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date: 15 October 2019

(p. 760) Subject Index

(p. 760) Subject Index

absorptive capacity, and learning609
accountability:
and local and regional development partnerships220–1
and voluntary and community organizations177
acquisitions, and industrial districts52–3
action research730
and reflective intervening674–5
actor network theory285
actors, and networks129
added value, and local and regional development partnerships221–2
advertising industry, and Inter‐organizational projects232
advocacy, and voluntary and community organizations179, 180
Africa, and foreign aid458–9
age dependency652
agency theory, and risk343
agglomeration, and regional development480–1
airline industry, and strategic alliances96–7
alliances:
and challenges of664
and management of401–2
aluminium industry, and transaction cost theory348, 358
American Law Institute (ALI)516
analysing interconnected decision areas (AIDA), and problem structuring674
apparel markets42
appreciation, and visioning670
appreciative inquiry, and reflective intervening675
appropriability, and social capital584
Aspen Institute222
asset specificity:
and information technology service sourcing261, 263, 264
and transaction cost theory353, 356, 357
associational democracy223
Australia:
and collaborative service delivery378
and local and regional development partnerships207
and voluntary and community organizations182, 188
authoritarian personality, and social psychology of intergroup relations421–2
authoritarianism, and ethnocentrism422
automotive industry, and strategic alliances94, 97
bargaining transactions504–5
belief congruence theory, and social psychology of intergroup relations424
Benetton33, 51, 91
and light vertical integration47–8
and supply partnerships69
biotechnology industry:
and Inter‐organizational projects232
and network formation294–5, 592
and strategic alliances97, 105, 106
Boston (USA), and ‘Big Dig’233
boundaries, and social network analysis290–1
bounded rationality, and transaction cost theory342–3
Brenta industrial district45–6
British Academy of Management735
business, and local and regional development partnerships218
business groups, and the state454–6
buyer‐seller relationships:
and strategic alliances94
and supply chain management
assumptions of73
control fixation74–5
development of concept72–3
supplier management73–4
vantage‐point syndrome73–4
and supply networks62–3, 79–80
levels of analysis80–1see alsosupply relationships
(p. 761) calculativeness:
and detrimental effect of542
and early stage relationships537–8
as theoretical concept550
and transaction cost theory533, 534, 535
Cal(IT)291
Calligaris50
Canada:
and HIV/AIDS treatment378–9
and voluntary and community organizations187
capacity, organizational, and collaborative service delivery162–3
Carpi32
cascade strategies, and supplier management74
case management, and collaborative service delivery161, 164, 165
CFMI91
change529, 635–6
and concept of636
and conceptions of time650
age dependency652
process theories653–4
time as a metric650–2
and developmental change644
and dynamics637
and institutional theory640
and life‐cycles645–6
and networks654–5
and organization development641
and organizational inertia647
forces for stability648
learning disabled647–8
threat‐rigidity647
and organizational learning638
and population ecology639–40
and punctuated equilibrium646–7
and research on654–6
fragmentary nature of642
and resource dependency theory641–2
and strategic choice640–1
and temporality636, 637, 654
and transaction cost theory639see alsodynamics; evolution, Inter‐organizational
China:
and business groups455–6
and trust548
chronological pacing236–7
and Inter‐organizational projects250
constellation projects248
film industry242
multi‐party organizing246
network alliances244–5
citizens, and collaborative service delivery163–6
Civicus185, 195
civil society205
clusters, and industrial districts36
CMB106
coalitions, and voluntary and community organizations184
cognitive mapping, and problem structuring673
cognitive theory:
and cognitive distance610, 611, 615–18, 623
and competence610
and constructivist view of609
and firm boundaries611
and innovation610
and learning609
and organizational focus610–11
and situated action609
co‐governance119
collaboration:
and assumed benefits of371, 372
and challenges of664
and collaborative service delivery154
and competitive advantage368
and complexity of367
and conceptualizing nature of396, 404–5
analytical (typologies)398
identifying success/failure factors398–401
life cycles (phases/stages)396–7
and conflict432–3
and critical perspectives on367, 372–3
collaboration construction379–80
collaborative identities378–9
discourse376–7
future research380–3
power372–4
power dynamics374–6
and definition of366, 432
and disadvantages of372
and discourse376–8
collaboration construction379–80
collaborative identities378–9
and driving forces666–7
and dynamic nature of367
and functionalist assumptions371–2
and leadership434–5
and legitimacy370
and management of:
collaborative advantage theory405–6
conceptualizing nature of collaboration396–401, 404–5
future research407–8
(p. 762)
omissions from research406–7
prescriptions for collaboration401–4, 405
reflective practice405, 406
reorientation of research408–9
research on392–5
themes approach406
and motivations for720–1
and networks369–70
and obstacles to666–8
and policy problems120
and political nature of367
and power367, 368, 369–70, 371–2
collaborative empowerment562
critical perspectives on372–4
discourse effects376–7
dynamics of374–6, 570–1
functionalist view of372
multidimensional concept of375–6
‘power for’ concept562–3
‘power to’ concept562
problem definition376
sources of563–5
and problem solving370–1
and resistance382–3
and resource dependency theory368–9, 721
and restraining forces667
and social nature of367
and sources of613
and transaction cost theory721
collaborative advantage162
and theory of159, 405
collaborative service delivery28
and bottom‐up forms156
and case management161, 164, 165
and characteristics of150
and collaborative advantage162
and consequences of160–2
citizens' conditions163–6
claimed benefits160
difficulties in assessing160–1
organizational capacity162–3
state of research into161
unresolved issues166
and discourse of collaboration377–8
and forms of152–3
intensity of154
levels of service integration153–4
purpose153, 161
stages of relationship154–5
and ideas behind147
and implementation structures150–1
and methods of148
and motives behind155–6, 157
complexity156
legitimacy156–7
necessity156
reciprocity156
and networks148–9
and rationale for148, 149
and research on151–2
consequences152, 161
future research focus166–7
service partnerships152
unresolved issues159–60
and sustaining and enhancing157
governance158
management157
performance measurement157–8
social processes159
structural characteristics158
and terminology157
and theoretical perspectives on155
and voluntary and community organizations186–9
collaborative supply relationships62
collective action theory, and collaborative service delivery155
Comalco358
common interest, and network governance135
communities of practice610
community psychology434
community regeneration partnerships645
community studies, and social capital582, 584–5
comparative research729–30
competence:
and cognition610
and innovation608, 627–8
and knowledge609
and learning608, 627–8
competition:
and evolution of organizations322
and status differentiation323–4
competitive advantage:
and collaboration368
