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date: 18 September 2019

(p. 744) Subject Index

(p. 744) Subject Index

absolute constructions 427 n.
absolute (passive) 379
absolute tense 446, 447–9
absolutive case 304, 308, 309–10, 311–12, 313, 314, 317, Table 19.1, 406–7, 418, 440
accessibility 338–9, 340, 341
Accessibility Hierarchy 196–7, 200–1, 203 n., 208–9, Table 11.1, 211–12, 214–15, 225, 230, 472–3, 654, 655, 660
accomplishments 529
accusative alignment 339, 340, 341–2, 343–4, 345, Table 19.1, 415, 440, 441–2, 579
accusative case 34, 304, 308, 309, 311–12, 314, 321, 325, 412, 441
accusative construction 317–18
actionality 451
active 339, 340, 342, 345, 368–9, 370 n. 2
case marking 315–16;
active languages 561–2
activity expressions 524, 529
actor 369, 370, 379, 386, 396, 402, 415, 434–5
actualized events 455
adjectives 34, 169, 170, 179, Table 9.2, 180–1, 280, 281, 283, 284, 287, 289–90, Table 14.2, 291, 298–9, 506, 526, 528
adpositions 71–4, 76–8, 79, 258–9, 260, 262, 268, 272, 576, 587
advanced tongue root 543
adverbs 281, 286–7, 288–9, 299–300, Table 14.4
adversative (passive) 396
aesthetic drive 153, 155, 157, 159, 161, 163, 164
affixation 487, 488, 492–3, 500, 501–2
affixes 322, 328–31, 332, 333, 338
agent 369, 371, 373, 374–5, 378, 388, 392, 393, 396–7, 400, 402, 416, 421, 437
case marking 304, 305, 309–10, 315–19, 321
agentless (passive) 374–6, 392, 393
agent-oriented modality 453
agglutinative 17, 18, 20–1, 22, 27, 28, 31, 35, 36, 37, 487, 574
Agreement Hierarchy 191–6, 197–9, 200, 201, 203, 204
Aktionsart 451
alignment, see also accusative alignment; ergative alignment 403–4, Table 19.1, 408, 409, 414, 416, 420, 431, 434, 439, 440–2, 579
indirective Table 19.1
morphological 323, 339–45, 345 n.
secundative Table 19.1
tripartite 405
alliteration 153–4, 162
analogical vs. transpositive languages 28–9
analogy 148, 149–50, 159, 161, 163–4
analytic 17, 18, 35, 36, 487–8
case marking 305, 320
animacy 405, 410, 432
Animacy Hierarchy 197–9, 200, 296
anterior tense 456
anticausatives 351, 352, 353, 359–60, 372, 373, 392–3
antipassives 372, 379, 380–2, 385, 393, 396, 406, 409, 411, 419, 432–3
apodosis 455
applicatives 386, 389–90, 395, 396, 397, 418–19
A-quantifier 531
arbitrariness of the sign 521
areal 569–70, 576, 577, 583–5, 587–9
diffusion 267–8
typology 63–4, 577–89
word order typology 269, 278 n.;
argument Table 14.1, 293–5, 296, 301, 399–401, 401 n., 402–42
marking 346, 347, 350, 356–7, 358, 361, 366
prominence hierarchy 334–9
structure 461–3
argument-structure construction 296
(p. 745) ascending vs. descending construction 29–30
asymmetrical dependencies 209, 219–20, 222–4
asyndeton 473–4, 474 n.
auxiliary verbs 529
backgrounding 374, 376–9, 393
Basic Child Grammar 600, 601, 605
basic colour categories/terms 199, 201, Table 10.3, 202, 517, 519
basic-level categories 520–1
basic linguistic theory 645
basic vocabulary 572, 575
basic word order 253–62, 263, 267–8, 271–2, 569, 571
benefactives 372, 386, 389 n., 390–1, 393, 395, 396, 397
Berlin and Kay Hierarchy 199, 200, 201–2, 203, 203 n.
