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date: 21 July 2019

(p. 796) Index

(p. 796) Index

Abell, C. 713
Abhinavagupta 681, 688
abstract art 103, 138, 140, 194
Ackerman, J. 229, 231, 232
action theory
creativity and 254
ontology of art and 174–5
style and 237–40
theatre and 599
Adamson, J. 483
Addis, L. 504
Addison, J. 25, 28, 31
Adorno, T. 37, 39, 112, 255, 472, 474, 511–12, 733, 735–6, 757, 759, 767
Aeschylus (works of) 414–16, 418
aesthetic
v. artistic 107, 188
assertions
affective theory of 86, 88
normativity of 89
role of belief in 86–7
truth-conditions of 85–7
attitude 27, 29–30, 105–6, 110, 113, 425
cognitivism 436–49
concept of the 9–13, 142, 314, 325–8, 525, 679–80
concepts 64–6, 67
emotion 29, 140, 312, 424, 522
ethics and the 76–7, 122, 267
experience 6–7, 10, 29, 64–6, 86, 110–11, 142, 144, 184, 551
aesthetic value and 102
anti-essentialism about 104, 113
artistic value and 308–9, 313
aspectualism about 78
avant-garde art and 111
contextualism about 108
epistemic accounts of 107, 109, 111–12, 114
ethics and 473
hermeneutic account of 767–8
of literature 314
of nature 108–9
v. ordinary experience 66, 106, 317
as non-conceptual 65–6
of non-art 761–9
non-Western 688
normativity of 110
phenomenological account of 767
as representational 68
role of aesthetic properties in 108
role of imagination in 110–11
role of pleasure in 102–3, 114
scepticism about 10–11
as tool of the bourgeoisie 36
value of 113–14
interest 142
judgements 29, 40, 63–4, 66, 68–74, 326–8, 339
aspectualism about 67–9, 78, 110
as cognitive 69, 72–3
as epistemic 77
as holistic 66
as metaphorical 67
v. non-aesthetic 67, 70
as non-cognitive 90, 110
normativity of 67–79, 82, 723–4
as representational 68
role of imagination in 67
role of pleasure in 326
role of practice in 70, 72
sentimentalism about 67–9, 73
subjectivity v. objectivity of 326–7
as taste-relative 91–3
v. non-aesthetic 80–3, 90, 524–5
pleasure 64–5, 75, 108–9
properties 6, 11–12, 142, 143, 172, 173
aesthetic experience and 313
anti-realism about 339–40
artistic value and 308–9, 313, 321
aspectualism about 86–7
as dispositional 65
as evaluative 82–3, 89–90
as non-condition-governed 11–12
as phenomenal 93–4
as response-dependent 68
causal theory of 90, 92
contextualism about 12
emotivism about 423
epistemology of 80
individuation of 85
irreducibility of 95
(p. 797)
mind-independence of 63–79
of nature 127, 133–4, 669
nominalism about 85
v. non-aesthetic 326, 330–1
objectivity v. realism 83–5
realism about 111, 340–1, 723
sentimentalism about 78
taste theory of 11, 82
verificationism about 86–7 see also beauty
scepticism about the 81, 101
value
of creativity 246
experience and 102
historicism about 541
of indiscernibles 173
of knowledge provision 444–9
of literature 548
of nature 121, 125, 133–4
of popular art 736
representation and 195
role of aesthetic pleasure in 109, 669–70
role of ethics in 451–68
role of truth in 707
subjectivity of 723 see also aesthetics
aestheticism, see definition of art
aesthetics
African 680, 683
Buddhist 682
Chinese 685–8
folk 63, 68, 79, 336–7
Indian 681
Islamic 681–2
Japanese 684–5, 688
non-Western 762–3
positive 125–7, 133–4, 671
Yoruba 680 see also aesthetic
Agamemnon (Aeschylus) 414–16, 418
Aiken, H. D. 275
Ajax (Sophocles) 417
Ajzen, I. 276
Alberti, L. B. 518, 557, 565
Alexander, T. 766–7
al-Ghazzali 688
Alison, A. 28, 30–1
Allen, N. W. 615, 617–18
Allen, R. 187, 627
Allen, R. T. 429
allographic 176–7, 241
Alpers, S. 231, 653
Alperson, P.
