and service sector 433–4, 449, 450, 580
and technological change 569–71, 580, 582, 588, 589, 590–1
and trade 590
endogenous growth theory 18, 197, 250, 255
and economic growth 488, 501–5
critique 506–7
empirical work on 505–8
origins of 490
research opportunities in 509
Energy, Department of (USA) 56
entrepreneurial regional innovation system (ERIS) 304–5
entrepreneurs:
and economic development 32
and innovation 5, 6, 9, 32, 242–3, 259
and limits to firm growth 38
and networks 66–7, 72
and New Economy model 46
Ericsson 101, 198
Ermoliev, Y 472
ESPRIT program 623
ethnic communities, and networks 63, 78
EUREKA 98, 623
European Commission:
and measurement of innovation 160, 162, 167 see also Community Innovation Survey
European Community Patent Convention (1975) 272
European Innovation Monitoring System 167
European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) 622
European Patent Convention (EPC) 272
European Patent Office (EPO) 272
European Research Area 623
European Science Foundation (ESF) 622
European Southern Laboratory 622
European Space Agency (ESA) 622
European Union 98, 429
employment impact of innovation 582
and European Research Area 623
framework programs 623
and innovation policy 612
Lisbon Summit (2000) 623
and research and development intensity 155
and science, technology, and innovation policy 155, 610, 621–3, 624
and service sector research and development 436–7 see also Community Innovation Survey
(p. 638) evolutionary theory 486
and economic growth 488–9, 492–3, 495, 505
evolutionary philosophy 496–7
formal growth models 499–501
and innovation clusters 498–9
non-formal theorizing 497–9
technological trajectory 497–8
and industrial dynamics 17
research opportunities in 509
and sectoral innovation systems 386–7
exports 411–12, 546, 550, 583
and catch-up 521
and high-tech products 319
Fabricant, S 491
Fagerberg, Jan:
and catch-up 524, 535
and competitiveness 545, 547, 548
and differential growth rates 19
Fairchild Semiconductor 46
Faraday, Michael 359
Farrell, J 472, 473, 477
fast food sector 435, 438, 442
feedback:
and diffusion 460, 462, 464, 470, 479
and economic growth 490
and innovation 95–6, 185, 332, 466
and managing uncertainty 101
finance:
and competitive interactions 247
contextual factors 259
corporate 250–5
and decision-making 246
and economic development 248–9
and economic growth 250, 255–6, 258–9
economics of 250–6
and firm's stage of development 254
and industry entrants 246–7
and industry evolution 248
and information asymmetries 257
and innovation 240–1
availability of 248
economics of 241–9
and investment 257–8
research opportunities and difficulties 256–7, 259–62
sectoral patterns of 246–7
and investment behavior 253
and organizational learning 246
and relationships with industry actors 247
and research and development 253–4
sources of 250–3
and systems of innovation 191
and techno-economic paradigms 248, 249
and technology-based small firms 254–5
and theory and dynamics of economic change 257–9
and venture capital 251–3
financial services, and geographical clustering 291
Findlay, R 338, 341 n16
Finland:
and catch-up 525–34
and innovation policy 614
and knowledge-intensive business services 451, 452
and universities 216, 219
firms:
and absorptive capacity 11, 333
and catch-up 536
and competitive interactions 247
and competitiveness 559–60
and corporate finance 250–5
and finance 29, 30, 34, 50, 51, 254–5
growth determinants 559–60
and heterogeneity 390
and historical transformation 31
and innovation 5
employment impact of 576–9
implications of 14
process of 10–12
large 32
and limits to growth 31, 38
optimizing 30–1
organization 29, 30, 33, 34, 50–1
and organizational learning 30, 32, 34, 245–6
and organizational memory 11
path dependency of 95
resource-based view of 33
skill base 34
social characteristics of innovative 30–4
industrial districts 35–7
Japanese model 41–5
managerial corporation 38–40
New Economy model 45–9
strategy 29, 30, 34, 50, 51, 418
Flextronics 49
flight simulation industry, and collaborative networks 68
food industry:
and absorptive capacity 417
innovation in 426–7
as low- and medium-tech industry 409–10
and vertical alignment 423
Ford, Henry 520
foreign direct investment 15
and asset-augmenting activity 327–8
and catch-up 530–1, 533
(p. 639)
and developing countries 332, 338
growth in 322
and multinational enterprises 318, 322–3
and product-life-cycle theory 327
and spillover effects 338, 508
France 394
and catch-up 525–34
and government-funded programs 98
and patent laws 269
and research and development 193
and technological specialization 557
and technology policy 608
and universities 216, 217
and vocational and technical education 194
Frascati Manual 151, 153–4, 410, 616
Freeman, Christopher 3, 311, 497, 603, 626
and Japanese technology policy 621
and national system of innovation 183
and science policy 604, 616
Fujitsu 44
Furman, J L, and national innovative capacity 197
Galbraith, John Kenneth, and technostructure 40
Galli, R 189
Galunic, D C 127
Gann, D M 308
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and intellectual property rights 274, 275
General Electric 48, 363, 364
general purpose technologies 416–17, 559
and economic growth 504–5
genetic engineering, and science, technology, and innovation policy 602–4
geography:
and innovation 291–4, 309–10
and analytical knowledge 297
and synthetic knowledge 296–7
and sectoral innovation systems 399, 400
and system boundaries 199–200 see also regional innovation systems
German Association for Patent Protection 361
Germany:
and catch-up 525–34
pre-World War I 515, 517–18
chemical industry 359–60, 362–6
and education 194, 554–5
and patent laws 189
and research and development 188, 193, 323
and Second Industrial Revolution 358, 359–63
and technological specialization 556
and technology policy 608
and universities 218, 219, 232, 360–1
and vocational and technical education 195
Gerschenkron, Alexander 516
and catch-up 517–18, 524
Gershuny, J I 442
Gibbons, Michael 213
Gittelman, M 607
globalization:
and comparative advantage 553
cross-border commercialization of national technology 319–20
impact of 424
implications of 318
and innovation 320
and multinational enterprises 318, 322–6
and strategic technology partnering 320–2
and tacit knowledge 292, 310
Glynn, M A, and innovation 123
Golder, P N 465, 467
Gomulka, S 523
governance:
models of corporate 122
and networks 60–1, 77–8
and regions 299
government:
and catch up 374, 521, 552
and diffusion 614, 625
and economic growth 492
and high-tech industries 409, 427–8
and innovation process 96, 98
low- and medium-tech industries 427–9
and regional economic development 225–7