bias 103, 106, 109–10, 115, 119, 120
bibliographic 106–7, 113
cultural 101–2, 108–9
diachronic 101–2
genetic 107, 110–11, 112
typological 108, 110, 111, 121
bilingual speech 569, 575–6, 589
bilingualism 104, 107–8, 572
biological nomenclature 505, 506–7, 509, 517, 519–21
biological species 505, 506–7, 509
border dialects 587
borrowing 570–6, 579, 585, 589
boundary location 511, 512
bounded action 451, 458
Branching Direction Theory 267–70, 274–6
buffer zones 587
Case Hierarchy 217, 218, 307–14, 320
case selection constraints 308–10, 311–14, 319, 320
formal 309, 313, 317
semantic 313, 318, 319
categorization 170–8, 183, 189
categories 166–81, 184, 188–9
causative construction, case marking 309, 310
causative-passive polysemy 394–5
causatives 353–5, 358, 363, 366, 372, 386–9, 394–5, 395 n., 396, 397, 402 n., 418
causativization 355, 388, 396
child language acquisition 5
circumfixation 492, 494
classification
genealogical 26, 27–8, 30, 31, 35, 36, 37
morphological 26, 27–8, 30, 31, 33, 36, 37, 39
psychological 26, 27–8, 30, 31, 33
classifier systems 507, 508, 522
clitics 322, 328, 329–30, 332, 338, 339, 343
coding 123, 124
cognates 104
cognitive development 592, 593, 595–6, 602, 611
Cognitive Grammar 658
cognitive semantics 505, 505 n. 2, 509, 523, 532
combinatorics 506, 516, 521, 524, 528–9
comitative 583
comitative strategy 473, 475, 483, 484
comparatives 583
comparativism 13, 14–21
competing motivations 230, 234, 237, 239–40, 245
complexity in typological patterns 207, 209, 211–12, 214 n., 215, 216, 217, 218, 224
componential analysis 515
Compositionality, Principle of 530
compound case-marking 305–6
computer programs 115, 117 n., 118, 120, 125
conceptual distance 522
conceptual space 289–90, Table 14.2, 293, 298
concord, case 305, 306, 320
configurationality 417, 417 n.
conflict 87, 88
conjunct participle 427
conjunctions 408, 419–21, 428, 433, 438, 442, 572, 573, 576
connection 37–8
consonants 535, 537, 539, 540–2, 544–7
constituent order 72–3, 76–8, 79, 85
Constituent Recognition Domain (CRD) 271–2, 277
constructional iconism 312
contact, see also language contact
contact-induced language change 569–77, 580, 582
intensity of 572
(p. 746) content questions 465, 467, 476–83, 485
content words 281, 290–1, 294, 297
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis 619, 620
control constructions 404, 422–5, 433, 434, 437, 441
converb 415, 416–17, 421–2, 426
convergence 576, 577, 581, 581 n., 583–4, 585, 588
conversives 379–80, 393
coordinate strategy 475–6, 484
copula 33
copying 570, 571, 576
co-reference constraints 420, 421, 422–8, 433, 436, 438, 442
count nouns 282
counterfactual 455, 461
covert categories 520, 521, 528–9
cross-linguistic comparability 91, 94, 96, 99
cross-linguistic domain definitions 90–2, 94–8, 99
cross-linguistic identification 90–2, 95, 96, 98–9
culture 505, 512, 515, 519, 526, 528, 532
data 101, 103, 106, 107, 113, 113 n., 121–7
analytical 122
primary 122, 638, 642
raw 642, 644
data analysis 125, 126
data collecting 103, 122–3, 124
data matrix 124–5, Table 6.6
database 101, 113, 121, 124, 124 n. 20, 125, 126–7, 127 n.
dative 304, 308–9, 311, 312, 318, 369, Table 19.1, 405, 409, 409 n. 6, 414, 415, 416–17, 435, 440
dative passive 382–3, 393
dative shift 372, 373, 382–3
DATR 498–9, 502, 502 n.
decorative morphology 153–9, 164
default inheritance 497–502
definite articles 81–2, 83–4
definiteness and indefiniteness 405, 406, 407, 410, 430, 431, 439
deixis (deictic category) 446, 446 n.
demonstratives 81–2, 83–4, 324, 326, 326 n. 1, 343
denotational range 508, 511–14, 518
deontic meaning 522
deontic modality 452–3, 453 n. 9, 460, 462, 463 n. 15
dependent-marking 104, 113–14, 126, 303–4, 305, 307, 312, 314, 318, 320, 579, 579 n.
depictives 426 n.
derivation 572
derivational categories 506
Determiner Phrases 530
detransitivization 356, 362
diachronic studies 523
diagrammatic iconicity 522
dialectology 583, 587
diathesis (voice) 368–97, 407, 418–19, 432–3
differential subject/object marking 319, 362, 405, 407
diffusion 571, 573, 576, 577, 579, 588, 589
dimension 168, 169, 175, 180
direct object 369–71, 374, 376–9, 380–1, 382–3, 384–5, 386–7, 388–90, 392, 393, 394, Table 19.1, 415, 418
case marking 86–8
discourse function 281, 283–4, 301
discourse particles 573
dissection 511, 512, 514
distance
genetic 105, 111, 114
typological 105
distant linguistic relationships 562
distinctive features 131, 132, 137
distribution 100, 104, 105–6, 113, Table 6.3, 118, 121
distributional analysis 285–6, 287–8, 291
ditransitives 402–3, 405, 408, 415
diversity value 105, 115–19
documentation, see language documentation
dominance 257, 258–9, 278 n.