improvisation 156, 253, 494
music 489
ontology of art 166
Althusser, L. 785
Altieri, C. 544–5
Ambrose, St 344
Anderson, D. 249
Anderson, J. 114, 152, 313–14, 453, 456
Anderson, R. 525
Ang, I. 787
animals (creativity in) 250
Ankersmit, F. 476
anti-essentialism 13, 101, 104, 113, 144–5, 543, 781
anti-intentionalism, see intentionalism
anti-realism, see realism
Appiah, K. A. 525, 529, 683
appreciation 65, 174
as conversational 285
emotional response in 219, 425–6
knowledge of medium in 187–8
of literature 544–5
of nature 127–34
arousal model 130–2
natural environment model 128–32
relevance of scientific knowledge to 129–33
of popular art 743–5 see also understanding
Aquinas, St T. 99, 326, 556, 565
architecture
aestheticism about 561–5
aesthetic properties of 328–34
Bauhaus 559–60
beauty in 561
classicism in 557
concept of the aesthetic in 556
definition of 561–7
ethics and 566–9
functionalism about 559
v. mere building 556–7
modernism in 558–60, 565–6
museums and 569
neo-Gothic 558
ontology of 158
postmodernism in 560, 570, 772–3
public nature of 562, 564
as representational 567–8
v. sculpture 562–3
site-specificity of 563–4
as teleological 564–7
Aristotle 26, 565, 724
definition of art 5, 137
emotion and art 421, 769
ethics and art 452
(p. 798)
humour 345, 347, 351
knowledge through art 436
mimesis 597
narrative 399
poetry 605–7
psychology 693–4, 699
representation 208
theatre 583, 586, 594–5, 603
tragedy 99, 444, 419, 432, 532
Armstrong, R. P. 679–80
Arnheim, R. 184–5, 250, 422, 628–30
Arnold, M. 38, 45, 457, 784
Aron, T. 537
arousalism, see expression
art
body 338, 763
conceptual 143, 172, 182, 188–9
death of 36, 777–8
decorative 527
definition of, see definition of art
end of, see death of
first 149–50
folk 271, 527
mass, see mass art
v. ornamentation 559
performance 143, 188
popular, see popular art
as problem-solving 698–9
as sexually selected 699–702
universality of 696
Artaud, A. 595, 597–8
artefactuality (and value) 309
art for art's sake 138
artforms, hybrid 177–8
artworks, see works of art
artworld 14, 145–8, 149
aspectualism
about aesthetic judgements 67–9, 78, 110
about aesthetic properties 86–7
about aesthetic understanding 69
Auden, W. H. 479
Audi, R. 277
audience
response of
relevance to evaluation 457–9
relevance to pornography 467–8
role in authenticity 268–70
role in creation 255
role in humour 353–5
role in theatre 602–3
Augustine, St 409
Austen, J. 239–40, 445
Austin, J. L. 238
auteurism, see film, authorship in
authenticity
aesthetic value of 264
contextualism and 270
expressive 266–70
nominal 259–63, 270
in non-Western art 263–4, 683
ontology and 163–5, 264–5
in oral traditions 160
originality and 266–8
in photography 623
role of the audience in 268–70
style and 234
value of 499–502
authentic performance movement 165
author
apparent, see implied artist
fictional, see implied artist
implied, see implied artist
postulated, see implied artist
role in narrative 397–8
autism 296, 716
autographic 176–7, 241
avant-garde 30, 36
aesthetic experience and 111
autonomy theory of 752–9
eliminativism about 752
feminism and 654
v. modernism 751
as non-art 751–2
v. popular art 739
v. postmodernism 748–9
as subversive 749–51
Ayer, A. J. 423
Bachmann, K. 520
Bailin, S. 248, 250
Bain, A. 349
Bal, M. 397