and research and development 98
and small and medium-sized enterprises 428
and Third Industrial Revolution 367, 372
and university-industry collaboration 209, 210, 224–5 see also science, technology, and innovation policy
Grabher, G 60–1
Granovetter, M 59, 61, 62
Great Depression 40
Greece, and catch-up 525–34
Greenan, N 473
Greenspan, Alan 604
Griliches, Zvi 148, 464, 507
growth accounting, and economic growth 488–9, 490
Grundtvig 601
Guellec, D 473
Hagedoorn, John 152
Hamilton, Alexander 534
Hamilton, K 220
hard disk drive industry 247, 248
Hedlund, G 127, 327
Helpman, E 507–8
Hemingway, Ernest 429
Henry VIII 600
Hewlett-Packard 48
Hicks, D 220
high-tech industries:
economic impact of 407–8
and exports 319
government attraction to 409, 427–8
and industrial classification 16
and innovation in 414, 415
and research and development 155
role of technology 419
and science, technology, and innovation policy 609
Hirschman, A O 608
historical transformation, and firms 31
Hitachi 43, 44, 621
Hobday, M 8, 533
Hoechst 323, 362
Hogge, Ralph 600
home-base augmenting activity, and multinational enterprises 327
home-base exploiting activity, and multinational enterprises 326
Hong Kong, and catch-up 525–34, 553–4
Hounshell, David 39, 40
Howell, D 584
Howitt, P 502, 503, 506
Human Genome Project, and organizational innovation 56–7
Humble Oil 365
IBM 44, 45, 48, 73, 107, 108, 368, 369, 370, 393, 397, 494
imitation 382, 500
active 22 n10
and economic growth 19
and innovation 8, 15
immigration, and diffusion 600
Imperial Institute of Physics and Technology 362
income:
and education 624
international divergence in 514, 526, 527
and productivity growth 544
and wage polarization 584, 587, 590
incremental innovation 7–8, 122, 128, 132, 162, 248, 390, 494, 495, 496–9, 572, 573
and diffusion 311, 504
India:
and catch-up 525–34
and software industry 410–11
industrial complexes, and technology policy 610, 619–20
industrial districts:
British 35–7
and collaborative networks 59
and competitiveness 558
and the Third Italy 37
industrial dynamics 16, 17
and low- and medium-tech industries 424–5
and sectors 382
Industrial Enlightenment, and the First Industrial Revolution 355
industrial growth, and product-life-cycle theory 15
industrial organization:
industrial districts 35–7
Japanese model 41–5
managerial corporations 38–40
New Economy model 45–9 see also industry, classification of
Industrial Revolution, First 350–1
and economic growth 487
and education 35
and general purpose technologies 416
and Industrial Enlightenment 355
innovation in 351–5, 357–8
innovation system 374
and institutional change 356–7, 357–8
and learning 355
and technological diffusion 353, 355
Industrial Revolution, Second:
characteristics of 358–9
and chemical industry 359–60, 362–3
interwar innovation 364–6
and firm structure 359
and general purpose technologies 416
innovation system 374
and origins of industrial research 360–1, 362–3, 364
and role of science 359–60
and universities 360–1
Industrial Revolution, Third:
and biotechnology 371–2
and electronics industry 367–9
and general purpose technologies 416
and information and communications technology 369–71
innovation system 374
and the Internet 369, 370, 371
new innovation resource base 372–3
and pharmaceutical industry 371–2
and post-war transformation 366–7
and role of government 367
and technological diffusion 367, 369
(p. 641) industrialization:
and banking system 517
and foreign direct investment 521
and patent system 284
and service sector 437–9 see also Industrial Revolution
industry:
classification of 155, 409, 411–14, 429–30
and factory intensity 411
and technological profile 409–10
drivers of change 415–17
knowledge bases 294–9
technological classification of 16
inertia:
and entrepreneurs 6, 9
and innovation 9–10
and organizational change 133, 134, 136
overcoming 116
systemic 332
information and communications technology (ICT):
adoption costs 473–4
and coevolutionary processes 397
diffusion of 582, 584, 590, 617
and government-funded programs 98
and innovation process 97, 562
and intellectual property rights 277–8
and New Economy model 45–9
and research and development 154
and service sector innovation 439–45, 448
and skills 584–7, 590
and standards 472
and Third Industrial Revolution 369–71
infrastructure 39, 98
and catch-up 518, 523, 535, 537
and competitiveness 553
and First Industrial Revolution 357
institutional 299, 301, 302
knowledge 203, 299, 304, 332
research 12, 14
and Second Industrial Revolution 360
and Third Industrial Revolution 370, 372, 373
innovation:
and analytical knowledge 296
and catch-up 19, 515, 519–20
chain-link model of 150
and clusters 14, 15
temporal 498–9
and competitiveness 87, 122, 545, 546, 561, 583
context of 8
contingent nature of 87, 96
as continuous process 5–6
cross-disciplinary nature of 2–4
definition 4, 123, 149, 164
and economic change 6
and economic development 14, 255
and economic growth 18–19, 20, 255
and education 192
geography of 291–2, 309–10
and analytical knowledge 297
and synthetic knowledge 296–7
incremental 7–8, 122, 128, 132, 162, 248, 390, 494, 495, 496–9, 572, 573
and industrial classification 16
and industrial districts 35–7
and invention 4–5
and Japanese model 35–7
and linear model 8–9, 93, 95, 212, 229, 302, 428, 479
as matching process 88
New Economy model 45–9
and path dependency 10, 12, 13, 95, 109
process of 9–12
radical 7–8, 202, 494
and adhocracy 119, 128, 132
and collaboration 65
decision-making about 108
and economic structural change 104
and knowledge application 296
and learning economy 311
role of 19–20
sectoral differences 246–7
significance of 493–4
and synthetic knowledge 295–6
systemic nature of 12–14
types of 6–8
autonomous 122
systemic 122
and uncertainty 9, 10, 30, 88, 100–1, 493
innovation processes 87–9, 108–9
continuous nature of 5–6
and firms 10–12
heterogeneity in 95–6
and knowledge production 86, 88
and complexity 96
and industrial research and development 91
industry-university links 93–5
and vertical disintegration 91–3, 99
and market demand 86, 88–9, 101–8
and disruptive change 102, 104–7
and organizational practices 102–4
and tribal warfare 102, 107–8
(p. 642)
and project management 91–2
and Schumpeter 9–10
transformation of knowledge into working artifacts 86, 88, 96–7
government-funded programs 96, 98
and managing uncertainty 96, 100–1
systems integration 96, 99–100
technology trajectories 96, 97–8
innovation systems, see systems of innovation (SI)
Institute for Scientific Information 153
institutional regional innovation system (IRIS) 303, 304 see also regional innovation systems
institutions:
change in 375