double indexation analysis 334
DP hypothesis 269 n., 654
DPs 530, 656
D-Quantifiers 531
durative 451
Early Immediate Constituents Theory 270–6
economy 132, 143, 145, 146, 230, 239, 241, 244
Emergent Grammar 238
endangered languages 637, 647, 649
enlightenment 15
entailment 515, 529
epenthesis 621, 625
epistemic meaning 522
epistemic modality 452, 453 n. 9
EQUI-deletion 422
ergative alignment 335 n., 339, 340, 341–2, 343–5, 345 n., Table 19.1, 404–5, 407, 412, 414, 423, 435, 441, 442, 562
ergative case 304, 305–6, 308, 311–12, 314, 317–18, 319, 320, 400, 414, 416, 555–6
ergative construction 317
errors 592, 596, 598–9, 602, 604, 606, 612, 616
ethnography 639, 641–2, 648
ethnopsychology 19–20, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35
ethnotaxonomies 505, 517, 519–21
etic grid 509–10, 515, 525
European languages 415, 421–2
EUROTYP 578, 582–3
event time 446, 447–9, 452, 456–7, 459, 460
events 511, 512, 514, 529
evidentiality 445 n., 456, 457, 576, 639, 640, 641, 647
evolution, see language evolution
exceptionless universals 257 n. 3, 263–7, 268 n.
experiencer 413, 414–15, 421, 432, 435
experiencer subjects 462
experiential 456, 457
experiential realism 171, 174
experientialism 171
explanation 69, 71–4, 88–9
diachronic 657, 660
functional 71, 73–4, 82–9
historical 71, 72–3, 74, 78–82, 88, 577–8
structural 71–2, 74–8, 83, 88
expressives 514
extant languages 101–3, 109, 113
extinct languages 100–1, 101 n. 2, 102, 109
family resemblance 175–6, Figure 9.3, 177, 184–5, 189
features 489, 490, 492, 494, 495, 497, 500, 501 n. 6, 502, 509, 515–17, 519
figurative language 507, 523, 527, 532
figure 514
filler-gap dependency 85, 209, 211, 212–13, 214 n., 216, 217, 220, 222
Fillers First 221
finiteness 416–17, 421–2, 424, 434, 438
finite-state networks Figure 22.1, 497–8
first language acquisition 591–616
fluid-S 413
focus (focal) 407, 408, 409 n. 6, 410, 431, 439, 442
foregrounding 374, 376–9, 393
free construction vs. fixed construction languages 29
frequency 132, 134–5, 136, 140, 143–6, 228, 230, 233, 235, 611–12, 613–14
in distribution 571, 574, 575, 583, 587, 588–9
fricatives 38
function 77, 82, 88–9
function words 281, 290–1
Functional Grammar (FG) 286, 300
functional principles 229–30, 232, 234, 235, 236–41, 244–5, 248
functionalism 48, 49, 51, 53–4, 55, 63–4, 66
function-indicating morphosyntax 284, 286–7, 289, Table 14.2
Fundamental Principle of Placement (FPP) 259–60
future tense 446–7, 448, 448 n. 5, 449, 450–1, 452, 455, 456, 459–60, 463, 463 n. 14
gapping strategy 469–70, 472, 484–5
garden paths (in parsing) 219, 221, 224
gender 35–6, 37
genealogical relationships 2
genera 267–9
General Grammar 33
generalized quantifiers 530–1
generative grammar 45–51, 57, 59, 66, 227, 228–9, 232–4, 234 n., 236–7, 238–40, 241, 247, 247 n. 11, 248
generic 520, 521, 522
generic level terms 519–20, Figure 23.6
genericity 508
genetic complexity 114
genetic drift 109
genetic relatedness 104, 107, 109, 110–11, 120, 267–8
genitive 34, 40, 41, 586
Gestalt 507, 514
Glottalic Theory 553, 553 nn. 1 & 3, 554–5
gnomic tense 448
grammars 100, 106–7, 108, 109, 115, 117, 122–3, 123 n.
grammatical categories 228–9, 233, 234 n., 235, 241, 243 n., 244–7, 247 n. 11, 248
grammatical development 593, 594, 595–8, 600–2, 605–6, 612–13
grammatical evolution 207, 225
grammatical relation hierarchy (hierarchy of grammatical relations) 307–8, 311
grammatical relations 228–9, 233, 234, 241–7, 248, 369–70, 371, 386, 399–43
subject 233, 241–3, 245 n., 247 n. 11
grammaticalization 82, 83–4, 135, 271, 313, 320–1, 564–5, 566
grams 446, 451, 452, 455, 457, 459
granularity 511–12
ground 514
grouping 511, 512–14, 517, 519, 529
habitual aspect 446, 447, 448, 450, 451–2, 455, 459
harmony 258–9
Head-Dependent Theory (or HDT) 268–9
(p. 748) headedness 654, 655, 660
head-marking 104, 113–14, 126, 303–4, 305, 306, 307, 312, 314, 316, 318, 319, 320, 579, 579 n.