and social capital592
and trust546
Comprehensive Child Development Program (USA)165
(p. 763) computer industry:
and Inter‐organizational projects232
and strategic alliances97
conflict, and social psychology of intergroup relations418–19
and cognitive theories422–3
information processing422–3
social categorization423
and interpersonal research/theories423
belief congruence theory424
contact hypothesis424–5
social exchange theory423–4
and problems in applying to Inter‐organizational relations431
focus on conflict over collaboration431–3
focus on understanding over handling diversity433–4
leadership434–5
types of groups studies433
and psychodynamic theories420
authoritarian personality421–2
Freudian psychology420
frustration‐aggression hypothesis420–1
and realistic conflict theory426–7
and recent theorizing on429
norm violation theory429
self‐categorization theory429
social dominance theory429
system‐justification theory429
and relative deprivation theory425–6
and relevance for Inter‐organizational relations429–31, 435–6
and social identity theory427–9
conflict‐handling, and intervention678
and mediation678–9
and techniques679–80
construction industry, and Inter‐organizational projects232, 244–5, 247–9
constructivism, and evaluation693–4
consultancy services, and supply chain management71, 72
contact hypothesis, and social psychology of intergroup relations424–5
contexts, and Inter‐organizational relations (IOR)12–14
and historical context13–14
and macro‐level13
and micro‐level12–13
contingency theory, and Inter‐organizational relations7
contract fulfillment, and information technology service sourcing269–70
contracts502–3
and bargaining transactions504–5
and economic‐based perspectives509–11
and legal meaning of503
and legal perspectives515–18
determining legal enforceability516–17
neoclassical contract law518
relational contracts517–18
and loose use of term503
and management‐based perspectives511–12
breach of contract514–15
learning to contract513–14
substance of contracts513
trust or contract512–13
and psychology‐based perspectives508–9
and research on519
and sociology‐based perspectives505–8
and transaction cost theory348–9
and trust512–13, 546–7
convening, and intervention671
and feasibility assessment671–2
and representational issues672–3
and social ecology theory671
and techniques671–3
cooperation, and collaborative service delivery154
coordination:
and collaborative service delivery154
and information technology service sourcing269–70
and Inter‐organizational125–6
and Inter‐organizational projects231–2, 250
chronological pacing236–7
constellation projects247–9
entrainment‐based pacing237–8, 653
event‐based pacing237
multi‐party organizing245–7
network alliances244–5
relational embeddedness238–9
single projects242–4
structural embeddedness239–40
Copenhagen Centre208
Corning91, 94
credentials, and social capital587
crisis management, and multi‐party organizing245–7
Critical Management Studies (CMS)380
and benefits for managers381
and collaboration382
and engagement with managers380–1
and goals of381–2
and language382
(p. 764)
and meaning of381
and promotion of reflection382
and radical change382
critical theory372, 731
and collaboration367, 372–3
collaboration construction379–80
collaborative identities378–9
discourse376–7
future research380–3
resistance382–3
and power372–4, 565
power dynamics374–6
customer‐supplier relationships62
and buyer‐seller models62
and collaborative supply relationships62
and early research into63–6
and IMP interaction model66–7
and portfolio strategies62, 70–1
and supply chain management62, 71–5
and supply relationships62, 68–71
adaptation69
long‐term focus68–9
nature of suppliers68
reasons for using term68
supply partnerships69–70see alsosupply relationships
Dayton Hudson Corporation42
deadlines, and Inter‐organizational projects236–7
decision‐making:
and foreign policy460–1
and management research407–8
demand uncertainty, and Inter‐organizational projects235–6
density dependence, and evolution of organizations321–2
development partnerships (local and regional), seelocal and regional development partnerships
Diesel53
diffuse relations314
direct relations314
discourse:
and collaboration377–8
collaborative identities378–9
construction of379–80
and power376–7, 565
discrete contracts511
domain theory, and collaboration370
dual identity model432
dynamics529, 635–6
and change637
and concept of636–7
and forces for stability648
and interaction analysis643
path dependency643
time643
and learning disabled647–8
and life‐cycles643, 645–6
and linear perspective644
and narrative conception of643–4
and punctuated equilibrium646–7
and research on642, 656
and temporal patterns644
and threat rigidity647see alsochange
Eastern and Central Europe, and local and regional development partnerships207
economic geography473, 474, 493–4
and embeddedness481–2
and geographical scale473–4
and global production networks484–9
actor‐network analysis488
conceptual elements485–7
embeddedness487–8, 490–1
governance structures489
intellectual antecedents485
networks487–8
power490–1
spatiality489
value of approach489–91
and Inter‐organizational networks481–2
and Marxist radical approach475
and network analysis476–9, 491
characteristics of networks477–8
evolution of networks477
industrial districts476
inter‐firm relations477
limitations of478–9
local milieu476
power479
regional development479–81
sourcing/production strategy478
and places473
and regional development:
agglomeration480–1
institutional thickness481, 484
inter‐firm relations477
relational assets479–81
and relational networks, emergent power in482–4
and ‘relational turn’479, 482, 488
(p. 765)
and research on:
epistemological issues492
methodological issues492–3
ontological challenges491–2
and spatiality474
economic sociology, and social capital585
economics286
and contracts509–11
and evolutionary thinking316
and Inter‐organizational relations7–8
education, and collaborations in375
efficiency, and evaluation703–4
elections, and participation in447–8
embeddedness:
and definition of238
and economic geography481–2
and partner selection100–1, 106
and relational embeddedness238–9
and social capital585
and social network analysis290, 293, 697
employment, and psychological contracts508–9
empowerment557
and collaborative empowerment562
and participatory action research675
Empowerment Zones (USA)208
Enterprise Zones (UK)206
entrainment‐based pacing237–8, 653
and Inter‐organizational projects250
multi‐party organizing246, 247
single projects242–3
equilibrium317
equity, and evaluation700
equity joint ventures90–1
and transaction cost theory350–2, 355see alsojoint ventures
ethics, and management research408
ethnocentrism, and authoritarianism422
Eureka91
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development459
European Commission, and local and regional development partnerships207
European Group of Organization Studies735
European Union:
and local and regional development partnerships206–7
and single market33
EUVLLC91
evaluation530, 711
and analysis levels705–6
and approaches to696–7
diversity of696
and complexity of691–2
and costs of Inter‐organizational relations706–7
and formal procedures693
and formative693
and interrelationships between indicators705
and managing process707–8
and output indicators701–5
efficiency703–4
financial703
innovation702
non‐financial704
performance702–4
survival704
and paradigm choice:
constructivist693–4
positivist693–4
as path‐dependent process710
and practice‐based approaches694–5
and pressure for693
