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date: 15 July 2019

(p. 871) Subject Index

(p. 871) Subject Index

Abdera 249
Academy of Plato 156, 243, 396, 535
Achaemenid Empire:
and Alexander the Great 82–3
and the Greeks 39–43
and history of 83
acoustics, and musical theory 573
Acropolis, Athenian 22, 24, 27, 244, 252, 254, 289, 391, 396
Actium, battle of 114
adultery 300
agoras, and urban landscape 241, 242, 243–4
agriculture:
and ecological and climatic conditions 213–15
and landholding forms 215
and organization of 215–16
Akkadian literature, and Greek epic poetry 448–9
Alexandria 87, 88, 89
and exact sciences 590
and Hellenistic poetry 598
and the Mouseion 433–4
and school of 141
alphabet, Greek 413, 420
and adoption of Ionic alphabet 437–8
and Attic alphabet 438
and development of 420
and earliest example of 432 see also Greek language
anatomy 560 see also medicine
andrōn, and the symposium 271–2, 274, 277 see also symposium
animated films 828 see also films
anthropology, and Graeco-Roman antiquity 282
anthropopoiesis, and rites of passage 291
Antigonids 87
and claims to divine status 88
Antioch 87, 89
antiquities 19–28
and Modern Greece 25
and national imagination 25
and sacralisation of 25
apoikism 52
archaeology:
and Aegean prehistory 723–4
and anthropological theory 732
and classical archaeology 721–2
extending range of 722
and classical art history 722–3
and contact archaeology 56–7
and Crete:
commensality 726
household autonomy 726–7
and Greek archaeology:
spatial scope of 724
temporal scope of 723–4
and Macedon 728–9
and misconceptions about 732–3
and nature of 720–1
and social role of objects 732
armour 729–31
sculpture 731–2
and study of antiquity 721
and the symposium 725–6
and visual art and culture 721–2
alternative indigenous 21
Archimedes Palimpsest 755, 756–7
architecture:
and architectural orders 239–40
and Doric order 239, 240
and Ionic order 239, 240 see also monumental architecture; urban landscape
art, and Hellenistic culture 91
Assyrian Empire, and the Greeks 33–6
astronomy, and evolution of literature on 434
Athenian Empire 4
and afterlife of 72–3
and alternative approaches to 68–9
and ancient evidence for 66–7
archaeological 67
epigraphic 66–7
(p. 872) literary 66
neglect of subject cities 67
and Athens' role in Greek world 73
and comparative approach to 69
and cultural imperialism 72
and decree on common standards 71–2
and definitional difficulties 68
and distinctiveness of 65
and financial power 71
and impact of 69–72
circulation of cultures 72
economic 70–1
political 69–70
and linguistic influence 73
and longevity of 65
and political legacy 72–3
and popularity of 70
and resentment of 72
and scale of alliance 65
and transmission of Hellenic culture 73
and unknown aspects of 67–8
Athens:
and the Acropolis 22, 24, 27, 244, 252, 254, 289, 391, 396
and adoption of Ionic alphabet 437–8
and City Dionysia festival 202, 394, 422, 423, 424, 425–6, 428, 569
and comedy 483
and constitution of 194–5
and democracy 194–5
change in character of 200
debate over nature of 201–2
elite values 202
emergence of 199–200
festivals 202
institutional basis 201
ostracism 200
role of law 203–4
social basis 201–2
socio-political stability 202–3
and Enlightenment views of 169, 170
and the ephebeia 286–7
and images associated with 391
and inscriptions 709
and institutional innovation 189
and marriage 301–2
and military innovations 230
and monuments:
idealizing the past 253–4
transformation of 252
and nature of polis 192, 194–6
and navy 230
and Panathenaia festival 202, 394, 418, 422–3, 424, 425, 426, 569
and the Piraeus 396
and population size 668
and rebuilding of 396–7
and Roman portrayal of 177–8
and slavery 319, 324–5
and theatre 422
state scripts 427–8
as tourist attraction 394–8
and tragedy 471–3
and urban landscape 243–5
and visitors to and from 391–2, 393, 398
accommodation 397–8
civic business 394
festivals 394
interactions with city residents 394–5
Ion of Chios 392–3
Plato 393
significance of 398–9
social range of 393–4
athletic competitions 89, 197, 242, 379, 394, 716
and festivals 385
athletic body 385–7
and ideological force of 202 see also festivals
Attalids 89, 93, 94
and claims to divine status 88
Attic, and Roman Hellenism 115, 116
authenticity, and study of the past 639
autobiography 611
autochthony:
and perceptions of Athens 398–9
and racism in antiquity 334–5
Babylon 87
Basle, Council of 156
Bible, and textual criticism 773, 780–1, 783
binding spells:
and magic 546–9
figurines 549
and ostracism 548 see also magic
biography 415
and autobiography 611
and criticism of 608
and Dicaearchus 609
and diversity of 609, 612–13
and historiography 613
and intellectual history 612
and Ion of Chios 611
and issues addressed by 612
and limitations of 608
(p. 873) and Plutarch 613–15
and scope of 609, 615
and structure of 610–11
and subjects of:
philosophers 610
poets 611
political 609–10
Socrates 610
and truth 612, 613
body:
and the athletic body 386–7
and sociological theory 385–6
books, and development of literate culture 433–5
adoption of Ionic alphabet 437–9
historiography 435–6
objections to writing 436–7
Brauron 288, 289, 683
Catholic Church, and Renaissance Hellenism 156–7, 160
causality, and magic 546
Celts 86
Chaeronea, and Lion Monument 249
Christianity:
and Cynic influence on 522–3
and Hellenism 14, 99, 174
Cilicia 680
cinema, see films
cities:
and Hellenization 87–8
and places of memory 249–53
history of 253–5
and ruler cult 88 see also polis; urban landscape
citizenship:
and development of concept of 199
and Pericles' decree on 301–2, 334
city-state, see polis
civic ideology 199
civic institutions:
and emergence and development of 198–201
and future research on 205
and modern relevance of 204
and nature of Athenian democracy 201–4
and the polis 197–8
climate, and ancient economy 213–14
codicology, see manuscript studies
coins, see numismatics
collective memory, and the city 255–6
and places of memory 249–53
history of 253–5
collective practices, and politics 197