Heaviness Serialization Principle (HSP) 264–6, 266 n. 5, 270, 272
heterosemy 506, 521, 524
historical linguistics 2, 5, 6, 551–66, 569, 571, 574, 576–7, 578, 582, 583, 587
hodiernal tense 448, 457
holistic typology 21–22
holophrastic (event expressions) 514
hortative 453
human propensity 528
hypothetical mood 461
ideophones 514
imperatives 412, 431, 441
imperfective aspect 450, 450 n. 6, 451, 457, 461, 463
impersonal (passive) 376–9, 397
implicational typology 26, 33, 38–9
implicational universals 38, 39–40, 108, 137, 139–41, 229, 231–4, 257–9, 262–4, 265, 266, 290, 557–60, 594, 611–12
implicatures 296, 506, 517, Figure 23.7, 527–8
inalienability hierarchy 336–7
inclusion relations 519
inclusive/exclusive 579
incorporation 406–8
indeterminacy 453
indicative mood 453–4
indirect object 369, 377, 379, 380, 382, 383, 386, 387, 390–1, 394, Table 19.1
Indo-European 552, 553–62, 564–5
dative/locative cases in 556
diminutive in 565
dual number in 564–5
ergativity in 555–6, 556 n.
feminine gender in 555, 565
infixation 492, 493–4
inflection 572
inflectional 17, 18, 20–1, 27, 29, 35, 37, 487, 488, 489–90, Table 22.1, 493, 496–7, 503
categories 506, 507
innere Sprachform 19, 28
instrument 583
interference 569, 570, 571–2, 576
interlanguage 618–19, 626–32
internally-headed relative clause 428, 434
interrogation 506
interrogatives 506
intonation 506, 539–40
intragenetic typology 62–4
intransitivization 351
inverse 409–10, 418, 424, 430
inversion 479–81
invisible hand effects 528
irrealis 447 n., 448 n. 5, 452, 454–5, 459, 461
irregular forms 134, 135, 145
isoglosses 577, 583, 584, 587, 588
isolating 27, 28, 31, 35, 36, 37, 487
kin terms 510, 515, 524, 641
kin types 515
kinship terminologies 505, 507, 510, 515, 528, 532
labials 38–9
language change 31, 101, 101 n. 3, 102, 103 n., 104, 112, 138–9, 145–6, 569–77, 582, 588, 589, 640, 646–7
language classification 101, 110 n., 111–14, 114 n., 115–19, 120–1
language classifications, see also agglutinative; analytic; inflectional; isolating; polysynthesis
analogous 17
compounded 17
form 19–20, 28, 32, 35
formless 19–20, 22, 28, 32, 35
incorporating 17–18, 20, 22, 27
non-organic 27
organic 27
synthetic 17, 18, 35, 36
transpositive 17
uncompounded 17
language contact 101, 101 n. 3, 102, 104, 107–8, 109, 112, 120–1, 568–77, 579, 581–4, 587–9
language diversity, see diversity
language documentation 3–4, 5, 64–5, 67, 634–49
language evolution 45, 58–60, 102
language families 102, 104–5, 106, 107, 110–11, 114, 114 n., 115–18, 120–1
(p. 749) language ‘genius’ 16, 16 n., 19
language typology, see linguistic typology
language universals, see also exceptionless universals; implicational universals; statistical universals 10, 13, 23, 39–41, 69–89, 102, 107 n., 108, 139, 227–37, 239, 239 n., 240–8, 536, 575, 578, 579, 580, 635–8, 640, 644
absolute 3
diachronic 140
distributional 3
non-implicational 229, 231–4, 245
restricted 40
tendencies 136
unrestricted 39
language use 133, 135–6, 143–6
large-scale typology 578, 579–80, 582, 584, 587–8
laws of language development 551, 563–5
least effort (principle of) 224
left-branching 269
Lexical Domain 277
lexical partitioning 599, 609–11
lexical typology 504 n. 1, 506–8, 510, 517, 526, 528, 529, 531
lexicon 295–8, 301, 504 n. 1, 506–7, 508, 572, 573, 580
lexicon-syntax mapping 291, 297
lexicostatistics 120
linear order 38, 40