and process indicators699–701
fairness700
learning699
legitimacy700–1
power701
and rationale for692–3
evaluators' perspectives692–3
and research on729
collaborative evaluation709–10
experimental designs708
quasi‐experimental designs708–9
unhelpful methods709
and risk considerations707
and selection of indicators705
and structural indicators697–8
density698
multiplexity698
and summative693
event‐based pacing237
and Inter‐organizational projects250
constellation projects248
film industry242
multi‐party organizing246
network alliances244
evolution, Inter‐organizational313–14, 328–9
and change315, 639–40
and competition322
and density dependence321–2
(p. 766)
and development of evolutionary approach316–19
claims of318–19
and diffuse relations314
and direct relations314
and ecological theories323
and innovation/maintenance tension315
and Inter‐organizational exchange323
and Inter‐organizational fields320
and Inter‐organizational roles324–5
and legitimation321–2
and network dynamics325–8
influence326–7
selection326
and networks323
and organizational communities321
and organizational environments319–21
local interaction structures319
and organizational population320, 321
and research on329–30
and retention315, 317, 318–19
and selection315, 317, 318
and status differentiation323–4
and temporality637
and topics addressed by314–15
and variation315, 317, 318
exchange networks76
exchange relationships, and interactional model66–7
exchange theory, seesocial exchange theory
fairness, and evaluation700
fashion industry, and Inter‐organizational projects232
feasibility assessment, and convening671–2
FED Alliance106
Fed Ex94
Federal Drug Administration (FDA) (USA)237
federalism444
Fedon49–50
field‐net, and network tie formation295–6
film industry, and Inter‐organizational projects232, 242–4
financial services:
and Inter‐organizational projects232
and strategic alliances97
firm, resource‐based theory of284
firm network resource, and tie formation299
firm performance, and network effects303
firm survival:
and evaluation704
and network effects303
flexible production:
and Benetton's light vertical integration model47–9
and distribution and retail structure41–2
and industrial districts37
and marketing of goods41
Ford97
Fordism37
foreign aid458–9
foreign policy, and decision‐making models460–1
Foundation for Contemporary Research183
FoxMeyer257
frames, and networks129
France:
and Africa459
and retail structure42
multinational chains42–3
franchising:
and contracts513–14
and transaction cost theory349, 355, 359–60
Frankfurt School372
frustration‐aggression hypothesis, and social psychology of intergroup relations420–1
Fuji Film91
Fuji‐Xerox91
functionalism371
game theory, and collaborative service delivery155
games, and policy‐making and implementation129
General Electric91
general systems theory6
Geox33, 48, 49, 53
Germany:
and policy domains454
and voluntary and community organizations182
Global Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)33
global production networks484–9
and actor‐network analysis488
and conceptual elements485–7
and embeddedness487–8, 490–1
and governance structures489
and intellectual antecedents485
and networks487–8
and power490–1
and spatiality489
and value of approach489–91
(p. 767) globalization:
and regional development480
and voluntary and community organizations185
Goodna Service Integration Project (Australia)188
Goodwill Industries185
governance:
and collaborative service delivery158
and innovation608, 609–10, 612, 614–15, 627–8
and Inter‐organizational relations12, 722
and learning608, 627–8
and local and regional development partnerships220–1
and networks119, 120–1
and relational governance545–6
governance inseparability272
governance networks127–8
and common interest135
and limitations of226
and local and regional development partnerships222–4
and management of130
effects of134–5
goal structure131
management activities131–2
power and authority131
role of public actors135–6
stakeholders136
strategies132–4
and power443–4
and representative democracy128, 135
and research on122, 128
government:
and network society119
and voluntary and community organizations176, 178–9, 185–9
blurring of public/non‐profit sectors192–3
collaboration186–9
types of relationship with185–6
group‐think, and social capital588
Habitat for Humanity International185
healthcare:
and strategic alliances98
and voluntary and community organizations181–2
hierarchy:
and challenges to222
and transaction cost theory343, 344
history286
hollow state126, 147, 453
Honeywell106, 515
hub and spoke networks, and industrial districts39, 52
human capital585
Hurricane Katrina246
hybrids, and transaction cost theory353, 354–5
identity:
and collaborative discourse378–9
and social capital587–8
Ikea91
implementation structures, and collaborative service delivery150–1
Inditex46–7
individualization, and network society119
industrial districts27, 31
and advantages of31–2, 36
evidence challenging36–7
and changes in33
and characteristics of31–2
and distribution and retail structure41–2
and economic geography476
and flexible production37
and future of54
and leading firms32–3, 51–4
acquisitions52–3
characteristics of34
forward integration43, 45, 47–9
geographical expansion39–40
hub and spoke networks52
innovation53
light vertical integration47–9, 52
linking manufacturing and sales49–50
marketing43
networks33–4, 39, 51–2
new organizational structure51
organizational complexity37–8
stability of entrepreneurial cadre54
and learning40
and limitations of32, 53
and marketing41
and networks32
and organizational isomorphism38
and organizational uniformity37
and outsourcing40, 46
and pressures on54
and social homogeneity37
and threats to40
and transformation of network relations45–6
and vertical integration:
Benetton's model47–9
Chandler's theory43–4
transaction costs theory44–5
(p. 768) industrial dynamics71
industrial marketing and purchasing284
Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group (IMP)62
and interactional model66–7
and networks77, 81, 82
industrial networks76
industrial organization284
inertia, organizational647
and forces for stability648
and learning disabled647–8
and threat rigidity647
influence:
and network dynamics326–7
and social capital587
information technology service sourcing (ITSS)258, 261
and buyers' role in contract fulfillment269–70
contract management269–70
service delivery270
and capability requirements264–6
and coordination269–70
and decision‐making process266–7
and negotiation process267–8
and outcomes of271–2
influence on future deals272
and path dependency271, 272
and research on258, 264, 266, 267, 268, 270, 272
and sellers' role272–3
and transaction cost theory261–4
asset specificity261, 263, 264
and uncertainty263–4, 268see alsotechnology services
information transfer, and social capital594–5
Inner City Partnership Programme (UK)206
innovation529–30
and cognitive distance610, 611, 615–18, 623
and competence608, 627–8
and evaluation702
and exploitation607–8
and exploration607–8
and external relationships607, 608
and governance608, 609–10, 612, 614–15, 627–8
and industrial districts53
and inter‐firm relationships608
and national innovation systems608
and network effects302
and networks618–20
density and strength of ties618–19, 621–5
interaction effects625
network structure620–1, 625
and open innovation607
and organizational culture610
and organizational focus610–11
and regional innovation systems608
and relational risk612–13
and research on626
competence and governance627–8
