Abstract and Keywords
This article argues that there is a risk of whiggery, of making the rise of the classical polis sound somehow inevitable. This may be the result of complex interactions between society as a whole and the individuals and interest-groups of various kinds of which it is made up. After a brief introduction to the ecological and climatic conditions under which economic activity took place, the discussion considers inter-state connections and markets, warfare, and monetary exchange. These institutions were linked to various forms of state (especially the polis and Greek monarchies), as well as to types of agricultural organization (peasant farms, tenancies, and temple domains).
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