colonization, Greek 4, 51–2
and analogies with modern colonialism 49
German colonialism 52–3
influence of 53–4
Italian colonialism 53
and assimilation 89
and contemporary relevance 58–9
and definition of colonialism 51
and emigrants 48–9
and geographic distribution 48
and number of colonies 48
and problems with standard treatment of 48
and reassessing historical practices in approach to 54–8
contact archaeology 56–7
literary sources 54–6
prehistoric archaeology 56
and role of colonies 49
and terminology in study of 49–51
apoikism 52
colonialism 51–2
culture contact 51
kleroukhism 52
need for new 52
Colophon 249, 251, 252, 680
comedy:
and actors, representation of 485
and audience composition:
age 484
class 483–4
and competitive nature of 485
and context of 481
and cultural conditioning 481
and festivals 483
and films 827
and fragmentary comedies 485–6
and ideological stress 488
and improvization 485
and interpretations of 482–3, 487–8
and metatheatre 485
and modern productions of 481–2
and political context 486–7
and production process 484
and reception of 482
and re-performance of 482
and social commentary 481
and social status of actors and playwrights 484–5
and themes and styles 486
and women 486
(p. 874) commentaries:
as acts of reading 792
and anonymity 793–4
and centrality of 789
and ‘classic’ status of texts 788–9
and commitment to text 798
and contested nature of 788
and continuity between ancient and modern 790–1
and division of text into lemmata 794–5
and historical perspective on 790–2
and inhibiting effect of 795
and institutional context 793
and loyalty to text 793
and mediation between text and reader 792–3
explanations of meaning 793
and national traditions 791–2
and need for new 791
and readership of 798
and relationship between text and readers 794–7
as research tools 788
and scholia 781, 790, 791, 793, 797
and selective nature of 795–6
as text in own right 792
and use of parallels 795–6
limited range of 796–7
and usefulness of 797
and value of classical literature 798
and value-judgements 797–8
communal feasting, see symposium
comparative study of culture:
and conceptual framework problems 647–8
medicine 649–50
philosophy 648–9
science 648
translation 650–1
and Herodotus 643, 651
Egypt 644–5
Greek assumptions 645
nomoi (customs) 644
religion 644–5
Scythia 644–5
and Homer 643
and nature/culture (phusis/nomos) dichotomy 645
boundaries between 645–6
concept of nature 646–7
values associated with terms 646
and science 648
conflict theory 669, 671, 672
Constantinople, and fall of 158
Crete:
and commensality 726
and household autonomy 726–7
cultural turn, and historiography 495–6
Herodotus 496–7
Polybius 497–8
Thucydides 497
Xenophon 497–8
culture, and concept of 373
culture contact, and Greek colonization 51, 57
curse tablets:
and ostracism 548 see also magic
Cynics and Cynicism 185, 414, 518
and characteristics of 520–1
and Christianity 522–3
and debate over nature of 521
and derivation of name 521
and ethical ideals 521
and geographical background 522
and influence of 522
and literary influence 523
and low philosophy 520–3
and poetry 524
and political theory 408
and social background 522
and virtue 521
Cyprus 680
decolonization, and historical production 58
democracy:
and Athenian Empire 69, 70
and Athens 194–5
change in character of 200
debate over nature of 201–2
elite values 202
emergence in 199–200
institutional basis 201
ostracism 200
role of law 203–4
social basis 201–2
socio-political stability 202–3
and first English use of term 816
and the polis 191, 192
and popular story of 167
demography 666–9
and data on:
Hellenistic and Roman periods 668–9
lack of 666, 668
and future research on 669
and population decline 666
(p. 875) and population expansion 666–7
ecological factors 667
economic growth 666–7
growth of polities 667–8
overseas settlement 667
and pre/post-300 bce periods 666
Dionysia festival 202, 394, 422, 423, 424, 425–6, 428, 569
diplomatic exchange 86
disability 548–9
dissection 560 see also medicine
divinity, and Hellenic kingdoms 88
drama, see theatre
economic sociology 671
economy, ancient:
and agricultural organization 215–16
and ecological and climatic conditions 213–15
and Greek expansion 214
and inter-state connections 217–18
and markets 218
and monetary exchange 220–1
and nature of 211–13
and new approaches to 213
and the polis 216–17
and warfare 218–19
education:
and choral education for young girls 287–90
and music 575
and Sparta 284–5
and travel 356 see also initiation rites
Egypt:
and ethnic identity 90
and Herodotus 644–5
Enlightenment 6
and Alexander the Great 79–80, 81
and attitudes towards ancient world 166
and nature of 166
and Rousseau 6, 166, 167–9
and views on Athens 169, 170
and views on Sparta 166–7, 168, 169, 170
environmental determinism, and racism 331–2
Ephesus, and Vibius Salutaris festival 380, 381
epic poetry 413
and Aristotle 423–6
and Christian Greek epic 450
and definition of 442
and films 825–6
and gender 690, 694
Hesiod 692–4
Homer 690–2
and Homer:
authority of 442
influence on western literature 442–3
and oral-tradition hypothesis 443–7
and importance to Greek audiences 442
and lyric poetry 457, 462–3
and oral-tradition hypothesis 443–7
and popularity of 442
and Roman epic 450
and roots of 443, 447–8
Akkadian literature 448–9
Hittite material 448
Mycenean period 448
Epicureanism 519, 768
and characteristics of 536
and happiness 536
and high philosophy 535–6
and human nature 262
and low philosophy 536
and mind-body relationship 262–3
and music 575–6
and political theory 408
and purpose of philosophy 535
and social identity 267–8
epigraphy:
and archaeology 721
and inscriptions as evidence 714–17
contemporaneity 714
economic activity 716
festivals 716–17
Greek language 717
problematic nature of 715
public works 716
religion 716, 717
supplement to literary texts 715
and inscriptions in antiquity 709–11
accessibility 710
Athens 709
as evidence 711
media used for 710–11
purpose of 709
symbolic nature of 710