dimensions of variety626–7
future research628–9
shortcomings in627, 728–9
triads628–9
and social capital592
cognitive social capital593
and sources of615–18
cognitive distance between firms615–18
heterogeneity615
and supply partnerships70
and transaction cost theory359
innovation networks79
institutional entrepreneurship, and intervention682
and institutional theory682–3
techniques683
institutional theory284
and change640
and collaborative service delivery155
and institutional entrepreneurship682–3
and local and regional development partnerships223–4
and partner selection103–4
institutions:
and definition of339
and diversity of339–40
and institutional thickness481, 484
and transaction cost theory341–2
and trust538–9, 543–4
national differences548
intellectual capital, and social capital581
intellectual property rights, and contracts513, 515
interaction model, and buyer‐seller relationships66–7
Inter‐American Development Bank (IDB)459
intergovernmental relations, and governance networks127
interlocking directorates, and tie formation298
internal brokering, and intervention680
and establishing brokers681–2
and power bridging682
and social network theory680–1
and techniques681–2
international development partnerships26
(p. 769) international financial institutions (IFIs)458–9
International Labour Organization (ILO), and industrial districts40
International Monetary Fund (IMF)452, 458
international relations, and network analysis456–7
Inter‐organizational entities (IOEs)4, 25
and distinguishing kinds of25–6
Inter‐organizational projects29, 249–51
and characteristics of232
and definitions of234–5
and flexibility236
and increasing use of231–2
and project as unit of analysis234, 235
and project ecology240
and social embeddedness233, 238–40, 248–9, 250
relational embeddedness238–9, 243, 245, 248–9
structural embeddedness239–40, 243–4, 245, 246–7, 249, 250
and temporal embeddedness233, 236
chronological pacing236–7, 242, 244–5, 246, 248, 250
entrainment‐based pacing237–8, 242–3, 246, 247, 250
event‐based pacing237, 242, 244, 246, 248, 250
and temporary nature of232–3
and theory of232
and trust249–50
and types of:
constellation projects247–9
multi‐party organizing245–7
network alliances244–5
single projects242–4
and uncertainty:
demand uncertainty235–6
social embeddedness238–40
temporal embeddedness236–8
transactional uncertainty236
Inter‐organizational relations (IOR):
and aim of research9
and conditions for being a field of enquiry:
coherence735
core concepts733–4
dialogue and mutual learning734
paradigm734–5
and core concepts9–10
dimensions and attributes of contexts12–14
dimensions and attributes of organizations10–11
dimensions and attributes of processes14–15
dimensions and attributes of relationships11–12
and fragmentation of731
and future research on:
empirical manifestations723–5
future research720
governance722
perspectives726–7
points of convergence720–3
strategies and methodology729–31
topics727–9
units of analysis721–2
and manifestations of25, 723–5
definitions of723–4
formation of724–5
and meaning of4
and motivations for participation720–1
and networks7, 721–2
and organization science735–6
as emerging sub‐field of736
and origins of research into6–9
and perspectives on5, 726–7
and scope of5–6
and ‘silo‐ed’ research731–3
and social network analysis304–7
and specialization within731
and terminology4–5
Inter‐organizational relationships (IORs)
and content of11–12
and dimensions and attributes of11–12
and diversity of4
and governance mechanisms12
and interactive relationships11
and non‐interactive relationships11
and structure of12
Inter‐organizational theory, and customer‐supplier relationships66
intervention strategies, and supplier management74
interventions530, 684
and application of techniques683–4
and conflict‐handling678
mediation678–9
techniques679–80
and convening671
feasibility assessment671–2
representational issues672–3
social ecology theory671
techniques671–3
and definition of665
and institutional entrepreneurship682
institutional theory682–3
techniques683
(p. 770)
and internal brokering680
establishing brokers681–2
power bridging682
social network theory680–1
techniques681–2
and justification for668
and obstacles to collaboration666–8
driving and restraining forces666–7
and origin of665
and problem structuring673
analysing interconnected decision areas674
cognitive mapping673
multi‐attribute utility theory673–4
techniques674
and process design676
techniques677–8
theoretical rationale676
and reflective intervening674
appreciative inquiry675
empowerment675
joint diagnosis675
organization development/action research674–5
and research on684
and visioning668–70
social ecology theory670
techniques670–1
Ireland:
and local and regional development partnerships207
and voluntary and community organizations182, 187
isomorphic theory, and organizational behaviours38
Italy480
and contracts507
and international investment in54
and retail structure42see alsoindustrial districts
Japan:
and contracts506–7
and strategic alliances93
and trust548
JC Penney42
JESSI91
joint diagnosis, and reflective intervening675
joint ventures27–8
and definition of91
and dissolution of107
and equity joint ventures90–1
and evolution of643–4
and frequency of93–4
and learning104, 105–6
and motives behind95–8
and partner selection:
comparative advantage100
contexts101
embeddedness perspective100–1, 106
institutional approaches102
justice theory102–3
networks101
prior relationships101–2
requirements of good partner103–7
resource leverage100
search for partner106–7
task/partner criteria99–100
theoretical understanding of98–103
Journal of Supply Chain Management72
justice theory:
and alliances/joint ventures102–3
and evaluation700
Kmart42
knowledge721
and competence609
and constructivist view of609
and situated action609see alsolearning
knowledge transfer, and social capital594–5
Kodak261
Kriakatte (Indian NGO)195
labour market, and psychological contracts508–9
Laura Ashley94
leadership, and collaboration434–5
leading firms, and industrial districts32–3, 51–4
and acquisitions52–3
and characteristics of34
and forward integration43, 45, 47–9
and future of54
and geographical expansions39–40
and hub and spoke networks52
and innovation53
and light vertical integration47–9, 52
and linking manufacturing and sales49–50
and marketing43
and networks33–4, 39, 51–2
and new organizational structure51
and organizational complexity37–8
and stability of entrepreneurial cadre54
(p. 771) learning529–30
and absorptive capacity609
and alliances/joint ventures104, 105–6
and change638
and cognition609
and cognitive distance610, 611, 615–18, 623
and competence608, 627–8
and contracts513–14
and evaluation699
and external relationships607
and governance608, 627–8
and industrial districts40
and inter‐firm relationships608
and networks618–20
density and strength of ties618–19, 621–5
interaction effects625
network structure620–1, 625
and organizational culture610
and organizational focus610–11
and relational risk612–13
and sources of615–18
cognitive distance between firms615–18
heterogeneity615
learning networks79
legal theory:
and contracts515–18
determining legal enforceability516–17
neoclassical contract law518
relational contracts517–18
legitimacy527
and collaboration370
and collaborative service delivery156–7
and definition of700
and evaluation700–1
and evolution of organizations321–2
and networked governance222–4
life‐cycles:
and dynamics643, 645–6
and management of collaboration396–7
local and regional development partnerships29, 203–4
and accountability220–1