linear precedence asymmetries 207, 222, 223–4
linguistic area 576, 577, 578, 582
linguistic categorization 45, 49, 51–4, 55–6, 58, 65, 66
linguistic corpora 48, 60, 64–5
linguistic description 635, 635 n., 639, 640, 643–8
linguistic form 28
linguistic knowledge 227–9, 231–2, 237, 239 n., 240–7, 248
linguistic preferences 3, 6
linguistic type 26, 28, 29–30, 33–4, 35–6, 37–8, 40, 41
linguistic typology 1–6, 91–2, 96–7, 99, 102–3, 106, 107, 110–13, 115, 117–18, 120, 121, 122–7, 127 n., 254
linguistic values 102, 104–6, 111, 122, 123–7
linguistic variables 101, 102, 104, 104 n., 108, 109, 111–13, 117–18, 120, 121–7
linking rules 602–4, 606–7
loan verbs 575
locative alternation 383, 389, 396, 397
logical objects 419
logical relations 515
logical subjects 419
logic-based metalanguage 509
logophoric pronouns 428
long-distance agreement 422
long-distance reflexivization 428
macro-areas 111, Table 6.2
macro-families 562–3
macro-linguistic comparison 563
macro-perspective 578–89
macroroles 369
manner 514
markedness 131–46, 286, 290, 293, 574, 575, 611–12, 613–14, 614 n., 619–26, 628, 629–30, 631
in morphosyntax 132, 137, 140–1, 142, 286, 289, 290
in phonology 132–3, 137–40
in semantics 132, 133, 134, 136, 141–2, 143–4, 145, 146
Markedness Differential Hypothesis 620–1, 628
markedness hierarchies 207, 217–19
mass noun 282
Maximize Online Processing (MaOP) 219–24, 277
metalanguage 642, 643–5
metathesis 492, 495
metatypy 573, 582 n.
micro-perspective 582–9
microtypology 582–9
middle (voice) 368, 370 n. 2, 372, 376, 391, 393–4, 395, 396, 397, 528
Minimalism 234 n., 241
Minimize Domains (MiD) 207–15, 277
Minimize Forms 215–19
minor languages 587
mirative 457, 507
Mobility and Heaviness Interaction Principle 266 n. 5
Mobility Principle (MP) 264, 265–6, 266 n. 5, 270, 272
modal sentences
subjects of 461–2
modification 287, 289–90, Table 14.2, 299, 301
Modistae 11, 23
monosemy 507, 524
monosyndeton 473, 474
monotonic increase 193–6, 198, 199, 203, 204, 205
mora-timing 536, 537, 538, 546
morphological functions 489–90, 492, 493, 493 n.
indexes 496, 497
inflectional classes 489–90, Table 22.1, 496, 497, 503
morphological classes 496, 497
(p. 750) morphological operations 488, 492, 492 n., 494–7, 502
morphological split ergativity 319, 320
morphology 40, 505, 506–7
morphophonological form 322–3, 327–32, 335
mother-node-constructing categories (MNCCs) 271–2
motion events 514, 607–8, 608 nn. 4 & 5
Munsell Colour Chips 509, 517
native language
native language transfer 619, 625
natural language paraphrases 509, 515–16
natural phonology 137–8
Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) 283, 516–17
necessity 452–3
negation 455, 507, 511, 526, Figure 23.8
neurophysiology of vision 518
neutralization 132–3, 136, 144–5
Nominal Hierarchy, case-marking of 319
nominalization 431
nominative case 32, 304, 306, 308, 309–12, 313, 314, 317, 319, 400, Table 19.1, 404–5, 407, 414, 415, 416, 431, 434–6, 438, 440
non-phrasal categories 269–70, 274, 275
noun (N) + adjective (A) 21, 34, 40, 41, 256, 260, 261, 263, 264, 265, 266, Table 13.1, 268, 270, 278 n.
noun (N) + genitive (G) 34, 40, 41, 256, 258, 259, 260, 261, 263, 264, 265, 266, Table 13.1, 268
noun (N) + postposition (Po) 256, 259, 261, 272
noun (N) + relative clause (Rel) 256, 260, 264, 265–6, 266 n. 5, 273–4, 276–7, 278 n. noun classification 638, 640, 641, 643, 646–7
(noun) incorporation 382, 382 n.
Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy 621–4, 630–2
noun phrase conjunction 466–7, 469, 470, 471, 473–6, 483–4
noun/verb distinction 281, 283, 291–3, 295, 297–8, 301
nouns 167, 177–9, Table 9.2, 181, 182, 184, 280–1, 282–4, 286, 287, 288, 289, Table 14.2, 295, 296, 299–300
NP-Quantifier Universal 530
number 35–6, 37
number hierarchy 217, 218
numeral classifiers 508, 521
numeral constructions 583
objects, see also direct object; indirect object; oblique object 80–1, 86–8, 373, 382, 396, 399, Table 19.1, 404–7, 410, 411, 412, 413, 415, 417–19, 422, 424 n., 426–7, 432
O(bject) 255, 257–62, 263, 266, Table 13.1, 268–70, 272, 274, 276–7, 278 n.
primary objects Table 19.1, 405, 406, 418, 427
secondary objects Table 19.1
obligation 452–3, 460
oblique object 369, 371, 374, 376, 377, 378, 379–81, 383, 386–7, 389, 394
obviative 410, 424–5, 429–30, 443
omnipredicativity 292, 293–5, 301
onomatopoeia 522
ontological inventory 505, 507, 519, 525, 532
oppositions, see markedness
optative mood 453
Optimality Theory 138–9, 148–9, 150, 225, 228, 236, 237, 239–40, 240 n., 309, 312–13
syntax in 659
OV-VO typology 259–62, 267–70
participles 421, 427, 428, 434–6, 442
partitive case 586
partitive/pseudo-partitive constructions 585–6, Table 26.1
‘parts of speech’ 10–11
passive 368–9, 370 n. 2, 371, 372, 374–80, 381, 382–3, 385, 388, 389, 392–3, 394–5, 396–7, 400, 408, 409, 419, 431, 432, 433
case marking 309–10
passivization 371, 396–7
past tense 446–7, 448–9, 450, 450 n. 7, 455, 456–7, 459, 460–1, 462
path 514
patient 369, 389 n., 392, 397, 400, 402, 405–6, 409, 413, 421
perception verbs 526
perfect 446, 448, 456–8, 459, 462, 463
perfective aspect 450–1, 458, 462
performance, see also processing 270–1, 272, 278
Performance-Grammar Correspondence Hypothesis (PGCH) 206–7, 224–6, 277–8
periphrastic constructions 416
permission 452–3, 454
person 400, 409–11, 412, 415, 425, 441
person hierarchy
case marking 319
person systems 322–45
(p. 751) philosophy 15, 16
phoneme 540, 542, 543, 544–5, 547
phonological development 594–5
phrasal categories 269–70, 274–5
Phrasal Combination Domain 277
phrase structure 417–18, 432, 438, 439
pivot 404, 408, 428
pluperfect 449
plural subject 528
politeness 411
polysemy 506, 507, 508, 521, 522–8
cultural patterning of 521
polysyndeton 473, 474–5
polysynthesis 20, 21, 27, 36, 487, 503
population 100–1, 101 n. 3, 102, 104, 109, 113, 119–20
population typology 562–3, 563 n.
positivism 16
possession
alienable 522
inalienable 336, 522, 579
predicative 583, 584
possessor 409–10, 414, 431
possibility 452–3, 454, 460
postpositions 40–1, 257 n. 3, 258–9, 265–6, 272
potential (passive) 375
pragmatic knowledge 506
predication 32–3, 282, 283, 284, Table 14.1, 286, 288, 289–90, Table 14.2, 292, 293–5, 300, Table 14.4, 301
prefixation 488, 493, 493 n., 494–5
preposition 40–1, 257, 258, 263, 264–6, 272
preposition (Pr) + noun (N) 256, 261, 272
present tense 446–8, 450–1, 452, 456–7, 459, 461, 463
Principle of Cross-Category Harmony (PCCH) 266
Principle of Early Immediate Constituents (PEIC) 270–7
Principle of Natural Serialization (PNS) 260–2, 263–4, 265
Principles and Parameters Theory 228–9, 233, 234 n., 241
privative opposition 426
processing, see also Maximize Online Processing
ease of 230, 234, 237, 270
efficiency and speed in 207, 215–17, 219, 220, 221, 224, 225, 270–6
progressive 446, 451, 457
pronominal argument analysis 333–4, 340
pronouns 179 n., 187, 322, 323, 328, 332, 333–4, 572, 575, 587, 640, 641
indefinite 185–8, 525–6, Figure 23.8, 530, 532
relative 469–70, 470 n., 484
resumptive 84–6, 88, 470
prosodic typology 534, 536–40
prosody 506, 507
protasis 455
prototype theory
standard version of 174
prototypes 171–81, 183–4, 189, 638, 643, 646–7
definitions 451, 455
semantics 508, 517–18
proximate tense 448, 448 n. 5
proximative 408–10, 418, 421, 424–5, 426 n., 429, 430, 443
punctual 451
punctuated equilibrium 120
quantification 530, 531
quantifier (meanings) 509
quantifier floating 408, 430–1, 442
question particle 476, 478–80, 482, 485
questionnaire 122
race 31, 33
Radical Construction Grammar 291, 293
raising constructions 400, 404, 409, 422–5, 429, 432
realis 447 n., 454–5, 459
reality status 454 n.