and modern study of inscriptions 712–14
publication of collections 712–13
survival of objects 712
techniques for reading 713–14
epilepsy 543
Erythrae 249–50, 252
ethics, and music 574–6
(p. 876) ethnic identity 5, 328
and Greek identity 89–90
evolutionary theory 673–4
exact sciences, see mathematics
fables, and low philosophy 526
feasting, see symposium
feminism 688 see also gender
Ferrara-Florence, Council of (1438–9) 156
festivals 89
and Athenian democracy 202
and the athletic body 385–7
and City Dionysia 202, 394, 422, 423, 424, 425–6, 428, 569
and civic unity 380
and comedy 483
and comparative approach to 378–9
and definition of 381
and epigraphic record 716–17
and identity 380–3
athletic body 385–7
communal 380
Panhellenism 379–80, 381, 382, 383, 384
and intellectual display 384
and Panathenaia 202, 394, 418, 422–3, 424, 425, 426, 569
and range of participants in 380
and representation of 382–3
pseudo-Dionysius 383–5
and Roman influence on 383, 384
and significance of 378
problematic nature of 382–3
and spectatorship 381
and tragedy 472–3
and travellers to 394
films, and ancient Greece 823
and adaptation 825
and animated films 828
and authenticity 824
and canonical status 824
and comedy 827
and diversity of genres 827–8
and epic 825–6
and film theory:
Aristotle 829–30
Plato 830
psychoanalysis 830
and historical films 826
and limited source materials 823
and mythology 823–4
and reciprocal relationship between 830–1
and sword-and-sandal films 828–9
and tragedy 827
Florence 151, 152–3, 155, 158–9
foundation myths, and collective memory 248
fountain houses, and urban landscape 242
French Revolution 6, 166, 169–70
friendship:
and Achilles and Patroclus 295–6, 298
and love 296
and meaning of 294–5
and philia 300–1 see also personal relationships
Gauls 93
gender:
and distinctions based on biological sex 305–6
and epic poetry 690, 694
Hesiod 692–4
Homer 690–2
and gender studies, nature of 688
and growth of interest in 305
and male-female antithesis 688–9, 694
and masculinity 688, 689–90
and myth of three sexes 305–6
and myths 681, 689
and novels 622
and poststructuralism 688, 689
and religion 372
and rites of passage 291
as semantic relation 688
and sexuality 688, 689, 690
and slavery 320
and study of women in antiquity 306–8, 687–8
Foucault's influence 309
psychoanalytic theory 308
structuralist approach 308 see also women
geography, and evolution of literature on 434
geometry, see mathematics
globalization 126
government, and Aristotle 407–8 see also polis
political theory
Greece (modern), and Hellenism 3–4, 19
and archaeology, institution of 23–4
and colonialism 25, 27–8
and cultural ties with antiquity 26, 27
and folk imagination 20
and Greek Orthodox Church 23
and hybrid modernity 25
and indigenous Hellenism 20, 25–8
and material presence of antiquity 20–1, 22–3, 25
and multiple Hellenisms 26
(p. 877) and national narrative 26–7
and nationalism 22, 25
and pre-nation state period 21–2
and responsibility for classical heritage 25
and sacralization of antiquity 23, 24
and translations of Greek texts 814
Greek language:
and alphabet 413, 420
adoption of Ionic 437–8
Attic 438
and Athenian Empire 73
and comparative and historical grammar 698–702
dialects 700
Homeric language 699–700
Indo-European language family 698
Mycenaean 699–702
Proto-Indo-European 698
and epigraphic record 717
and Greek identity 8
and prestige of 115, 116
and questions about 697
and social and stylistic diversity of 704–5
and synchronic grammar 702–4
gymnasia, and urban landscape 242–3
harmonics, and musical theory 571–3
Hebraism, and Hebraism/Hellenism dichotomy 3, 5, 12, 129–30
and Greek view of Jews 131–4, 137
and Jewish views of Greeks 134–7
malleability of 137
nature of Hellenic culture 130
nature of Judaism 130–1
hedonism, and Epicureans 536
Hellenism:
and Arnold 3, 12
and changes in meaning of 9
and Christianity 14, 99, 174
as controversial concept 3
and definitional difficulties 7
and Droysen's conception of 9–10, 11, 174, 176, 177
and Greek identity 7–8
and Hebraism 12
and ideologies of 174–9
and Jews 11–12
as ‘mirror of the present’ 10–11
and modern Greece 20
and modernity 8, 11, 14–15
and myth of 14
and Nietzsche 12–13, 14
as relation between past and present 7
as retrospective category 9
as weak concept 9
Indigenous 19–28
Hellenistic culture:
and the arts 91
and cities 87–8
and future research on 94–5
and Greek identity 88–9
ethnic identity 89–90
and literature 91–3
and ruler cult 88
and theatre 89
helots 192, 193, 319
Herculaneum papyri 630, 767–70
hetairai 300, 312–13
Himera, and remodelling of 241
historical sociology 670
historiography 414, 491
and biography 613
and cultural turn 495–6
and development of 435–6
and foundational narratives of Greek history 491–2
interpretation of 494, 499
and Herodotus:
cultural analysis 496–7
linguistic analysis 497
and linguistic turn 494–5
and performance 429
and Polybius:
cultural analysis 497–8
judgement of 498–9
linguistic analysis 497–8, 499
political analysis 499
and rhetoric 414
and study of ancient historians 492–3
inclusion of other writers 493–4
and Thucydides:
cultural analysis 497
linguistic analysis 497
and Xenophon:
cultural analysis 497–8
interpretational difficulties 498
intertextuality 498
linguistic analysis 497–8
homosexuality:
and adolescent rites of passage 285
and initiation of young people 285–6
and love in form of Eros 296–7
and pederasty 297–8, 311
and political life 311
and research on 310–12 see also sexuality
(p. 878) hoplite warfare 227, 229–30
and landholding patterns 219
and limits of 229
and political impact of 229–30
hoplite reform theory 231–3 see also warfare
humanist scholarship 6
identity 88–9
and the city 402
and ethnic identity 89–90
and festivals 379–83
athletic body 385–7
spectatorship 381
and Hellenism 7–8
and language 8
and meaning of 260
and novels 624
and places of memory 248–53
history of 253–5
and Roman Hellenism 124–6 see also personal identity; social identity
ideologies 6
and Hellenism 174–9