and advantages of215
limited evidence for221–2, 226
and building partnerships216
requirements for217
and concerns about effectiveness204
and dimensions of214–15
and disadvantages of215–16
and European Union206–7
and forms of211–12
ideal types213
partner organizations and interests213–14
remits and responsibilities209
resources210
spatial scale210
as global norm226
and governance220–1
and institutional perspective223–4
and management of219–20
performance measurement220
and neoliberalism224–5
and networked governance222–3
and origins and history of204–9
equality of partners205
European Union206–7
extent of establishment208–9
policy transfer207
political economy context205–6
traditional collaboration204–5, 223
United Kingdom206–7
United States207–8
and outcomes of221–2
and partner inequalities/involvement217–19
business218
community organizations218–19
local government217
non‐governmental organizations219
public agencies218
trade unions218
and rise and limits of222–5
and United Kingdom206–7
and United States207–8
Local Strategic Partnerships (UK)219
LogoLink181, 195
London480
longitudinal research730
Loro Piano48
Luxottica33, 49
LVMH42, 43
macroculture233
Madagascar183
management:
and collaborative advantage405–6
and conceptualizing nature of collaboration396, 404–5
analytical (typologies)398
identifying success/failure factors398–401
life cycles (phases/stages)396–7
and contracts511–12
breach of514–15
learning to contract513–14
(p. 772)
substance of513
trust or contract512–13
and literature on391
and local and regional development partnerships219–20
and meaning of390–1
and networks63, 82, 130
effects of management of134–5
goal structure131
management activities131–2
power and authority131
role of public actors135–6
stakeholders136
strategies132–4
and prescriptions for collaboration401, 405
alliance management401–2
competences and behaviours402–3
guidelines403–4
network management402
tools and techniques404
and reflective practice405, 406
and research on395
classification of392–3
future research407–8
methodologies393
omissions from406–7
reorientation of approach408–9
underlying theories392, 393–4
and themes approach406
and voluntary and community organizations191–2
marketing:
and changes in retail structure42–3
(p. 773)
and industrial districts41
leading firms43
and mass production41
and vertical integration41
markets, as role structures314
Marks and Spencer, and supply partnerships69–70
mass production, and marketing41
Mazda97
MCC91
McDonalds360
mediation:
and conflict‐handling678–9
and techniques679–80
mental health:
and collaborative service delivery164, 165, 166
critical perspective on373
and voluntary and community organizations181–2
mergers and acquisitions26
and financial services industry97
methodology, and future research729–31
Mexico, and local and regional development partnerships207
micro‐politics567
Modena33
moral hazard510
motivation, and management research408
multi‐attribute utility theory, and problem structuring673–4
mutual dependency, and networks129
NASA106, 514
National Coal Policy Project (NCPP)375
National Incident Management System (USA)246–7
national innovation systems608
NEC106
negotiation process:
and information technology service sourcing267–8
and social exchange theory424
and trust542
neoliberalism, and local and regional development partnerships224–5
network society118–19
and effects of119
and individualization119
network theory, and collaborative service delivery155
networks28
and analysis of139–40
actor analysis137
analysis levels80–1
game analysis137–8
handling analytical steps140–1
network analysis138
and change654–5
and collaboration369–70
and collaborative service delivery148–9
and definitions76–7
and density of698
and dynamics of303–4
evolution of organizations325–8
influence326–7
selection326
and economic geography476–9
and evolution of organizations323, 325–8
and factors affecting formation591
and governance mechanisms119, 120–1
and hub and spoke networks39
and IMP network model77, 81, 82
and industrial districts32
leading firm networks33–4, 39, 51–2
transformation of relations45–6
and innovation618–20
density and strength of ties618–19, 621–5
interaction effects625
network structure620–1, 625
and Inter‐organizational relations7, 721–2
and learning618–20
density and strength of ties618–19, 621–5
interaction effects625
network structure620–1, 625
and loose use of concept77
and management of130, 402
effects of134–5
goal structure131
management activities131–2
power and authority131
role of public actors135–6
stakeholders136
strategies132–4
and managing in63, 82
and multiplexity of698
and network effects302–3
firm performance303
firm survival303
innovation302
and partner selection101, 294–7, 327
and performance592–3
and political relations442–3
business groups454–6
foreign aid458–9
international relations456–7
participation in elections447–8
policy domains452–4
social capital450–2
social movements448–50
and relationships75–6
and research on725
and service delivery and implementation125–7
and social network analysis138
and sources of power:
governance networks443–4
policy domain networks446–7
power structure networks444–5
resource dependence networks445–6
social capital networks445
and strategic alliances94
and supply networks62–3, 79–80
and transaction cost theory352
and types of77–9
and voluntary and community organizations188, 193–4see alsogovernance networks; policy networks; service delivery and implementation; social network
analysis; ties, and networks
New Deal for Communities (UK)206, 219
new institutional economics, and customer‐supplier relationships66
New Institutionalism535, 543
and trust543–4
New Labour (UK), and neoliberalism225
New Public Management130
and networks118
New Right206
New Zealand:
and local and regional development partnerships207
and voluntary and community organizations182, 188
Nike94
non‐governmental organizations (NGOs):
and collaboration368
and globalization185
and intermediary NGOs185, 191
and international impact of190–1
at international level181
and local and regional development partnerships219
and relationships between Northern and Southern185, 191
and transnational coalitions457see alsovoluntary and community organizations
Non‐Profit Consortium (NPC)195
nonprofit organizations, seevoluntary and community organizations
norm violation theory, and social psychology of intergroup relations429
Norway, and local and regional development partnerships207
Oglebay Norton Co v Armco Inc (USA, 1990)518
Olympic Games (Sydney 2000)375
OneWorld97
open innovation607
open systems theory556
operations management (OM), and supply chain management72
opportunism, and transaction cost theory342–3
organization development:
and change641
and reflective intervening674–5
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and local and regional development partnerships207
(p. 774) organization science283, 285
and Inter‐organizational relations735–6
organization theory, and evolutionary thinking316–17
organizational culture610
Organizational Development (OD)404
organizational learning, and change638see alsolearning
organizational psychology434
outsourcing:
and industrial districts40, 46
and strategic alliances94
partner selection, and alliances/joint ventures527
and comparative advantage100
and contexts101
and embeddedness perspective100–1, 106
and institutional approaches102
and justice theory102–3
and networks101, 327
embedded tie formation294–7
and prior relationships101–2
and requirements of good partner103–7
and research on108