recipient, case marking 305, 318–19
reciprocal 384–5, 393, 395, 397, 522, 528
reconstructions 551, 552–63, 564–6
comparative 552, 553 n. 1, 555 n., 556, 557–8, 562–3
internal 552–3, 553 n. 1, 556
syntactic 552, 557–61, 561 n.
typological 552–5, 555 n., 556, 557–63, 564–5, 566
redundancy 151, 158
reduplication 492, 495
reference 283, 289–90, Table 14.2, 292, 301
reference time 446, 449, 451, 452, 456
referential hierarchies 402, 405, 408, 410–11, 418, 439–41
referrals 500
reflexives 372, 381, 384, 385, 389, 391, 393–4, 395, 397, 522
reflexivization 428
regularity 498
relative clauses 206, 207, 208–15, 216, 220, 221, 400, 466, 467–73, 483, 484–5, 621–4, 627, 630–2
gap strategies 208–12, 216
ordering 208–9, 212–13
(p. 752) resumptive pronoun strategy 208–9, 211, 213, 214, 214 n., 216
relative tense 447, 449
relativism 508
relativization 428–30, 432, 434, 436, 439, 442
remoteness degrees 448–9, 461
Renaissance 12–13
replication 571, 573, 577
representativeness 100–2, 106, 112–13, 115, 119–20, 121
resultatives 456, 458
rhythm 536–7
right-branching 269
Romanticism 15
root modality 463 n. 15
samples/sampling 47, 57, 59, 60–7, 103–22, 578–9, 587–8, 637
convenience 106, 113, 114
probability 104–5, 107, 108, 109, 111, 114, 119, 120, 121
random 100, 106, 117 n., 119
sampling strategies 103, 104, 114, 119 n., 121
variety 104–5, 107, 109, 111, 114, 115, 119, 120, 121
Sapir's classification of grammatical concepts 35–6, 37
scales 124, 126
scenario 409, 411–12, Table 19.3, 439
Scholastica 11
scope
semantic 300, Table 14.4
syntactic 300
second language acquisition 214–15, 516, 618–33
secondary predicates 426 n.
segments 536, 537, 540–5, 546–7
self-beneficent 391, 393
semantic change 505, 523, Figure 23.7
semantic classes 280–1, 282–3, 286, 287, 288–90, 292, 299, 300, 301
semantic fields 505, 507, 508–9, 517–19, 531, 532
semantic maps 203, 204, 231, Figure 12.1, 463–4, 507, 526, Figure 23.8, 532, 610–11
semantic roles/relations 369–70, 372, 374, 384, 385–6, 389, 390, 390 n. 16, 396, 399–400, 402, 409 n. 7, 413–14, 421, 422 n., 431, 436, 437, 437 n., 439
case marking and 304, 305, 308, 312, 313, 314–21
semantic typology 504–32, 598–9, 601–4, 606–11, 312–13
semiotic ecology 508
servant words 153–5, 156–7
sibilant harmony 636
sibling terms/systems 509–10, Figure 23.2, 515
signified (signifié) 506, 508, 511–21, 522, 524, 528
signifier (signifiant) 506, 521, 522, 526
situation time 446, 451–2, 457
smell 506, 507, 514, 526
sound change 148, 149–50, 160, 163–4
sound symbolism 514, 522
SOV 29, 40–1, 255, 258–9, 261, 262, 266, Table 13.1
speech act participants 409–10, 412, 439, 441
split ergativity 461, 462–3
split intransitivity 315–17, Table 15.1, 320, 321, 413, 413 n., 443
splitS 413
Sprachbund 104, 107, 577, 582
spread/residual areas 579, 581, 587
squish Table 9.1, 179
stability 104, 104 n., 106, 108, 109, 111 n. 10, 112, 579, 589
Standard Average European 583, 584
statistical universals 39, 40, 405 n., 440, 440 n. 18, 441
stative verbs 529
stereotypes 171
stops 38–9
stratification 100–1, 109–10, 114–15, 116, 117 n., 118–20, 121
stress-timing 536–8, 539, Table 24.2
Structural Conformity Hypothesis 628–30, 632
structural linguistics 26, 35, 37–9
structural order 38
structuralism 44–57, 60, 62–5, 66–7, 133, 134–6, 142–3, 146, 506, 508, 517, 521
sub-hierarchies 204
subjacency 74–6, 83, 85
subject and predicate
grammatical 32–3
psychological 32–3
subject-auxiliary inversion 629