and competitiveness 551, 552
conceptual diffuseness of term 186
definition 188
distinct endowments of 294
and innovation policy 612, 613–14
and organizational innovation 132–3, 134
and regional innovation systems 299
and sectoral innovation systems 385, 394–5
andsystems of innovation 185–6, 188–9, 191, 196
and technological change 394
Intel 44, 48, 49, 369, 494
and strategic adaptation 137
intellectual property rights 266–7, 284–5
and academic research 232
and Bayh-Dole Act 228–32
Berne Convention 270, 271
and developing countries 271, 273, 275, 284
and economic progress 284
history of 268
international patent era 271–3
multinational patent era 270–1
national patent era 267–9
pre-patent era 267
pro-patent era 273–8
and information and communications technology 277–8
and intellectual capitalism 277–8
and investment 279
nature of 278
Paris Convention 270, 271, 273
and post-war United States 367
role of 278–80, 285
national differences 283–4
sectoral differences 282–3
and Second Industrial Revolution 361
Trade-Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights 273, 274, 275, 284
and universities 606 see also patents
International Association of Science Parks 226
International Monetary Fund 535
international trade:
and competitiveness 545
and employment 590
liberalization of 521–2
Internet 98, 369, 370, 371, 397–8
diffusion of 477
and wireless connection 463–4
interpersonal relations, and networks 60
invention, and innovation 4–5, 21 n2
investment:
and compensation mechanism 581
complementary 473–4
and economic growth 501–2, 549
and information asymmetries 257
and innovation 242
and intellectual property rights 279
and liquidity 253
and research and development 279, 323–8, 410, 491, 500, 503, 605
and service sector 436–7
investment regimes, and competitive advantage 306
invisible colleges, and science networks 73
inward investment 305, 546
host country effects 338 see also foreign direct investment; investment
Ireland:
and catch-up 525–34, 537–8
and service sector 434
and university-industry links 219
Isaksen, A, and regional systems of innovation 184
Italy:
and catch-up 525–34
and industrial districts 37
and patent laws 189
and research and development 193
and territorially embedded regional innovation systems 300
and universities 216, 219, 232
and vocational and technical education 194
(p. 643) J-form model, and organizational learning 127, 128, 132
Jabil Circuit 49
Jacobsson, S, and systems of innovation 189
Japan:
and banking system 41, 42, 45, 519
and catch-up 272–3, 515, 518–19, 520
and comparative advantage 621
and competitive advantage 43, 45, 129
and cross-shareholding 42
diffusion of major innovations 469
economic development 366, 373, 375
economic stagnation 45
and education 554–5
financial system 522
and government-funded programs 98
and industrial organization model 41–5, 129
and lean production 420, 520
and lifetime employment 41, 42–3
Meiji restoration 518
Ministry for Trade and Industry (MITI) 519, 621
and organizational innovation 520
and patent system 272–3, 281–2
post-war industrial reorganization 41–2
and research and development 188, 193
and science policy 624
and service sector research and development 436
and technology policy 608, 609, 610, 621
and universities 216, 217–18, 219, 220, 232
Japanese Patent Office 272, 273
Jefferson, Thomas 269
Johnson, A 189, 198
Joint European Torus (JET) 622
Joint Research Center (JRC) 622
joint-stock organization, and First Industrial Revolution 356
Jones, C 506–7
Jones, E L, and European development 351
Jovanovic, Boyan 249
just-in-time production 420, 422, 515, 520
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry 362
Kaldor, N 490
Kaniovski, Y 472
Katz, M L 58, 472
Keller, W 508
Kleiner, Eugene 251
Kleinknecht, A, and patents 160
Kline, Stephen 165, 620
chain-link model of innovation 150
innovation as continuous process 5
and linear model 8–9
knowledge:
accessibility of 388
analytical 295, 296, 297
collective 124–5
costs of transfer 76
cumulativeness of 388–9
distributed 58
explicit 75, 76
geography of 292–4
global networks 310
industrial bases 294–9
and learning economy 293
localized circulation of 297–8
production of 88, 89–90
and collective learning 124–7
and complexity 96
and industrial research and development 91
industry-university links 93–5
and J-form 128
and organizational cognition 124
and specialization 99
and vertical disintegration 91–3, 99
relationship between local and global 308–9
and sectoral innovation systems 385, 387–90
spillovers 297–8
synthetic 295–7
tacit 75–6, 125, 296
geography of 292–3
and globalization 310
and joint innovation 293–4
production of 308–9
and spatial proximity 294, 308
transfer of 74–7, 79, 294
knowledge-intensive business services, and innovation 449–52
Kogut, Bruce 33, 66, 607
Kortum, Samuel 48, 508
Krugman, P 19, 544, 547
Kuhn, T 497
Kumho 413
labor market:
and competence building 614
and employment 569, 591
flexibility of 135
and innovation policy 614
and neoclassical economics 581
and wage polarization 587 see also employment, and impact of innovation
labor mobility 132, 219, 307
interfirm 44
and Silicon Valley 130
Lam, Alice 294, 306
Lazonick, William 121, 349
leadership:
industrial 551, 563
and innovation 9, 10
and learning 22 n13
scientific 366
technological 14, 333, 358, 360
lean production 75, 127, 420, 422, 520
learning:
collective 294
and economic growth 490
and firms 30, 32, 34
and innovation 88
and innovative firms 50, 51, 245–6
industrial districts 35, 36
Japanese model 41, 43, 44
managerial corporations 40
New Economy model 46, 49
and knowledge transfer 294
localized 298–300, 311
and organizational forms:
adhocracy model 127–9, 130, 131–2
institutional context of 132–3, 134
J-form model 127, 128
Japan 129
spaghetti organization 131
and organizational innovation 123–7
and relational proximity 308–9
and systems of innovation 184–5, 191–2
and tacit knowledge 293
Leavitt, William 600
Leonard-Barton, D 59, 107, 126
Leontief, W 582
Lerner, Josh 48
Levinthal, D A 126, 417
Levitt, Theodore 437
liberalization 395, 521–2
Licht, G 448
Lichtenberg, F 508
Liebowitz, S J 463
limited liability, and First Industrial Revolution 356
linear model:
and Bayh-Dole Act 229
and diffusion 479
and government policy 428
and industry-university links 93, 95
and innovation 8–9
and regionalized national innovation systems 302
and universities 212
Linux community 73, 398, 472
liquidity 50, 252–3
Lisbon Summit (2000) 623
List, Friedrich 534
Liu, Xielin 189
Los Alamos project 56, 601–2, 605
Louça, F 497
low- and medium-tech industries (LMT) 408, 429–30
and absorptive capacity 417
characteristics of 408
and classification problems 16, 411–14