and resource leverage100
and search for partner106–7
and social capital590
and task/partner criteria99–100
and theoretical understanding of98–103
partnerships225–6
and challenges of664
and discourse of collaboration377–8
and empowerment557
as global norm226
and governance networks127–8
and obstacles to666–8
and supply relationships69–70
path dependency:
and change643
and definition of710
and evaluation710
and information technology services271, 272
performance:
and age dependency652
and evaluation702–4
and small world networks595
and social capital591–5
cognitive social capital593
contingency factors595–6
information benefits594–5
network position592–3
relational attributes593
reputation593
resources593–4
performance measurement:
and collaborative service delivery157–8
and difficulties with161
and local and regional development partnerships220
pharmaceutical industry, and strategic alliances105
Piaggio91
Piquadro53
PixTech106
points of power568, 570
policy communities124
policy making and implementation:
and analysis of139–40
actor analysis137
game analysis137–8
handling analytical steps140–1
network analysis138
and common interest135
and governance networks127–8
research on128
and the hollow state126, 147, 453
and network management130
effects of134–5
goal structure131
management activities131–2
power and authority131
role of public actors135–6
stakeholders136
strategies of132–4
and networks118–19, 120, 128–30
future research141
networked governance222–4
types of121–3
and policy domains452–4
definition of452
and policy networks122–4, 446–7
definition of452
and service delivery and implementation125–7see alsocollaborative service delivery
policy networks28, 118
and core actors124
and definition of452
(p. 775)
and policy communities124
and policy domains452–4
and policy‐making122–4
and research on122–4
actor interdependency125
closed character of125
sector culture125
policy transfer, and local and regional development partnerships207
political relations, Inter‐organizational441–2, 463–4
and business groups and the state454–6
and foreign aid458–9
and international relations456–7
and micro‐politics567
and networks442
and participation in elections447–8
and policy domains452–4
and power:
dynamics of442–3
governance networks443–4
policy domain networks446–7
power structure networks444–5
resource dependence networks445–6
social capital networks445
and research on728
methodological issues460–3
personal networks462
rational actor assumption460–1
and social capital450–2
and social movement organizations448–50
and theoretical approaches to442–3
population ecology:
and change639–40
and organizational survival704
portfolio models, and supply relationships62, 70–1
Portugal, and local and regional development partnerships207
positional embeddedness, and network tie formation296
positivism, and evaluation693–4
post‐structuralism, and power565
Poverty3programme (EU) 207, 218
power528–9
and bargaining power561, 563–4
and centrality of573
and collaboration367, 368, 369–70, 371–2
collaborative empowerment562
critical perspectives on372–4
functionalist view of372
power dynamics374–6
‘power for’ concept562–3
‘power over’ perspective560–1
‘power to’ concept562
problem definition376
and critical theory372–4, 565
power dynamics374–6
and definition of483, 555
and discourse376–7, 565
and dynamics of442–3, 570–1
and economic geography:
network relations479
relational networks482–4
as emergent attribute484
and evaluation701
and Inter‐organizational settings for research on557–8
commercial contexts558
community empowerment557
policy evaluation557
public or community sector relationships558
and macro‐power566
perceptions of power569
power dynamics570–1
and micro‐power566–8
perceptions of power569
points of power568
power dynamics570–1
and multidimensional concept of375–6
and network power558
and operationalization of571–3
management of power571–2
understanding sources of572–3
and perceptions of568–9
and policy‐making120
and power balance558
and power infrastructure569
and power tactics567
and presumptions about use of560–3
‘power for’ perspective562–3
‘power over’ perspective560–1
‘power to’ perspective561–2
as relational concept483, 555
and research on:
diversity of559
future research574, 728
integration of559–60
paucity of558, 566–7
similarities of559
and resource dependency theory445–6, 556–7, 701
interdependence556–7
and significance of555–6
(p. 776)
and sources of563–6
discourse565
governance networks443–4
importance imbalance564
need imbalance563–4
network position565
points of power568, 570
policy domain networks446–7
power structure networks444–5
resource dependence networks445–6
sanctions564, 566
social capital networks445
structural position564–5
and theoretical perspectives on557
power bridging682
power dynamics442–3, 570–1
power structure networks444–5
Prato32
prejudice:
and authoritarian personality422
and information processing422–3
price system, and transaction cost theory343–4
principal agent theory, and collaborative service delivery155
private sector, and voluntary and community organizations184–5
problem solving, and collaboration370–1
problem structuring, and intervention673
and analysing interconnected decision areas674
and cognitive mapping673
and multi‐attribute utility theory673–4
and techniques674
process design, and intervention676
and techniques677–8
and theoretical rationale676
process theories, and conceptions of time653–4
processes, and Inter‐organizational relations (IOR)14–15
and macro‐level14
and micro‐level14–15
professional standards, and policy networks125
psychological contracts508–9
psychology:
and contracts508–9
and Inter‐organizational relations417–18see alsosocial psychology of intergroup relations
public sector:
and Inter‐organizational projects232
and public management revolution147
and strategic alliances98see alsocollaborative service delivery
public‐private partnerships26, 119
punctuated equilibrium, and dynamics646–7
purchasing and supply management (PSM), and supply chain management72
quantitative analysis730
Rank‐Xerox91
rational choice theory, and trust534, 539–41
realistic conflict theory418
and Inter‐organizational relations431
and social psychology of intergroup relations426–7
reciprocity:
and collaborative service delivery156
and performance593
and social capital584
Recombitant Capital514
reflective intervening674
and appreciative inquiry675
and empowerment675
and joint diagnosis675
and organization development/action research674–5
reflective practice, and management of collaboration405, 406
regional development:
and agglomeration480–1
and economic geography, relational assets479–81
and institutional thickness481, 484
regional innovation systems608
regional production systems32see alsoindustrial districts
relational assets, and regional development479–81
relational contracts517–18
and trust544
relational embeddedness:
and Inter‐organizational projects238–9, 250
constellation projects248–9
network alliances245
single projects243
and network tie formation295
and social network analysis293
and tie termination300
relational governance, and trust545–6
(p. 777) relative deprivation theory, and social psychology of intergroup relations425–6
reliability, and intentional reliability613–14
representative democracy, and governance networks128, 135
reputation:
as network effect614
and performance593
research and development, and strategic alliances105
resistance, and collaboration382–3
resource dependency theory284
and change641–2
and collaboration368–9, 721