subjective version 391
subjunctive mood 453–4, 461
subordination 424 n., 426, 439
substratum 570–1, 579
substratum interference 570, 572, 576, 589
(p. 753) subtraction 492, 495–7
suffixation 488, 494–5, 496, 501–2
Suffixaufnahme 305
suppletion 498
SVO 29, 34, 40–1, 254, 255, 259, 261–2, 263, 266, Table 13.1
switch-reference 404, 413, 425–8, 434, 436
syllable-timing 536–8
symmetrical dependencies 224
synaesthetic adjectives 526
syncretism 490, Table 22.3, 500, 503
case 319, 320
syntactic function 399–400, 401
syntax 27, 29, 40, 41–2, 506, 522, 529, 530–1
synthesis 487–8, 503
synthetic, case marking 305, 320
system-meaning 506
target language 619, 625, 626
taxonomies 16, 505, 517, 519–21
template approach 644
temporal distinctions 599, 600, 606, 607
thematic roles (θ-roles) 399
theory 644–5
theory-external explanation 657–60
theory-internal explanation 657–9
third stem 489
time depth 110–12, 114 n., 115, 118
topic position 220, 221–3
Total Domain Differential 277
total vs. partial objects 583
transitivity 184, 254, 263, 346–67, 389 n., 402–3, Table 19.1, 408, 412, 413 n., 414–15, 418, 419, 429, 431, 434, 435, 437
transitivity alternations 350, 351–6, 357–66
translation equivalents 508, 512–13, 516, 524
truth values 515
type/token languages 281, 297–8
typological bootstrapping 602–4, 606, 608
typological distance 571, 574, 581
typological markedness 235, 244
typological relations 108, 121
unactualized events 452, 461
unbounded action 451
undergoer 369, 370, 379, 396
underspecification 490, 500, 501 n. 6
unique beginner 520, Figure 23.6
Universal Grammar 228, 232, 233–4, 234 n., 236, 239, 241, 248, 530, 632–3
universal tense 448, 457
universals, see language universals
utterance-meaning 506
V(erb) 255, 257–62, 263, 266, 266 n. 6, Table 13.1, 268–70, 271, 272, 274, 276–7, 278 n.
V-final 262
V-initial 257 n. 3, 262, 262 n.
V-medial 262
value 168, 180, 188
variables 100–1, 105–6, 112–13, 117–18, 121
interval Table 6.5, 124, 124 n. 18
nominal 123, Table 6.5, 124
ordinal 123–4, Table 6.5
variation 100, 102, 104–7, 115, 121, 126, 634, 638, 639, 640, 643, 647
velars 38–9,
verb-object order 71–3, 76, 80–1
verbs, see also noun/verb distinction 280, 281, 282–4, 287, 288, 289, Table 14.2, 295, 296, 299–300
position 29, 31, 32–3, 34, 40–1
vocative case 306
voice, see also diathesis 368–70, 370 n. 4, 371–97, 409, 409 n. 6, 418, 421, 436
voice contrasts 620, 627
voicing 535–6, 542, 544–5, 546
volition 452–3, 460
vowel 537, 539, 540, 541–7
vowel harmony 31, 542–4
WALS 4, 580, 581, 584–5
weak form 322, 329, 332, 335, 337, 338, 339
Wh-fronting, see Wh movement
Wh in situ 477–8, 479–80, 483
Wh movement 220, 221, 477, 478, 479–82
word classes 643
word groups 29, 33
word order, see also basic word order; O(bject); OV-VO typology; S(ubject); SOV; SVO; V(erb); V-final; V-initial; V-medial; verb-object order; VSO 2–3, 25, 26, 28–9, 32–3, 34, 35, 37–8, 39–42, 488–9, 571, 572, 578–9, 580, 593, 596, 597–8, 606, 616, 636, 637, 645
dominant vs. recessive 40–1
free word order 255
harmonic vs. disharmonic 40–2
(p. 754) word order correlations 257, 258–9, 260, 264, 267–71, 272, 278 n.
word order typology 257–79, 558, 558 n. 9, 559 n., 560–1, 562–3;
World Colour Survey (WCS) 517, 518
zero anaphora 420, 420 n., 421 n.
zero form 322, 324, 329, 331–2, 337, 338, 343
zero-marking 131, 133, 134, 135, 136, 140, 143–4
Zipf's Law 522
2-person language 324–7, 328
3-person language 325–7, 328