- The oxford handbooks of Political Science
- The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology
- About the Contributors
- Political Science Methodology
- Normative Methodology
- Meta‐Methodology: Clearing the Underbrush
- Agent‐Based Modeling
- Concepts, Theories, and Numbers: A Checklist for Constructing, Evaluating, and Using Concepts or Quantitative Measures
- Typologies: Forming Concepts and Creating Categorical Variables
- Measurement Versus Calibration: A Set‐Theoretic Approach
- The Evolving Influence of Psychometrics in Political Science
- Causation and Explanation in Social Science
- The Neyman— Rubin Model of Causal Inference and Estimation Via Matching Methods
- On Types of Scientific Enquiry: the Role of Qualitative Reasoning
- Studying Mechanisms To Strengthen Causal Inferences In Quantitative Research
- Experimentation in Political Science
- Field Experiments and Natural Experiments
- Survey Methodology
- Endogeneity and Structural Equation Estimation in Political Science
- Structural Equation Models
- Time‐Series Analysis
- Time‐Series Cross‐Section Methods
- Bayesian Analysis
- Discrete Choice Methods
- Survival Analysis
- Cross‐Level/Ecological Inference
- Empirical Models of Spatial Inter‐Dependence
- Multilevel Models
- Counterfactuals and Case Studies
- Case Selection for Case‐Study Analysis: Qualitative and Quantitative Techniques
- Interviewing and Qualitative Field Methods: Pragmatism and Practicalities
- Process Tracing: a Bayesian Perspective
- Case‐Oriented Configura‐Tional Research: Qualitative Comparative Analysis (Qca), Fuzzy Sets, and Related Techniques
- Comparative-Historical Analysis in Contemporary Political Science
- Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Methods
- Qualitative and Multimethod Research: Organizations, Publication, and Reflections on Integration
- Quantitative Methodology
- Forty Years of Publishing in Quantitative Methodology
- The Eitm Approach: Origins and Interpretations
- Name Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
This article describes the National Science Foundation (NSF)'s initiative to close the gap between theory and methods. It also deals with the Empirical Implications of Theoretical Models (EITM) as currently understood as a way of thinking about causal inference in service to causal reasoning. Additionally, it explores the approach's origins and various ways in which NSF's call to EITM action has been interpreted. It makes a brief attempt to explain why the EITM approach emerged, why it is valuable, and how it is currently understood. It then contends that EITM has been interpreted in multiple ways. It emphasizes a subset of extant interpretations and, in the process, offers views about the most constructive way forward. The idea of EITM is to bring deduction and induction, hypothesis generation and hypothesis testing, close together.
John H. Aldrich is the Pfizer–Pratt University Professor of Political Science at Duke University.
James E. Alt is Frank G. Thomson Professor of Government at Harvard University.
Arthur Lupia is the Hal R. Varian Collegiate Professor of Political Science and Senior Research Scientist at the Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.
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