and Inter‐organizational relations7
and networks129
and organizations442
and power445–6, 556–7, 701
interdependence556–7
retailing:
and Italy42
and multinational chains42–3
retention, and evolution of organizations315, 317, 318–19
risk527
and evaluation707
and relational risk612–13
and tie formation298
and transaction cost theory343
and trust536
sanctions, and power564, 566
Scandinavia, and local and regional development partnerships207
Sears42, 49
sector politics, and policy networks125
selection:
and evolution of organizations315, 317, 318
and network dynamics326
self‐categorization theory, and social psychology of intergroup relations429
self‐interest, and trust534
Sematech91
semiconductor industry, and strategic alliances97
service delivery and implementation:
and coordination125–6
service industry, and strategic alliances98
service‐exchange relationships29
Silicon Valley54, 480, 505
Single Regeneration Budget Challenge Fund (UK)206
Sky Team97
Slovenia, and local and regional development partnerships207
small world structures:
and performance595
and tie formation297–8
Snecma91
social capital529
and appropriability584
and benefits of580
and bonding ties586
and bridging ties586
and community studies582
and conceptual power of581
applications582
and core proposition about582
and definition of445, 451, 581–2
and effects of587–8
beneficiaries of588
identity reinforcement587–8
influence587
information587
social credentials587
as social liability588
and embeddedness585
and evolution of596–7
and forms of586–7
cognitive587
relational586
structural586
and Inter‐organizational entities:
evolution of relationships590–1
factors affecting network formation591
participants589–90
partner selection590
and levels of analysis597–8
and multiple dimensions of582–3
and network formation294–5
and performance591–5
cognitive social capital593
contingency factors595–6
information benefits594–5
network position592–3
relational attributes593
reputation593
resources593–4
and political relations450–2
and reciprocity584, 593
and research on582
features of582–3
future direction598–9, 729
(p. 778)
and social network analysis290, 292–3
as source of power445
and theoretical foundations583–6
community studies584–5
complexity of583
economic sociology585
neo‐capital theories585–6
social exchange theory583–4
social networks584
social categorization, and social psychology of intergroup relations423
social creativity432
social dominance theory, and social psychology of intergroup relations429
social ecology theory:
and convening671
and visioning670
social embeddedness:
and Inter‐organizational projects233, 238–40, 250
constellation projects248–9
multi‐party organizing246–7
network alliances245
single projects243–4
and trust534, 541–3, 550–1
social exchange theory:
and collaborative service delivery155
and social capital583–4
and social psychology of intergroup relations423–4
social identity theory418
and Inter‐organizational relations431
and social psychology of intergroup relations427–9
social legitimation, and density dependence theory321–2
social movements:
and network society119
and networks448–50
and transnational networks457
social network analysis138, 289–90
and actor relationships290, 291
dyadic ties291
structure of291–2
and actors in290
and boundary specification290
nominalist strategy290–1
realist strategy291
and embeddedness290, 293, 697
relational embeddedness293
structural embeddedness293
and internal brokering680–1
and Inter‐organizational relations7, 304–7
and political actors442
and research on725
and social capital290, 292–3, 584see alsonetworks; ties, and networks
social psychology of intergroup relations418–19
and cognitive theories422–3
information processing422–3
social categorization423
and conflict418–19
and definitions:
group419, 420, 427
ingroup419
intergroup behaviour419, 427
intergroup relations419
outgroup419
social psychology418
and interpersonal research/theories423
belief congruence theory424
contact hypothesis424–5
social exchange theory423–4
and perceptions of power569
and problems in applying to Inter‐organizational relations431
focus on conflict over collaboration431–3
focus on understanding over handling diversity433–4
leadership434–5
types of groups studies433
and psychodynamic theories420
authoritarian personality421–2
Freudian psychology420
frustration‐aggression hypothesis420–1
and realistic conflict theory418, 426–7
and recent theorizing on429
norm violation theory429
self‐categorization theory429
social dominance theory429
system‐justification theory429
and relative deprivation theory425–6
and relevance for Inter‐organizational relations429–31, 435–6
and social identity theory418, 427–9
social solidarity, and social capital587–8
socio‐cultural evolution317
sociology286
and contracts505–8
solidarity, and social capital587–8
South Africa459
and voluntary and community organizations183
Spain, and local and regional development partnerships207
(p. 779) stakeholders, and governance networks136
Star97
state, the:
and business groups454–6
and the hollow state126, 147, 453
and neoliberalism224
status, and evolution of organizations323–4
stereotyping422
and information processing422–3
stock markets, and strategic alliances94
strategic alliances27–8
and buyer‐supplier relationships94
and definition of91–2
and dissolution of107
and dissolution rates93
and evolution of643–4
and frequency of93–4
and learning104, 105–6
and motives behind95–8
and multilateral relationships91, 94
and networks94
and partner diversity91
and partner selection:
comparative advantage100
contexts101
embeddedness perspective100–1, 106
institutional approaches102
justice theory102–3
networks101
prior relationships101–2
requirements of good partner103–7
resource leverage100
search for partner106–7
task/partner criteria99–100
theoretical understanding of98–103
and research on108
and transaction cost theory352
strategic management:
and change640–1
and trust546
strategic networks79
strategy284–5
structural embeddedness:
and evaluation697
and Inter‐organizational projects239–40, 250
constellation projects249
multi‐party organizing246–7
network alliances245
single projects243–4
and network tie formation295
and social network analysis293
and tie termination300–1
Structural Funds (EU)207
structuration theory:
and collaborative service delivery155
and trust535, 544–5
structuring, and Inter‐organizational projects235
supplier management, and supply chain management73–4
supply chain management62, 71–5
and assumptions of73
and control fixation74–5
and development of concept72–3
and supplier management73–4
and vantage‐point syndrome73–4
supply networks62–3, 79–80
and levels of analysis80–1
supply partnerships69–70
supply relationships62, 68–71
and adaptation69
and collaborative supply relationships62
and long‐term focus68–9
and nature of suppliers68
and portfolio strategies62, 70–1
and power558, 571
and reasons for using term68
and supply chain management62, 71–5
and supply networks62–3, 79–80
levels of analysis80–1
and supply partnerships69–70
survival, and evaluation704
Swabhemana (Indian NGO)195
system dynamics71
system‐justification theory, and social psychology of intergroup relations429
systems theory6
Target49
technological development, and strategic alliances93–4, 105
technology services:
and characteristics of257
and Inter‐organizational relationships29, 256–7
definition of257
inadequacy of research257
nature of258
research on273–4
and nature of258–60
knowledge integration258–9
path‐dependent performance260
uncertainty259–60