and corporate change 418–21
and demand differentiation 415–16
and developing countries 410, 428–9
and factory intensity 410–11
and government policy 427–9
and industry change 422–5
innovation in 425–7
and new technological paradigms:
carrier industries 417
general purpose technologies 416–17
and oil industry 410
and technological profile 409–10
low-tech industries, see low- and medium-tech industries (LMT)
Lucent Technologies 48
Lundvall, Bengt-Åke:
and institutions 186
and learning economy 293
and national system of innovation 12, 183, 186, 299, 300
and subcontracting 92
Luque, A 475–6
Macaque monkeys, and innovation 459
McDonald's 438
Machiavelli, Niccolo 107
machine tool industry 91–2, 417
and coevolutionary processes 398
and innovation process 390
and institutions 395
McKendrick, N 357
Maddison, Angus 487, 505
Majumdar, S 474–5
Malaysia, and catch-up 525–34
Malerba, Franco:
and sectoral innovation systems 183–4, 200
and technological regimes 382
Malmberg, A:
and localized capabilities 294
and tacit knowledge 292–3
Malthus, Thomas 571
management:
and competitiveness 560
and First Industrial Revolution 356–8
new practices 587–8
(p. 645)
professionalization of 38–9
project-led 91
revolution in 38
and strategic adaptation 137–8
managerial corporations, and United States 38–40
Manhattan Project 56, 601–2, 605
Mansfield, E 410, 475, 476
March, J G, and learning myopia 126
Margolis, S E 463
market economy:
coordinated 132, 305, 306
liberal 132, 305, 306 see also neoclassical economics
marketing:
and diffusion 464–5
and IBM 368
investment in 412
and Josiah Wedgwood 356
and low- and medium-tech industries 425
and Own Brand Manufacturing 533
markets:
and innovation process 101–8
and systems of innovation 190
Marris, R 543
Marshall, Alfred:
and industrial districts 35, 36
and the innovating firm 31
on Lancashire textile industry 37
and limits to firm growth 31, 38
Marsili, O 384, 411, 426
Marx, Karl 14, 18, 353, 489, 572, 580
Maskell, P 292–3, 294
mass production 39–40, 420, 421, 437, 505, 515, 520
Max Planck Gessellschaft 193
measurement (of innovation) 65, 69, 79, 148–9
and commensurability 149
Community Innovation Survey 148–9, 162–5, 166
criticism of 168–9
innovation definition 164
results from 165–8
usefulness of 169–70
economic measures of 151–2
indicators of 152–3
bibliometric data 153
conceptual foundations 150–1
and innovation surveys 160–1, 169
‘object’ approach 161–2
patents 65, 69, 158–60
research and development data 153–8
‘subject’ approach 162–5
and novelty 149, 150
and theories of innovation 150–1
mechanistic organizations 118, 119, 137
Meliciani, V 409
mercantilism 35
Mexico, and catch-up 525–34, 553–4
Mezias, S J, and innovation 123
Micron Technology 48
Microsoft 48, 437
Miles, R E 127
military programs 626
impact of 548
and innovation 98, 367, 368, 370
and semiconductor industry 393–4
and technology policy 620
Mintzberg, H 119, 120, 127
Moch, D 448
Mode 2 research 213–14, 221, 233
modular innovation 21 n5
modularization 99, 438
Mokyr, J 355
motor vehicle industry, and vertical alignment 422–3
Motorola 121, 274
Mowery, David C 58, 477, 551
multinational enterprises (MNEs):
and cross-border generation of innovation 322–6
and cross-border knowledge flows 318–19
and diffusion 318, 323, 327
and foreign direct investment 318, 323
and globalization 318, 322–6
offshore research and development investment 323–7
and asset-augmenting activity 327–8, 329–30
and asset-exploiting strategies 326–7, 328, 329–30
and firm size 333
and home-base augmenting activity 327
and home-base exploiting activity 326
host country effects 338
impact on home country 338–9
and innovation systems 332
and integration costs 331
and market structure 333–4
opportunities and constraints 331–3
and organizational issues 334
spillover effects 337–8
overseas innovative activities 326–30
and regional innovation systems 558–9
and strategic technology partnering 320–2, 334–6, 339 n3
NASDAQ 47
national innovative capacity 197, 552–3
(p. 646) National Institutes of Health (USA) 56, 304, 371
National Research Council 57
National Science Foundation 57, 370
formation of 619
and service sector research and development 436–7
national systems of innovation (NSI) 183, 198–9, 200
and employment 590
‘hollowing out’ of 338–9
and regional innovation systems 303–8
NEC 45, 621
Nelson, Richard R 17, 372, 508, 523, 617
and evolutionary theory 497, 499–500
and industrial leadership 551
and institutions 186
and national system of innovation 183, 186
and organizational capabilities 33
and organizational routines 126
and technology policy 620
neoclassical economics:
and economic growth 488, 492, 493, 497, 500
endogenous growth models 501–5
and innovation policy 613
and labor market 581
Netherlands:
and innovation policy 614
and universities 193, 216, 217
and vocational and technical education 194, 195
network goods, and diffusion 470–3
networks:
and absorptive capacity 67
and Actor-Network Theory 74
advantages of 59–60, 68–9, 79
collaborative 57, 58
and coordination 334
developing and maintaining 331
and diffusion 59, 73, 335, 391
and diffusion rates 470–3
duration of 78, 80 n4
dynamics of 67–8
efficiency of 67
and formal ties 65–70
functions of 60
and governance 60–1, 77–8
and informal ties 70–2
and industry-university links 93–4
and innovation 20, 151
and interfirm collaboration 57–8
and interpersonal relations 60
and knowledge transfer 74–7, 79
and multi-party relationships 72–4
and openness 12
and organizational innovation 56–7
and organizational learning 126
and patenting activity 65–6, 69, 79
regional 299, 300
and risk-taking 68
and sectoral innovation systems 385, 390–4
and stagnation 78
and startup firms 66–7
and strong ties 12–13, 60, 61, 69, 79
and subcontracting 62, 69–70
and systems of innovation 191
and technological uncertainty 68
and trust 58, 65, 70, 72
varieties of 60–4, 66, 69, 70
and vertical alignment 422–3
and weak ties 12–13, 60, 61, 69, 79
New Economy 44, 266–7, 277, 495, 625
and entrepreneurs 46
and informal networks 71
and OECD 604
and United States 45–9, 277
new economy innovation system (NEIS) 303, 304, 307
Nishi, Yoshio 44
NMT 450 198
Nobel Prizes 365
Nokia 198
Nonaka, I 125, 127
Nordhaus, W D 279
North, D C, and institutions 188
north-south models, and economic growth 19
Norway:
and collaborative networks 197
and research and development 193, 194
intensity of 155
and universities 215, 217
novelty, and measurement of innovation 149, 150
Nvidia 49
oil industry:
and frames 419
as low- and medium-tech industry 408
and research and development 410
Okimoto, Daniel 44
Olsen, Kenneth 251
open source software 58
openness:
and innovation 10–12
and systems 13
(p. 647) O'Reilly, C A, and ambidextrous organizations 136, 141 n4
organic organizations 118, 119
organization:
and the innovating firm 29, 30, 33
and the managerial revolution 38–9 see also organizational innovation
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD):
and diffusion 602
Frascati Manual 151, 153–4, 410, 616
and high-tech industries 407–8
and industrial classification 155, 409, 429–30
Innovation Manual 150
and innovation policy 602
Oslo Manual 162, 165, 616
and science, technology, and innovation policy 603–4
and systems of innovation 194
and universities 215–19
organizational innovation 7, 20, 115–16, 138–40
ambiguity of term 138, 140 n1
and catch-up 515
definition 115
and developing countries 563
diffusion of 617
and economic growth 488
and employment 573, 576, 587–8, 590
Japan 520
and organizational change 116, 133, 138–9
adaptation 116, 134–5
incremental view of 133, 134–5
and inertia 133, 134, 136
punctuated equilibrium 133, 135–6
strategic adaptation 133, 137–9
and organizational learning 116, 123–4, 138
adhocracy model 127–9, 130, 131–2
and collective learning 124–7
institutional context of 132–3, 134
J-form model 127, 128
Japanese model 129
learning models 127
spaghetti organization 131
and organizational structure 116, 117, 138
ambidextrous organizations 119, 136, 141 n4
archetypes 119, 120
and contingency theory 117–21
and differentiation 119
and governance models 122
integration 121–2
mechanistic organizations 118, 119
models of 127
organic organizations 118, 119
and strategy 121–2
and productivity 8, 515, 588, 590
and Second Industrial Revolution 358, 360
and service sector 447–8
and technological change 133, 135, 136, 590
organizational memory 11, 17, 20, 124
organizations:
and regional innovation systems 299
and systems of innovation 188, 196
Original Equipment Manufacturing (OEM) 533
Oslo Manual 162, 165, 616
Oster, S M 476
O'Sullivan, Mary, and social conditions of innovative enterprise 33–4
Oticon 130, 131
Own Brand Manufacturing (OBM) 533
Own Design and Manufacturing (ODM) 533
ownership:
and control 38
cooperative 601
and cross-shareholding 42
and strategic control 50
Paley, William 495
paradigms:
techno-economic 248, 249, 569
technological 416–17, 497–8
Paris International Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property 270, 271, 273
Pasinetti, L 580
Patel, P 220, 329
Patent Act (USA, 1836) 269
Patent Cooperation Treaty (1978) 271
patents:
and catch-up 275, 284
and collaborative networks 65–6, 79
and diffusion 279, 280
duration of 279, 280
and economic growth 284
and economic progress 284
and ‘evergreening’ 287 n18
and First Industrial Revolution 352
history of 268
international patent era 271–3
multinational patent era 270–1
national patent era 267–9
pre-patent era 267
pro-patent era 273–8
and industrialization 284
and information disclosure 280
and innovation 280–1
internationalization of 319–20
and measurement of innovation 65, 66, 69, 79, 158–60, 616
and multinational enterprises 325–6
(p. 648)
and national innovative capacity 197
origins of term 285 n3
and regional concentration 558
role of 278
scope of 279–80
and Second Industrial Revolution 364
and United States 48, 188–9, 269, 364
and universities 80 n3, 222, 225, 228, 229–31
use of 281–2
national differences 283–4
sectoral differences 282–3
variations in laws of 188–9 see also Bayh-Dole Act; intellectual property rights
path dependency:
and innovation 10, 12
and innovation process 109
and large firms 555
and manufacturing firms 95
and systems 13
Pavitt, Keith 3
and creative accumulation 382
and firm types 162
and industrial classification 16, 311 n1, 384, 411–12
Penn World Tables 505
Pennsylvania Railroad 360
Penrose, Edith 32, 543, 560
and Japanese challenge 40
and organizational learning 245
on theory 51
Perez, Carlota 18, 249, 499
Perroux, F 608
Perry, Commodore 272
pharmaceutical industry 555–6
and coevolutionary processes 397
and innovation process 97–8, 389–90
and institutions 395
and knowledge spillover 297
and patents 280, 281
post-war development 371–2
and research publication 213
and university research 93, 95, 222
Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (USA) 371
Philippines, and catch-up 525–34, 553–4
Piore, Michael 37
Pisano, Gary 33
Poignant, Raymond 603
Polanyi, M 75, 125
Polaroid 107, 274
Polaroid Corp v Eastman Kodak 274
Pollard, S 356
Pomeranz, Kenneth R 351
Porter, M E 107, 418, 419
and national innovative capacity 197, 552–3
Portugal, and catch-up 525–34, 537–8
Post-Keynesianism, and economic growth 489–90
Powell, Walter W 67, 78
practice:
communities of 71, 125, 303, 308, 309
innovations in 466
networks of 58, 71
prices, and competitiveness 581
privatization 395
process innovation 7, 182, 572–3
and competitiveness 573
diffusion of 617
and employment 572–3, 579, 583, 590
and Japanese catch-up 519–20
and productivity 572
and sector characteristics 384
and systems of innovation approach 185
product innovation:
and collaboration 57, 65, 68, 196–7
compared with process innovation 572–3
and competitiveness 573
definition 7, 182, 572
diffusion of 617
and employment 569, 573–5, 579–80, 583, 590, 592 n3, 593 n9
and forecasts of commercial success 100
impact of 572, 581
and industrial research and development 360–3
and the Industrial Revolution 352
and innovation surveys 160–1, 164–5
and Japanese catch-up 519
and Josiah Wedgwood 356
and low- and medium-tech industries 415–16
and organizational change 137
and organizational structure 117, 127
and product-life-cycle theory 15
and service sector 435–6, 440, 442, 445
and systems of innovation approach 185
and trust 72
and university research 57, 212, 221–2
product-life-cycle theory 15–16, 545
and foreign direct investment 327
productivity:
and capital per worker 490
and income 544
international divergence in 514
(p. 649)
labor 550
and organizational innovation 8, 515, 588, 590
and process innovation 572
and research and development 154, 491, 506
and technological change 474, 489, 504
and technology transfer 338
total factor 489, 500, 506, 507, 612
Project Apollo 56
project management 91, 165
public research organizations 192, 222
funding of 606
industrial links 104, 194, 224, 392
and research and development 193
and science-based sectors 384
publishing industry, and networks 78
punctuated equilibrium, and organizational change 133, 135–6
Qualcomm 48
quality control:
and Japanese organizational innovation 43, 520
and service sector 438
quality ladders 416, 502–3
quality requirements, and systems of innovation 191
Quebec, and vocational and technical education 194
QWERTY keyboards, and diffusion 463