imperialism, and racism 335, 336–7
initiation rites, see rites of passage
inscriptions, see epigraphy
International Congress of Greek Palaeography 748
intertextuality:
and lyric poetry 458, 459
and novels 621
and Polybius 498
and Xenophon 498
Ionians:
and Achaemenid Empire (520–321 bce) 39–43
and ancient Near East 32–3
and Assyrian Empire (750–612 bce) 33–6
and Neo-Babylonian and early Persian Empires (612–520 bce) 36–9
Islam 140
and Alexandrian school 141
and Arab expansion 140–1
and attitude toward Greek culture 145–6
and impact of Greek culture 146–7
and influence of Greek culture 141
Graeco-Arabica 146–7
and reasons for interest in Greek heritage 142
and translations of Greek texts 142–4
astronomy 145
availability of 145
mathematics 144
medicine 145
natural science 144
philosophy 144
Isthmian festival 379
Judaism:
and divisions within 130
and first appearance of term 131
and Greek view of Jews 131–4, 137
and Hellenism 11–12
and hybrid nature of 131
and influence of Greek culture 130, 131
and Jewish views of Greeks 134–7
and Letter of Aristeas 131, 135
and Maccabean revolt 130, 131
and relationship with Hellenic culture 131, 137 see also Hebraism
justice, and political theory 402, 403
Karphi 239
kleroukhism 52
Lachmann's method, see textual criticism
landholding, and forms of 215–16
law:
and Athenian democracy 203–4
and emergence of written 199
Lemnian women, myth of 683–4, 689
lesbianism 298–9 see also sexuality
libraries:
and establishment of 88, 433
and Renaissance Hellenism 158
linguistic turn, and historiography 494–5
Herodotus 497
Polybius 497–8, 499
Thucydides 497
Xenophon 497–8
linguistics, see Greek language
literacy:
and development of literate culture 433–5
historiography 435–6
objections to writing 436–7
and Greek alphabet 420
adoption of Ionic 437–8
and literature 419
and orality 419
and scriptio continua 420–1
and text 417
literary criticism, ancient:
as academic subject:
approaches to 630
confronting theory with practice 630–1
cultural studies' influence 630
(p. 879) development of 628–9
origins 628
trends in 629
and Aristotle 632–3, 634–5
and conflicting attitudes towards poetry 631
Plato 631–2
and ‘correct expression’ (orthoepeia) 633–4
as dialectic between text and performance 632–4
and material culture 632
and modes of 633–4
ethical aspects 634–5
and performance 631, 632
and Plato 631–2
and problem-posing game 633
and reading 632
and social contexts 630
literature:
and cultural context 413
and Hellenistic culture 91–2
love:
in form of Eros 296–7
and friendship 296
and marriage 303
between men 296–7
pederasty 297–8
between men and women 299–300
conjugal love 299, 301
prostitutes 300
and philia 300–1
between women 298–9 see also personal relationships; sexuality
Lyceum of Aristotle 156, 535
lyric poetry 413–14
and ancient reception of 460–1
and anonymous collections 460
and authorship, challenges to notion of 457–8, 459
and biography 455–6, 461
and changes in study of 454
and creative writing 455
and discovery of new poems 462
and emerging orthodoxy on 457–8
and emotion 455
and epic poetry 457, 462–3
and first-person narratives 455
identity of ‘I’ 459–60
and fragmentary texts 461–2
and generic conventions 458
and intertextuality 458, 459
and literary evolution 455
and ‘lyric age’ 457
and lyric consciousness 456–7
and oral performance 456, 459
symposium 456, 460–1
and philology:
difficulties faced by 462
new poem finds 462
and poststructuralism 458
and publications on:
cultural influences 464
national distribution 463–4
and reappraisal of Hipponax 458–9
and scope of 454
and Snellian model of 454–5
Maccabean revolt 130, 131
Macedon 86, 89, 90, 91, 673, 728–9
magic 414–15
and astronomical magic 543–4
and beggar-priests 544
and binding spells 546–9
figurines 549
and causality 546
and cultural context 549–50
and curse tablets 546, 547–9
and definition of 541
and disability 548–9
and epilepsy 543
and Gorgias of Leontini 541–3
types of magic 542
and itinerant magicians 544
and Neoplatonism 538
and ostracism 548
and Plato 545–6
and purificatory theory of 542–3
and purifiers 545
and seers 544–5
manuscript studies:
and book conservation 747
and catalogues of manuscripts 748–9
and codicology 747, 753–5
and definition of 747
and discoveries of manuscripts 749
and International Congress of Greek Palaeography 748
and literature on 748
and origins and development of 747–8
and palaeography 747
and palimpsests 755–6
Archimedes Palimpsest 755, 756–7
and papyrology 747
(p. 880) and scripts:
informal 752
majuscules 750–1
minuscules 750, 751–2
reference works 750
regional varieties 752–3
visual aids 749–50 see also papyrology; textual criticism
markets, and the economy 218
marriage 301–3
and conjugal love 299, 301
and dissolution of 302–3
and love 303 see also personal relationships
Marxism, and postcolonialism 655–6
masculinity 688, 689–90 see also gender
materiality 19–28
mathematics 415
and chronological overview of 580–5
Apollonius of Perga 582–3
Archimedes 582
Aristarchus 582
Eutocius 584–5
fouth century bce 581–2
Hellenistic heyday 582–3
Neoplatonism 584
origins 580–1
Pappus 584
philosophy 584
Ptolemy 584
relationship with natural philosophy 583–4
and evolution of literature on 434
and Hellenic character of 590–3
and high philosophy 532
and philosophy 584, 592–3
and stability of genre 579
and stylistic overview of:
application of pure geometry 588
cross-generic texts 589
duality 586, 589–90
subject matter 587–8
surprise and uncertainty 588–9
textual style 586–7
use of lettered diagrams 585–6
maxims, and philosophy 525–6
mechanics, and evolution of literature on 434
medicine 414–15
and anatomy 560
and causes of symptoms:
corpuscular theories 561–2
double determination 558, 559
external 557–8
fragmented causality 559
internal 558–63
investigative techniques 560–1
physical determinism 558
and comparative study of culture 649–50
and corporeal interior 559–63
and dissection 560
and diverse approaches to 553
and Empiricism 562
and Enlightenment views of 555
critiques of 555
and epilepsy 543