(p. 780) telecommunications industry, and strategic alliances96, 105
temporal embeddedness, and Inter‐organizational projects233
and chronological pacing236–7, 242, 244–5, 246, 248, 250
and entrainment‐based pacing237–8, 242–3, 246, 247, 250
and event‐based pacing237, 242, 244, 246, 250
and uncertainty management236–8
temporal pacing, and Inter‐organizational projects235
temporality529, 636
and change636, 637, 654
and complex notions of time637–8
and concept of637
and conceptions of time650
age dependency652
process theories653–4
time as a metric650–2
and dimensions of648–9
and Inter‐organizational projects232–3
and research on654, 656–7
and timescapes637
terminology, and Inter‐organizational relations (IOR)4–5
Territorial Employment Pacts (EU)218
Texas, and public education in160
‘third way’223
threat‐rigidity, and organizational inertia647
3M106, 514
ties, and networks291
and changes in698
and density and strength of, impact on innovation618–19, 621–5
and embedded tie formation294–7
field‐net approach295–6
influence on linkage formation296–7
partner selection295
positional embeddedness296
relational embeddedness295
social capital294–5
structural embeddedness295
and formation of294
and functioning of301–3
benefits302–3
competitors302
depth of ties302
disadvantages303
factors affecting301
network effects302–3
network resources301
tie portfolios301–2
and network dynamics303–4
and non‐local tie formation297–9
firm network resource299
interlocking directorates298
network expansion297
risk and uncertainty298
small world tie formation perspective297–8
timing297
and termination of299–301
factors affecting300
imbalances between actors300
neglected in research299
planned/unplanned299–300
relational embeddedness300
structural embeddedness300–1
time, seetemporality
timescapes637
trade unions, and local and regional development partnerships218
transaction costs theory72–3
and assumptions of342–3
bounded rationality342–3
opportunism342–3
risk neutrality343
and basic idea of343
and calculativeness533, 534, 535
early stage relationships537–8
one‐shot decisions538
as theoretical concept550
and challenges facing361–2
and change639
and collaboration721
and differences between Williamson and Hennart354
asset specificity357
(p. 781)
equity joint ventures355
nature of hybrids354–5
organizing methods354, 355–7
role of markets355–6
and discriminating alignment hypothesis342
and empirical studies357–60
aluminium industry348, 358
exploitation of innovation359
franchising359–60
sales organization358–9
and goal of339
and Hennart's version of343–52
alliances352
choice of institutions347–8
contracts348–50
enforcement344–5
enforcement costs345–7
equity joint ventures350–2
hierarchy343, 344
institutions343
networks352
organizing methods343–5
price system343–4
rent maximization346
and incomplete contracting536
and information technology service sourcing261–4
and institutions339–40, 341–2
choice of342
and interdependencies340–1
and Inter‐organizational relations7, 339–40, 360–1
and rents341
and transaction costs341
and transactions341
and trust535–9
meaninglessness of534, 535–6, 613
and usefulness of361
and vertical integration44–5
and Williamson's version of353–4, 361–2
asset specificity353, 356
biases in361
governance structures353
hybrids353
uncertainty353–4
transactional uncertainty, and Inter‐organizational projects236
Transorganizational Development (TD)404
Transparency International195
trust527, 528
and business relationships549
arguments for role in535–7
disputed role in533–4
one‐shot decisions538
stage model of537–8
uncertainty537
and calculativeness:
detrimental effect of542
early stage relationships537–8
one‐shot decisions538
as theoretical concept550
and competitive advantage546
and contracts512–13, 546–7
and controversies over533
as coordination mechanism535, 545–6
and cross‐national differences547–9
and economic outcomes542–3
and economic rationality542–3
and evaluation699–700
and institutions538–9, 543–4
national differences548
and Inter‐organizational projects249–50
as ‘leap of faith’536, 539, 544–5
(p. 782)
and local and regional development partnerships216–17
and negotiation process542
and New Institutionalism535, 543–4
and performance593
and rational choice theory534, 539–41
and relational governance545–6
and research on533, 728
and risk536
and role of534, 549–50
and self‐interest534
and social embeddedness534, 541–3, 550–1
and socio‐legal literature546–7
and structuration theory535, 544–5
and transaction cost theory535–9
calculativeness533, 534, 535
negligible role in534, 613
ultimatum game542, 549
uncertainty:
and collaboration368
and information technology service sourcing263–4, 268
and integration611
and Inter‐organizational projects:
demand uncertainty235–6
social embeddedness238–40
temporal embeddedness236–8
transactional uncertainty236
and technology services259–60
and tie formation298
and transaction cost theory353–4
and trust537
Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) (USA)516
United Kingdom:
and collaborative service delivery163, 377–8
and local and regional development partnerships206–7
and policy domains454
and retail structure42
and voluntary and community organizations182, 187–8
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)181
United Nations (UN)452
United States:
and apparel market42
and collaborative service delivery156, 163
and contract law516, 518
and federal government structure444
and local and regional development partnerships207–8
and trust548
and voluntary and community organizations181–3
United Way182
Urban Development Corporations (UK)206
Urban Enterprise Zones (USA)208
URBAN programme (EU)207
utilities, and strategic alliances97
value chains63, 72
and global production networks485
values, and network society119
vantage‐point syndrome, and supply chain management73–4
variation, and evolution of organizations315, 317, 318
vertical integration:
and Benetton's light vertical integration model47–9, 52
and Chandler's theory43–4
and marketing41
and neo‐Marxist explanation of45
as response to anti‐trust laws45
and transaction cost theory44–5
visioning, and intervention668–70
and social ecology theory670
and techniques670–1
voluntary and community organizations (VCOs)28
and challenges facing189–90
blurring of public/non‐profit sectors192–3
growth of innovative relationships among190
international impact of NGOs190–1
need for new management skills191–2
and collaboration between179–80
and definitions of177
and diversity of177
and government176, 178–9, 185–9
blurring of public/non‐profit sectors192–3
collaboration186–9
types of relationship with185–6
and growth of177
and Inter‐organizational relations176, 178–9, 194–5
coalitions184
collaboration179–80
horizontal/vertical178
impact of globalization185
international level181, 182–3, 185
local level180–2
national level181, 182–3
need for new language of193–4
new types of183–5
partnerships184
private sector184–5
and local and regional development partnerships218–19
and network structures188, 193–4
and organizational characteristics177
and pressures on184
and roles of175–6, 180
advocacy179, 180
historical background179
voting behaviour447–8
Wal‐Mart42, 49, 94
white goods, and strategic alliances97
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation183
World Bank452, 458
and voluntary and community organizations181, 183
World Commission208
World Health Organization (WHO)181
World Summit on Sustainable Development377
world system theory456, 488
World Vision International185
Zara retail outlets46–7
Zegna33, 48
Zimbabwe459