radical innovation 7–8, 202, 493–4
and adhocracy 119, 128, 132
and collaboration 65
decision-making about 108
and economic structural change 104
and knowledge application 296
and learning economy 311
Rajan, R 255–6
regional economic development, and universities 225–7
regional innovation systems 184, 310, 312 n5
Anglo-American model 306–7
and competitive advantage 311
and competitiveness 557–9
and diffusion 312 n5, 558
and entrepreneurial regional innovation system 303–4
and geography of knowledge 292–4, 309–10
and industrial knowledge bases 294–8, 310
and institutional regional innovation system 303, 304
and localized learning 298–300, 311
and new economy innovation system 303
origins of concept 299
and patenting concentration 558
and regional culture 300
relationship with national innovation systems 303–8
systemic character of 299–300
and universities 210
varieties of 300
regionalized national 302–3
regionally networked 301–2
regions:
governance of 299
importance of 299
regulatory systems, and diffusion 477
research and development 381–4
and catch-up 530
and collaborative networks 57, 58, 59, 65–6
and development activities 97
and employment 364
and finance 253–4
and government-funded programs 98
and innovation 16
and intellectual property rights 279
intensity of 155–8, 382
and investment 279, 323–8, 410, 491, 500, 503, 605
international 323–6, 328
and knowledge production 91
measurement of 151, 153–4, 616
and acquired technology 156–8
and research and development intensity 155–8
modeling of 502
and multinational enterprises 323–6, 337
and asset-augmenting activity 327–8, 329–30
and asset-exploiting strategies 326–9, 329–30
and firm size 333
and home-base augmenting activity 327
and home-base exploiting activity 326
host country effects 338
impact on home country 338–9
and integration costs 331
and market structure 333–4
opportunities and constraints 331–3
and organizational issues 334
spillover effects 337–8
origins in Second Industrial Revolution 360–1, 362–3, 364
overinvestment in 279
(p. 650)
post-war transformation 366–7
and productivity 154, 491, 506
and public research institutes 193
and service sector 436–7, 448
social rate of return 491
spillover effects 490–1, 502–3, 507–8
and strategic technology partnering 320–2, 334–6, 339 n3
and systems of innovation 190, 192–4
and internationalization 332
and uncertainty 100–1
and universities 110 n13, 194–5
resource-based theory, and the firm 33, 151
retail sector 427, 439, 445
Reuters 437
Reverse Product Cycle, and services innovation 440–2
Ricardo, David 571–2, 580
Rickne, Annika, and systems of innovation 189
risk taking:
cultural attitudes towards 478
and networks 68
and science, technology, and innovation policy 619
Robinson, S 488
Rogers, E M 461–2, 469, 478
Romeo, A A 476
Romer, P 197, 501, 502, 506
Rosenberg, Nathan 613, 620
chain-link model of innovation 150
and diffusion 460, 462, 477, 479
innovation as continuous process 5
and institutions 186
and linear model 8–9
and machine tool industry 91–2, 417
and national system of innovation 183, 186
and universities 215
Route 128 400
and regional economic development 225
and regional innovation systems 307
Sabel, Charles 37
Sahlman, William 248, 251
Saloner, G 471, 473, 477
Salter, A J 308
Sanmina-SCI 49
SAPPHO project 87
Saxenian, Anna Lee 46, 71, 227, 307
Say, Jean-Baptiste 571
Schmookler, J 7, 364
Schon, D 125–6
Schreiber, Servan 608
Schumpeter, Joseph:
and business cycle 244
and creative destruction 105, 115, 359
and credit creation 243, 244
and economics of innovation 241–2
microeconomics of 242–4
and structural economic change 244
and entrepreneurs 32, 242–3
and finance 240, 244
and innovation 6, 87, 572
temporal clusters 498–9
types of 6–7
and innovation process 9–10
and large firms 32, 243–4, 364
and limits to firm growth 38
and radical innovation 7–8
and technological competition 14–15
wave theory 350
science:
and decision-making 606
and innovation 375
and invisible colleges 73
and linear model of innovation 8–9
and Second Industrial Revolution 359–60 see also science, technology, and innovation policy
Science Citation Index 153
science parks 226–7, 303
Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) 2, 3, 161–2, 163
science, technology, and innovation policy 599
Danish cooperative movement 600–1
and developing countries 601, 626
and diffusion 599, 626 n1
and economic growth 603, 604–5, 608, 612, 621, 626
and education 606, 610
evaluation of 618–19
ideal types of 602
and innovation policy:
American agriculture 602
analytical basis of 614–15
and competitiveness 612, 618
as economic policy 612
and innovation process 614
and innovation systems 617
and institutions 612, 613–14
instruments of 612–13
laissez-faire version 611–12
and neoclassical economics 613
objectives of 612
and public sector intervention 614
and service sector 451–2
(p. 651)
systemic version 611–12
and systems of innovation 191
measuring impact of 615–17
normative principles of 618
research opportunities 625–6
and science policy 604–7
funding allocation 606
objectives 605
origins of 604–5
post-war development 605
and progress 605
public sector actors 606
quality of research 607
research evaluation 606–7
resource allocation 605
and scientific autonomy 605–6
and technology policy:
and catch-up 608
and competition 609
and diffusion 465
and economic growth 504
English cannon production 600
and European Union 155, 610, 621–3
evaluation of 610–11
extent of support 609
focus of 607–8
and industrial complexes 610, 619–20
instruments of 610
Japan 608, 609, 610, 620–1
and national interests 608
objectives of 609
old and new industries 609
public sector actors 610
and public sector competence 609
and small and medium-sized enterprises 520–1
and state intervention 608–9
and strategic technologies 608
United States 609, 610, 619–20
variable meaning of 608
and universities 602, 605, 606, 609, 610, 613, 614, 624
and US-Europe-Japan relationship 624–5
sectoral innovation systems 183–4, 200, 380–1, 384–7, 400–1
and actors 385, 390–1
aggregation issues 387, 400
and demand 391
and diffusion 381, 384, 391, 392–3, 399
dynamics and transformation of 395–8
and evolutionary theory 386–7
geographical dimensions 399, 400
and institutions 385, 394–5
and knowledge 385, 387–90
and national innovation systems 386
and networks 385, 391–4
policy implications of 398–400
research opportunities 401–2
and sectoral boundaries 385, 387–90
sectoral differences in innovation 381–4
sectors:
and appropriability 382, 384
characteristics of 408–9
classification of 116, 155, 409, 411–14, 429–30
definition 385, 408
differences in innovation 381–4
and employment 580
and industrial dynamics 382