and evolution of literature on 434
and Methodism 562
and music therapy 574
and new approaches to 555–6
and the pulse 561
and purificatory theory of magic 542–3
and recognizable approaches of 552
and regiment and self-mastery 559
and role of the divine 553, 555, 556–7
and role of the patient 557
and secular tradition 553
evidence for 553–4
and unfamiliarity of 552
and vivisection 560
Megara Hyblaia 241
memory, and the city 248, 255–6
foundation myths 248
places of:
construction of 248–53
history of 253–5
Memphis 87
mercenaries:
and economic impact of 219
and Hellenistic kingdoms 87
Messene 254
mind-body relationship 262–3
mobility, and Greek identity 352
modernity, and Hellenism 8, 11, 14–15
hybrid 25
monetary exchange, and ancient economy 220–1
monumental architecture 240
and Athenian Empire 67
and collective identity 248–53 see also architecture; urban landscape
mosaics 91
multicultural history 58–9
music 415
and centrality to Greek culture 569
(p. 881) and composition 575
and education 575
and ethics of 574–6
and influence of 576
and influence of other cultures 569–71
as multimedia art 569
and music therapy 574
and musical instruments 570
lyre/aulos antagonism 570
and Panathenaia festival 423
and performance contexts of 569
and reconstruction of 576
and theory of 571
acoustics 573
harmonics 571–3
influence of 574
Muslim culture 6
Mycenaean society, and collapse of 187–8
myths and mythology:
and adaptation of 679
and Anatolian influences 680–1
and Aristotle 684
and Athenian tragedy 681–2
and contents of 681
and definition of 678
and films 823–4
and fluidity of 684
and fossilization of 685
and functions of 682–3
and gender 681, 689
Hesiod 692–4
Homer 690–2
and Hellenistic culture 92
and initiation 681
and marginalization of 684
and modern study of 685
and mythography 685
and Near Eastern influences 679–80
and origins of 679
and personal relationships 682
and Plato 684
and relationship to ritual 683–4
and religion 678
in Roman period 682
and sarcophagi 682
and the sea 346
and theatre 682 see also religion
narrative, and novels 620–1
nationalism 25
nature (phusis):
and concept of 646–7
and nature/culture (phusis/nomos) dichotomy 645–6
Naxos, and remodelling of 241
Near East (ancient), and the Greeks 32–3
and Achaemenid Empire (520–321 bce) 39–43
and Assyrian Empire (750–612 bce) 33–6
and myths 679–80
and Neo-Babylonian and early Persian Empires (612–520 bce) 36–9
Nemean festival 379
Neo-Babylonian Empire (612–520 bce), and the Greeks 36–9
Neoplatonism:
and high philosophy 537–8
and mathematics 584 see also philosophy
novels 415–16
and assertion of cultural superiority 622
and centre/periphery relations 621–2
as cultural documents 624
as enigmatic category 619
as evidence of social practices 621
and extant examples of 617
and fragmentary texts 617
and gender 622
and identity 624
and intertextuality 621
and lack of Greek terminology for 618
and lack of performative context 618–19
and Latin examples 617
and narratology 620–1
and politics 624
and positioning against Roman Empire 622–3
and reading of 618
and religion 624
and scholarly opinion of 620
and sexuality 621, 624
and sophistic novels:
Achilles Tatius 623
Heliodorus of Emesa 623–4
Longus 623
and variation among 619, 624
and women 622
numismatics:
and coin inscriptions 711
and definition of 734
and die study 739–42
impact of 741
production methods 739–40
production sequences 740
publication of collections 741–2
(p. 882) and emergence of discipline 736–9
categorization methods 738–9
Eckhel's role 737
Head's role 738–9
Mionnet's role 737–8
national collections 738
Pellerin's role 737
photographic reproduction 739
publication of collections 738
Sestini's role 737
and future research on 744
and hoards 742–3
and origins of 734–6
coin collecting 735
interest in portraiture 735
interpretation 735–6
Renaissance 734–6
oligarchy, and the polis 191–2, 201
Olympic festival 379
Olynthus 245
opera, and Greek music 576
orality and oral traditions:
and epic poetry 443–7
Homeric Question 417
and foundation of literary traditions 418
and Herodotus 497
and interaction with literary traditions 419
and literacy 419
and lyric poetry 456, 459
and performance 417, 418
composition 418
epic and tragedy 423–6
Homeric poetry 418–19
and reading out loud 421–2, 426–7, 433
and recording of:
Greek alphabet 420
scriptio continua 420–1
and text 419
oratory:
and actors 506
and deliberative speeches 512
and democratic ideology 505–6
and elite speakers 506, 507
and epideictic speeches 513
and epigraphic record 515–16
and festivals 383–5
and importance of 505
and integrity of speaker 505–6
and legal cases 507, 511
litigants' social standing 511–12
supporting speakers 509, 510, 511, 513
and logographers (speech-writers) 509–11
clientele 511
and objections to written texts 436
and political influence 505
and rhetorical theory 513–15
Aristotle 514–15
flexibility in practice 513–14, 515
prescriptive nature of 514
and technical demands 506
and training in skills of 506–7
imitation 508–9
interest in 508
schools of 509
and treatises on 508
and unrepresentativeness of surviving speeches 512, 513 see also rhetoric
originality, and study of the past 639
ostracism 711
and Athenian democracy 200
and curse tablets 548
Oxford Hebrew Bible Project 781
Oxyrhynchus papyri 763, 768, 770
palaeography, see manuscript studies
palimpsests, and manuscript studies 755–6
Panathenaia festival 202, 394, 418, 422–3, 424, 425, 426, 569
Panhellenic games 89, 185, 365, 384 see also festivals
pantomimes, and myths 682
papyrology:
and accessibility of texts 763–4
technical advances 764–5, 766–7
and centrality of 763
and documentary papyrology 764
and editing and proofreading 765–6
technical advances 766
and focus of studies 764
and the Herculaneum papyri 767–70
and literary papyrology 764
and manuscript studies 747
and publication of new poem by Sappho 763 see also manuscript studies
textual criticism
pederasty 297–8, 311
and Achilles and Patroclus 298
and slavery 320 see also sexuality
