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date: 18 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This article addresses multilevel models in which units are nested within one another. The focus is primarily two-level models. It also describes cross-unit heterogeneity. Moreover, it assesses the fixed and random effects from the multilevel model. It generally tries to convey the scope of multilevel models but in a very compact way. Multilevel models provide great promise for exploiting information in hierarchical data structures. There are a range of alternatives for such data and it bears repeating that sometimes, simpler-to-apply correctives are best.

Keywords: multilevel models, two-level models, cross-unit heterogeneity, hierarchical data structures, fixed effects, random effects

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