and industry life-cycle 383
and market structure 382
and research and development intensity 382
sources of innovation 384
technological profile 409–10
and technological regimes 382–3
and technology policy 607–8, 610
technology suppliers and users 383–4
semiconductor industry:
evolution of 44–5
and networks 67, 69
offshore research and development investment 328–9
post-war development 367–8
responding to technological change 106
and role of military 393–4
sectoral structure 393–4
United States 45–6
service sector:
and catch-up 535
classification of:
human services 443
information services 443–4
physical services 442–3
diversity of 434–5
and employment in 433–4, 449, 450
growth of 433–4, 451
industrialization of 437–9
and ineffective learning 446
innovation in 433, 451–2
and acquired technology 448
and client relationships 441–2
and diffusion 617
and employment 580, 588
and firm size 447
and information sources 448–9
(p. 652)
and information technology 439–45, 448
nature of 446
organizational 447–8
and quality control 438
research on 436–7
and Reverse Product Cycle 440–2
sectoral differences 449
sources of 448
and innovation systems 445, 449
innovations surveys 447–9
and investment 436–7
and knowledge-intensive business services 449–51
market diversity 435
and modularization 438
and organization of innovation 445–6
and organizational innovation 447–8
product characteristics 435–6
and research and development 436–7, 448
and technology use 434–5
Shapiro, C 472, 473
Share (IBM user group) 73
Shaw, K 474
Shell 365
Shell, K 491
Shepard, A 471
Shin, Jang-Sup 517, 524
Shuen, Amy 33
Siemens 323, 361, 363
Siemens, Werner von 361, 362
Sierra, C 329
Silicon Valley 46, 48, 400, 624
and adhocracy 127, 129
and informal networks 71
and organizational learning model 130
origins of 227
and regional economic development 225
success of 307
and venture capital 251
Silverberg, G 497, 500
Simon, Herbert 17
Simonetti, R 582
Singapore:
and catch-up 518, 520–1, 525–34, 553–4
and foreign direct investment 521
and universities 216
skills:
and diffusion 624
and employment 584–7, 590
and organizational innovation 588
Škoda 418
small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs):
and competencies 335
and finance 255
and government policy 428
and regional innovation systems 300–2
and research and development 333
responsiveness of 420
and technological change 420
Small Business Administration database (USA) 161
Smith, Adam 89, 107, 489, 534, 543, 571
social capability, and catch-up 523, 524
social conditions of innovative enterprise 29, 30–4, 349
and industrial districts 35–7
and Japanese model 41–5
the managerial corporation 38–40
New Economy model 45–9
and organizational innovation 132–3
social exclusion, and services industrialization 438
Soete, Luc 603
software industry 247, 278, 369
and coevolutionary processes 397–8
and diffusion 398
and institutions 395
sectoral structure 394
Solectron 49
Solow, R M 489, 500, 501, 505, 547
Sony 45
Soskice, D 305–6
Soule, S A 478
South Korea:
and catch-up 518, 520–1, 522, 525–34, 553–4
economic development 366, 373, 375
financial crisis in 522
and research and development 193
and technology policy 608
and universities 216, 218
and vocational and technical education 195
spaghetti organization 131
Spain:
and catch-up 525–34
and collaborative networks 197
and research and development 193
spillover effects:
and biotechnology industry 297
and economic growth 490–1
and foreign direct investment 338, 508
and innovative capacity 552–3
and knowledge 297–8
offshore research and development investment 337–8
pharmaceutical industry 297
research and development 491–2, 502–3, 507–8
and universities 225
(p. 653) Stalker, G M, and organizational types 118, 119
Standard Oil 365
standards:
battles over 472
and diffusion 471–2
technical 68, 73, 191, 395
Stanford University 46
Starbuck, WC, and adhocracies 128–9
startups, and networks 66–7
status, and diffusion rates 470
Statute of Monopolies (1623) 269
steam power, and First Industrial Revolution 353
steel industry, and networks 69, 71, 78
Stern, S, and national innovative capacity 197
Steuart, James 571
Stevenson, Howard 248
stock options, and New Economy model 46, 47, 49
Storper, M 298
Strang, D 478
strategic technology partnering (STP) 320–2, 334–6, 339 n3
structural holes, and networks 61, 62, 66, 69
subcontracting, and networks 62, 69–70
Sun Microsystems 49
Sutton, J, and industrial classification 412–14
Svennilsson, Ingvar 603, 626
Swann, G M P 447, 448, 450
Sweden:
and collaborative networks 197
and national system of innovation 199
and patent laws 188
and research and development 188, 193
and technological specialization 557
and universities 193, 217, 219, 232
and vocational and technical education 195
Switzerland 428, 429
patent laws 270–1
and research and development 193
and technological specialization 556–7
and university funding 193
and use of patents 282
and vocational and technical education 194, 195
Syrquin, M 488
system integration 422–3, 451
systems:
bottlenecks in 13–14
categorisation of 12
and complementarities 13–14
definition 187–8
and innovation 20
nature of 13
openness of 13
and path dependency 13
systems of innovation (SI) 181, 182
activities in 189–91
boundaries of 198–200
and competence building 191–2, 617
components of 188–9
and definition of system 187–8
and diffusion 183, 184, 186, 189, 190, 200, 201
emergence and development of 182–4
functions of 189–90
and innovation policy 617
and institutions 188–9
and activities 196
relations with organizations 197–8
and internationalization of research and development 332, 337
and learning 184–5, 191–2
competence building 194–5
research and development 192–4
national systems 183, 198–9, 200
and organizations 188
and activities 196
interactions amongst 196–7
relations with institutions 197–8
regional systems 184, 199–200
research gaps and opportunities 201–3
and resource allocation 248–9
sectoral systems 183–4
strengths of 184–6
technological systems 183, 200
Taiwan:
and catch-up 518, 520–1, 525–34, 553–4
economic development 366, 373
and research and development 193
and technology policy 608
Takahashi, K 272
Takeuchi, H 125, 127, 295
Tancioni, M 582
Taylor, K 582
‘Technical Change and Economic Policy’ (OECD) 603
technological change:
and ambidextrous organisations 119
disequilibrating nature of 569
(p. 654)
and economic growth 255, 488–92
and employment 569–71, 580, 582, 588, 589, 590–1
and globalization 318
and institutions 394
and organizational change 133, 135, 136, 590
and productivity 474, 489, 504
and small and medium-sized enterprises 420
and uncertainty 494
technological congruence 523, 524, 535