peer groups:
and anthropological thought 282
and rites of passage 283
(p. 883) performance 413
and composition 418
and epic 423–6
and genres of poetry 426
and Homeric poetry 418–19
Panathenaia festival 423
and model texts 427–8
and orality 417, 418
foundation of literary traditions 418
Homeric Question 417
interaction with literary traditions 419
and reading out loud 421–2, 426–7, 433
and scripts 427–8
and text 419, 428–9
scriptio continua 420–1
and tragedy 422–6
performance theory, and the symposium 272
Pergamon 89, 355, 356, 434, 673
Peripatetics, and political theory 408
Persepolis 40, 41, 42, 43, 83
Persian Empire:
and Alexander the Great 82–3
and the Greeks 36–9
personal identity 260
and Greek analogues to debate about 261–4
contrasts between 263–4
essential human qualities 261–2
mind-body relationship 262–3
rationality 263
and notion of ‘person’ 261
and personal identity over time 264–6
and philosophical questions about 260–1
and social identity 266–8 see also identity
personal relationships 294
and friendship:
Achilles and Patroclus 295–6, 298
love 296
meaning of 294–5
and love:
in form of Eros 296–7
between men 296–7
between men and women 299–300
pederasty 297–8
between women 298–9
and marriage 301–3
conjugal love 299, 301
dissolution of 302–3
and myths 682
and philia 300–1
philology, see Greek language
philosophy:
and attitudes towards philosophers 519
and comparative study of culture 648–9
and eudaimonia (‘well-being’, ‘happiness’) 530–1
and high philosophy:
Aristotle 534–5
Epicureanism 535–6
institutions of 535
nature of 519–20
Neoplatonism 537–8
Plato 533–5
Presocratics 531–2
Socrates 533
Stoics 535, 536–7
and influence of Greek tradition 527
and literary forms 523
dialogues 523–4
fables 526
letters 524
poetry 524–5
proverbs and maxims 525–6
and low philosophy:
Cynics 520–3
Epicureanism 536
fables 526
literary forms 523–5
nature of 520
Nietzsche 520
proverbs and maxims 525–6
and mathematics 584, 592–3
and meaning of 518–19
Socrates 518
and texts 414
pilgrimage:
and spectatorship 381
and travel 355–6
piracy 344–5, 348
place, and places of memory 248
history of 253–5
poetry 415
and Hellenistic poetry:
Alexandrian values 598
Callimachus's Aetia prologue 598–9
contemporary relevance 597–8
continuity with past 601
elitism 599
Greek and non-Greek relations 603
identity 603–5
length and quality 598–9
production and reception of 600–1
refinement 599
relationship with earlier literature 600–2
representation of non-elites 599
representation of Ptolemaic court 602–3
(p. 884) stylistic developments 600
unity of 598
and philosophy 524–5
and the symposium 272, 275
political significance 273–4, 276–7 see also epic poetry; lyric poetry; tragedy
polis 183
and Aristotle 183, 188–9
and Athens 192, 194–6
and characteristics of 189–92
citizenry 191
customary order (nomoi) 189–90
democracy 191, 192
free males 190
maintaining stability 192
oligarchy 191–2, 201
political structure 190–2
tyranny 191, 192, 201
and civic institutions 197–8
emergence and development of 198–201
and economic performance 216–17
and places of memory:
construction of 249–53
history of 253–5
and population expansion 667–8
and religion 365
and rise of 187–9
and Sparta 192–4
and the symposium:
as part of public debate 277–8
poetry 273–4
significance within 272, 273, 277, 278–9
subversion 277
political sociology 672
political theory:
and Aristotle 406–8
government 407–8
and Cynics 408
and Epicureans 408
and individual-city relationship 401–2
and justice 402, 403
and origins of 401
and the Peripatetics 408
and Plato 403–6
Callipolis 403–4
Magnesia 405–6
philosopher-rulers 403–4
role of philosophy 404–5
and rhetoricians 402
and Socrates 402–3, 408
and sophists 402
and Stoics 408
positivism, and history 836–7
postcolonialism:
and attitudes towards Greece 653–4
and debate over ‘post’ prefix 654–5
and Hellenic studies:
impact of 656–8
impact on 658
and Herodotus, interpretation of 658–9
ambivalent ethnography 660–2
Scythian resistance 659
and Marxist historical materialism 655–6
and meaning of 655
and poststructuralism 655–6
and Roman cultural hegemony 655
and slavery 318
and theoretical tensions in 655–6
poststructuralism:
and gender 688, 689
and lyric poetry 458
and postcolonialism 655–6
Presocratic philosophy 531–2
Priene 243, 245
printing, and Renaissance Hellenism 158, 159–60
progress, and Graeco-Roman culture 335
prostitution 300, 312–13
proverbs, and philosophy 525–6
psychoanalysis:
and Aristotelian catharsis 805
and classical scholars' interest in:
Anglo-Saxon studies 807–8
Dodds, E. R. 807
France 806–7
indifference 806
and film theory 830
and Freud:
interpretation of Oedipus 802–3, 804, 808, 842
use of Greek cultural authority 803
use of Greek tragedy 803–4
and Hellenic studies 802
and reception theory 842
and study of women in antiquity 308
and tragedy 804–5
Ptolemaic dynasty 87
and assimilation to native divinities 88
and claims to divine status 88
Pythian festival 379
racism in antiquity 185, 337–8
and autochthony and pure lineage 334–5
and constitution and form of government 333–4
and definition of 330
(p. 885) and environmental determinism 331–2
and Greek view of foreigners 328, 329
and heredity and environmental determinism 333
and heredity of acquired characteristics 332–3
and imperialism 335, 336–7
and lack of Greek terminology for 329–30
and proto-racism 329
and rationalization of 330–1
and Roman view of foreigners 328–9
and slavery 336–7
and sources for 331
reading:
and ancient literary criticism 632
and reading out loud 421–2, 426–7, 433
and scriptio continua 420–1, 433
and silent reading 421, 433
reception studies:
and aesthetic judgements 838
and growth of 835
and Hellenic studies 835, 836, 838
dialogue of past and present 839–42
meaning of Hellenism 839–40
status within 839
and history 836–7, 842–3
and horizon of expectation 837–8
and literary studies 835, 836
and paradox of 842
and poetics of reception 838
and postcolonialism 658
and psychoanalysis 842
and tragedy 475–7
religion 185
and centrality of 371