technological regimes 17, 382–3, 579
technological search 96, 97, 104
technology:
access to foreign 533
acquired 156–8
as change driver 416–17
and convergence 91–2, 99
critical 349–50
cross-border commercialization of 319–20
cycle of progress 136
and economic growth 350, 492
general purpose 416–17, 504–5
and managerial corporation 39–40
and organizational change 139–40
and organizational practices 102–3
as private good 489
as a public good 489
and radical change 104–7
suppliers and users of 383–4 see also science, technology, and innovation policy
technology gap:
and economic growth 19, 547
and technology transfer 338
technology transfer 8, 228
and Bayh-Dole Act 229–31
global 319–20
and productivity 338
and university-industry collaboration 210, 399 see also diffusion
technopoles 303
technostructure 40
Teece, David 33, 122, 126, 336, 536
telecommunications industry:
and coevolutionary processes 397
Japan 621
liberalization 395
United States 370, 477
Tellis, G J 465, 467, 470, 478
Terman, Frederick 226
Tesco 107
Tether, B S 169, 447, 448, 450
Teubal, M 189
Texas Instruments 46, 274
textile industry 421
and First Industrial Revolution 352–3
innovation in 425–6
and vertical alignment 423
Thailand 441
tire industry 413
tobacco industry 425
Toivonen, M 451
Tordoir, P P 441
Toshiba 43
total factor productivity 489, 500, 506, 507, 612
Toyota 43, 45
and lean production 420
and networks 70
and vertical alignment 422
Trade and Industry, Department of (UK) 437
Trade-Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) 273, 274, 275, 284
trade unionism 36, 40, 42–3
training:
and competence building 192, 194–5
and competitiveness 553
internal 390
and labor quality 589 see also education; universities
‘Triple Helix’ 221
and regional innovation systems 300
and role of universities 214, 233
trust:
and innovation systems 332
and networks 58, 65, 70, 72
and tacit knowledge 293
Tunzelmann, Nick von 353
Tushman, M L 11, 68, 72, 136, 141 n4
Uchupalanan, K 441
Udell, G 254
uncertainty:
and diffusion 466, 475–6
and innovation 9, 10, 30, 88, 493, 613
and innovative investment 257–8
management of 100–1
and networks 68
strong 493
and technological change 494
weak 493, 502, 504, 509
unemployment:
and innovation 571
Union Carbide 365
(p. 655) United Kingdom:
and catch-up 525–34
and education 194, 554–5
and industrial districts 35–7
and patent laws 269
and research and development 323
and science policy 604, 607
and service sector research and development 436–7
and technological specialization 555
and technology policy 608
and universities 210, 216, 218, 219, 220, 232
and vocational and technical education 195 see also Industrial Revolution, First
United States:
and agricultural innovation 602
and catch-up 515, 525–34
chemical industry 364–6
and comparative advantage 555–6
Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit 228–9, 274, 277
Department of Justice 274
diffusion of major innovations 468
and education 554–5
and employment 581
and government-funded programs 98
and industrial research and development 90
and innovation policy 624
and intellectual property rights 274–5, 276–7, 278
the managerial corporation 38–40
the managerial revolution 38
and the New Economy 45–9, 277
and organizational innovation 7
patent laws 188–9, 269, 364
patenting activity 48
and research and development 188, 193
and science policy 604–5
and Second Industrial Revolution 358, 359–60, 363–4
and service sector research and development 436
Small Business Administration database 161
and technological specialization 555–6
and technology policy 609, 610, 619–21
and Third Industrial Revolution 366–73
and universities:
and Bayh-Dole Act 228–32
and co-authorship 220
degreeholders 215–16
and employed researchers 217–18
enrollment 215
funding of 210
impact on industrial innovation 221–4
industrial funding 218
industrial links 209–10, 219
and regional economic development 225–7
and research and development 216, 217
and venture capital 251–3
and wage polarization 587
United States Patent Office 269
United States Supreme Court, Diamond v Chakrabarty 229
universities:
analysis difficulties 233–4
and Bayh-Dole Act 228–32
and catch-up 518
cross-national comparisons:
degreeholders 215–16
and employed researchers 217–18
enrollment 215
industrial funding 218
industrial links 219
and research and development 216, 217
and diffusion 211–12
and economic development 209, 210
and regional development 225–7
and economic growth 211, 212, 232
impact on industrial innovation 221–4
industry links 93–5, 110 n14, 194, 209–10, 211, 224–5, 247
and co-authorship 219–21
lack of data on 234
and intellectual property rights 606
and inter-university competition 233
and linear model of innovation 212
and Mode 2 research 213–14, 221, 233
and national innovation systems 210, 211–15
origins of 235 n8
and origins of industrial research 360–1
outputs of 212
and patents 80 n3, 222, 225, 228, 229–31
and regional economic development 225–7
and regional innovation systems 210
and research and development 110 n13, 194–5
and research disclosure norms 213, 230–1
role of 209, 210, 211–12, 233, 234
and science parks 226–7
and science, technology, and innovation policy 602, 605, 606, 609, 610, 613, 614, 624
and scientific autonomy 606
and Second Industrial Revolution 360–1
and technology transfer 210
and ‘Triple Helix’ perspective 214, 221, 233
Uzawa, H 491
Valentine, Don 251
Van de Ven, A 12
(p. 656) Van Pottelsberghe, B 508
Varian, H 473
Veblen, Thorstein 516–18
Vega, M 329
Venables, A J 298
Venice, and patent code 267
Venkataraman, S 474–5
venture capital 135, 248, 250, 251–3
and New Economy model 46–7
Verdoorn, P J 491, 523
Vernon, R 15, 326–7
Verspagen, Bart 19, 500, 508
and catch-up 524, 535
vertical disintegration 90, 91–3, 99, 421
video recorders, and network effects on diffusion of 471
Vivarelli, M 581–2
Vivendi 95
Von Hippel, E 71
wage polarization 583, 587, 590, 592
Wal-Mart 427
Watson, Thomas J Sr 494
Watt, James 353, 494
wave theory 350, 499
Weber, Max, and organizational design 117
Wedgwood, Josiah 357–8
Weick, K E 137
Wellcome Trust 56
Western Union 360
White, Steven 189
Whitehead, Alfred North 350
Whitley, J D 582
Wilson, R A 582
Winter, Sidney 11, 17, 20, 382
and evolutionary theory 497, 499–500
and organizational capabilities 33
and organizational routines 126
Wolff, E 581, 584
Womack, J P 127
World Bank 534, 535
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 270, 271
World Trade Organization 535
and Trade-Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights 275
Wright, Gavin 259, 372
Young, A 491
Zander, Udo 33
Zeitlin, Jonathan 37
Zingales, Luigi 255–6, 259
Zucker, L 297, 607