and cross-cultural exchange 373–4
and epigraphic record 716, 717
and function of 366
and gender 372
and literary representation of 374–5
and local differences 366
and myths 678
and nature of 364–5
and novels 624
and origins of 373
and Panhellenic dimension of 365–6
and participation in 364
and perspectives on 368–71
bio-social-cultural 370
Cambridge School 369
comparative approach 369
holistic approach 371
interdisciplinary 368–9
Paris School 369–70
sacrifice 370–1
structuralism 369–70
and polis religion 365
shortcomings of model 367
and social and political contexts 371–2
and sources for 367–8
archaeological 367–8
epigraphic 368
literary 367
and theology 365, 366–7 see also myths and mythology
Renaissance, and Hellenism 6, 151, 152, 161–2
and Bruni 153–5
and Budé 160–1
and Castiglionchio the Younger 155–6
and the Catholic Church 156–7, 160
and classical revival 152
and East-West cultural contacts 156, 157
and Erasmus 160
and expansion of libraries 158
and fall of Constantinople 158
and Ficino 158–9
and Florence 150–1, 152–3, 155, 158–9
and Italian humanism 152
and Melanchthon 150–1
and numismatics 734–6
and Petrarch 150, 151, 152
and Platonic revival 158–9
and Poliziano 159
and printing 158, 159–60
and Salutati 152–3
and translations of Greek texts 152, 153–6, 157, 158–9
diffusion of 159–60
Elyot 815–16
rhetoric 414
and excellence 402
and historiography 414
and political theory 401
and Roman Hellenism 109 see also oratory
rites of passage:
and adolescents 284–5
and anthropological thought 282–3
and anthropopoiesis 291
and choral education for young girls 287–90
and homosexuality 285–6
and initiation rites 283
bio-social-cultural perspective on 370
ephebeia 286–7
myths 681
processes for young people 285–7
(p. 886) and myths 681
aetiology 290–1
narrative logic 290
and peer groups 283
and phases of 283
ritual, and myths 683–4
role theory 672
Rome and Roman Empire 5
and Athens 177–8
and attitudes towards foreigners 328–9
and conquest of Greek world 114
and continuity from Macedonian monarchy 178
and expansion of 86–7, 90
and influence of Greek culture 98–9, 100
as mediator of Greek culture 99, 178
and perspectives on the Greeks:
assumptions about 107
boundaries between 106
competition with Italic peoples 108–9
containment of other influences 107
cultural mediators 109
discrimination in cultural appropriation 107–8
Graecia capta (Horace) 103–5
Greek art collections 101
Hellenization and power 106
hybrid culture 109
intellectual appropriation 106–7
literature 102–3
Ovid 105
rhetoric 109
Virgil's Aeneid 100–1, 105
and prestige of Greek language 115, 116
and Roman Hellenism 115
anti-Romanism 119
apologists for Rome 119–20
archaic Greece 117–18
Athenian past 116–17
coexistence of Hellenism and Romanitas 123
conceptualizing imperial Hellenism 122–6
confinement to cultural sphere 121–2
cultural hybridity 125
identity 123–4, 125–6
imperial dimension of 120–2
multidimensional approach to tradition 118
and search for pre-Greek identity 99–100
Romiosyni 27
ruler cult 88, 251, 252, 367, 381
sacrifice:
and festivals 380
and religion 370–1
Samos 680
Sceptics, and personal identity over time 266
science:
and comparative study of culture 648
and evolution of literature on 434 see also mathematics
Scythia, and Herodotus 644–5, 659, 660–2
sea 185
and access to 346–7
and artistic representations of 343–4
and fishing 341–2, 343, 345–6
access to resources 347
regulation of 347
and Greek culture 340
and knowledge and perception of 341
and myth 346
and piracy 344–5, 348
and resources obtained from 343
and sea tenure 342, 347–8
and the seascape:
architectural features 344
definition of 340
fisherman's relationship with 345
sky 345
and sexuality 342–3
and socio-religious perspective on 340–1
and theoretical perspectives on 341, 342
and travel 353
and women 342
Sea Peoples 187–8
Second Sophistic 9, 114, 309, 447, 612, 619, 623, 839
seers, and magic 544–5
Seleucia 87
Seleucids 87
and claims to divine status 88
Selinus 241, 740
sexuality:
and Foucault's influence 309, 311
and gender 688, 689, 690
and growth of research on 310
and maritime activities 342–3
and myth of three sexes 296–7, 305–6
and novels 621, 624
and prostitution 300, 312–13
and sexual identity 184
and slavery 320–1
and ta aphrodisia 306 see also gender; homosexuality; pederasty
(p. 887) slavery 184, 316–17
as analogy 321–2
and anxiety about 317
and differences between slaves and free men 336
and Greek identity 318
and helots 319
and legacy of Greek antiquity 325
and naturalizing of 320, 335–6
and number of slaves 319
and overcoming absence of slaves' perspective 317
as process 320
and racism 336–7
and scholarship on:
analogical work 324
approach to 323
comparative approaches 324
division in 323
politics of 322–3
and sexual conduct 320–1
and slave revolts 324–5
and sources for slaves 318
and sources for study of 317–18
and ubiquity of 323
and varieties of enslavement 319–20
social exchange theory 671
social identity 184
and personal identity 266–8
and the symposium 184
social memory, and places of memory 249–53
history of 253–5
social network theory 672–3
sociology, and Hellenic studies 669–74
and approaches to sociology 669–70
and conflict theory 669, 671, 672
and definition of sociology 669
and economic sociology 671
and evolutionary theory 673–4
and historical sociology 670
and minimal scholarly interaction 670
and political sociology 672
and role theory 672
and social network theory 672–3
and status construction theory 672
and systems theory 673
and world-systems theory 673
sophists 116, 123, 295, 632, 633, 634
and excellence 402
and political theory 401
and slavery 321
Sparta:
and constitution of 193–4
and educational system 284–5
and Enlightenment views of 166–7, 168, 169, 170
and the Gymnopaedia 284–5
and helots 192, 193, 319
and institutional innovation 189
and invention of tradition 254–5
and nature of polis 192–4
and opposition to others 193
and women 193
spectatorship, and festivals 381
statuary 549
and magical figurines 549
status construction theory 672
stemmatic method, see textual criticism
stoas, and urban landscape 240–1
Stoics and Stoicism 185, 518–19
and characteristics of 537
and Cynic influence on 522
and four personae theory 267
and happiness 536, 537
and high philosophy 535, 536–7
and human nature 262
and mind-body relationship 262–3
and personal identity over time 266
and political theory 408
and rationality 263
structuralism:
and religion 369–70
and study of women in antiquity 308
substantivism, and economic sociology 671
Successors of Alexander (Diadokhoi) 87
and cult of Alexander the Great 88
sumposion, see symposium
sumptuary laws 193
Susa 4, 37, 40–1
symposium 184, 197
and archaeological investigation 725–6
as community apart 274
and disruptive character of 274–5
as elite event 273
and emergence of 271–2
and evidence of 272
and imagery of 272–3, 277
and performance and political ability 278
and performance theory 272
and physical setting of 271–2, 274, 277
and poetry 272, 275
lyric poetry 456, 460–1
political significance 273–4, 276–7
and the polis:
public debate about 277–8
significance within 272, 273, 277, 278–9
subversion 277
(p. 888) and social function of 272
and status of participants 275–6
Syracuse 49, 89
systems theory 673
Taras 49
temples, and urban landscape 238–40
Teos 251, 252
text:
and Greek alphabet 420
adoption of Ionic 437–8
and literacy 417
and model texts 427–8
and orality 419
and performance 419, 428–9
and reading out loud 421–2, 426–7
and scriptio continua 420–1
textual criticism 782–3
as art rather than science 778
and the Bible 773, 780–1, 783
and contaminated texts 779–80
as interpretive process 773–4, 783
and open traditions 779–80
and popular narrative 782
and scholarly commentaries 781
and scholia 781
and several ‘original’ versions 781–2
and the stemmatic method (‘Lachmann's method’) 774–7
Aelian's Historical Miscellany 777–8
examining the text (examinatio) 775–6
information about text (recensio) 774–5
mechanical recension 778
preparing the edition 776–7
problems with 778–81
and typical problems in 773
Thasos 49, 253
theatre:
and actors, representation of 485
and Athens 422
and civic/democratic ideology 202
and Greek identity 89
and performance 414
epic and tragedy 422, 425
and spectators 422
and state scripts 427–8 see also comedy; tragedy
theatres, and urban landscape 242
Thebes, and re-founding of 249
theurgy, and Neoplatonism 538
Thorikos, and theatre at 242
trade:
and inter-state connections 217–18
and Plato on impact of 211
tragedy:
and approaches to 469–70
reception 1950–80 period 469
reception 1980–2000 period 469–70
and Aristotle 423–6
and Athenian context 471–3
and centrality to Greek culture 475
and close reading of plays 473–4
and festivals 472–3
and films 827
and Freud's use of 803–4
and growth in academic attention to 477
and interdisciplinary approaches to 477
and myths 681–2
and origins of 470–1
and performance 422–3
stage 476, 477
throughout Greek world 474–5
as popular art form 804
and psychoanalysis 804–5
and reception studies 475–7
translation:
into Arabic 142–4
and Cicero on 811
and countertranslation 816
and ethics and politics of 818–20
and historical translation analysis 817
and meaning of 811–12
and mediating role of 811
and mediating the foreign 812–15
demarcation of foreignness 814
resistance to translations 814
theatrical productions 813
Victorian ‘classical burlesques’ 813
and norms and conventions 817
and paradox of 811, 814, 815
and reception of Greek literature 817
and the Renaissance 152, 153–6, 157, 158–9
diffusion of texts 159–60
Elyot 815–16
and reshaping of target culture 817–18
and retranslation 816
and scope of 818
and translatability 819–20
travel 185
and Athens, visitors to and from 391–2, 393, 398
accommodation 397–8
civic business 394
(p. 889) festivals 394
interactions with city residents 394–5
Ion of Chios 392–3
Plato 393
significance of 398–9
social range of 393–4
as tourist attraction 394–8
and cultural travel 354, 355
and education 356
and elite 353
and exploration 354–5
and land travel 353
and literary evidence for 353
and motives for 354
and myth and epic 352
and the Odyssey 352, 358
and perspectives on alien cultures 354–5
and pilgrimage 355–6
and practical aspects of 353–4
and sea travel 353
and travel writing 356–60
accounts of journeys 358–9
categories of 357
contrast with modern writing 356–7
factual texts 357
fictional accounts 358–9
historical accounts 359
influence of 360
as unexceptional activity 353
tyranny, and the polis 191, 192, 201
urban landscape:
and agoras 241, 242, 243–4
and architectural orders 239–40
and Athens 243–5
and characteristics of 243
and city walls 239
and fountain houses 242
and gymnasia 242–3
and Heraclides Creticus's description of 238
and ideology 245
and stoas 240–1
and temples 238–40
and theatres 242
and town planning 241
and variety of 245
urbanism, and rise of the polis 187–9
Vibius Salutaris, festival of 380, 381
vivisection 560
warfare 226
and Athenian innovations 230
and cultural impact of 231
and economic impact of 218–19
and evolution of 227–30
and Hellenistic warfare 227–8
and hoplite warfare 227, 229–30
hoplite reform theory 231–3
limits of 229
and political impact of 231–2
classical period 234
hoplite warfare 229–30, 231–3
and social impact of 231, 234–5
women:
and Aristotle 534, 690
and Athens 194
and choral education for young girls 287–90
and comedy 486
and Epicureans 536
and love between 298–9
and maritime activities 342
and novels 622
and Plato 401
and prostitution 300, 312–13
and religion 372
and Sparta 193
and study of in antiquity 306–8, 687–8
Foucault's influence 309
psychoanalytic theory 308
structuralist approach 308 see also gender
world-systems theory 673
writing:
and development of 432
and development of literate culture 433–5
historiography 435–6
and emergence of Greek literature 432
and functions of 432–3
and Greek alphabet 420
adoption of Ionic 437–8
and objections to 436–7
and scriptio continua 420–1, 433
Xanthos 253
Yamnāya, see Ionians