Ball, H. 757
ballet 177 see also dance
Banes, S. 592
Barfield, O. 607
Barish, J. 537
Barkow, J. H. 695
Barnes, A. 293
Barnes, J. 421, 428
Baron, M. 726
Baron-Cohen, S. 716
Barsch, A. 547
Barthes, R. 276, 393, 538, 618, 768, 773
Bataille, G. 776
Batkin, N. 615
Battersby, C. 255, 649, 655
(p. 799) Batteux, C. 137, 586
Baudelaire, C. 30, 614
Baudrillard, J. 768, 778
Baugh, B. 490, 744
Bauhaus 559–60
Baumgarten, A. G. 9, 25, 37, 40, 314, 521, 792
Baxandall, M. 187, 232, 250, 520, 522, 528
Bazin, A. 615–16, 619, 621, 628, 636
Bazzana, K. 266
Beardsley, M. 7, 29–30
aesthetic experience 10–12, 100–6, 108, 112–13
aesthetic judgements 327
aesthetic properties 6, 82–3
creativity 248–50, 252
dance 589–91
definition of art 5, 14–15, 142, 143, 144, 549
emotion and art 422
ethics and art 453, 458
evaluation of art 8
fiction 384
history of aesthetics 46, 532
intentions 277, 283, 295, 297
knowledge through art 446
literature 541
medium 182–3, 238
metaphor 370
painting 519
poetry 606–7
value of art 308, 313, 320, 436, 669
Beardsmore, R. 437–8, 445
beauty 29, 32–3, 34–5
of abstracta 331–2, 340–1
in architecture 561
of art v. nature 117, 668
as art-definitve 472–3
evolution and 337
feminism and 662
as focus of aesthetics 5, 27
freedom and 476
free v. dependent 29, 332–6, 338–9
gender-dependent 337
intuitionism about 723
judgements of 70–4, 326–8
in non-art 764
non-Western concepts of 685
personal 336–9
in poetry 610
role of function in 332–3, 338
as social construction 336–7
as verdictive 327
Beauty Myth 337, 662
Becker, C. 476
Beethoven, L. 266
Belfiore, E. S. 26, 594
Bender, J. W.
aesthetic properties 12, 68, 94
evaluation 321–2
ontology of art 168
Benjamin, W. 37, 39
aesthetic experience 112
ontology of art 161
politics and art 476, 778
popular art 733, 736
religion and art 762
Berger, J. 519
Bergson, H. 347, 350, 355
Berkeley, G. 577
Berleant, A. 118, 668, 670, 672, 766, 768–9
Berman, R. 475
Bernstein, J. M. 472, 757
Binkley, T. 14–15, 188–9, 190
Black, J. B. 715
Black, M. 366, 368, 375
Blackburn, S. 64, 74–5, 319–20
Blanchot, M. 537
Blixen, K. 278, 279
Blocker H. G. 616
Bloom, A. 602
Blum, L. 724
Boden, M. 251, 708
body art 338, 763
Booth, W. 239, 298, 395–8, 453
Bordieu, P. 112, 737, 745, 793
Bordwell, D. 292, 627–8
Borges, J. L 173, 242–3
Boruah, B. 388–9, 428
Boswell, J. 536
bourgeoisie 36, 654, 656, 780
Brady, E. 669–70
Brand, M. 277
Brand, P. Z. 662, 793
Bratman, M. E. 277, 282
Braudy, L. 627
Brecht, B. 426, 595, 598, 602–3
Bredius, A. 261
Bremond, C. 393
Breughal, P. 141
Brook, D. 577
Brooks, C. 609–10
Brooks, P. 395
Brown, L. B.
improvisation 494
jazz 490
ontology of art 161, 176
recordings 497
value of music 510
Bryson, N. 528, 532
(p. 800) Budd, M.
aesthetic experience 107–8, 111, 113
aesthetic properties 12
emotion and art 421
expression 220–1, 502, 505
formalism 7, 141, 424, 522
interpretation 8
medium 186
music 711
poetry 609, 611–12
representation 18, 518
tragedy 412
value
of music 510
of representation 209
Buffon, G. 235
Bullough, E. 9, 27, 100
Bürger, P. 750, 752–8
Burke, E. 9, 28, 30–1, 33–4, 37, 423, 431–2
Burton, S. 327
Cage, J. 176, 490–1
Cahill, J. 529
Callicott, J. 671, 673
calligraphy 686–7
Callinocos, A. 778
camp (sensibility) 122
Campbell, J. 707, 712
Campbell, K. 171
canon 651–5
Capa, R. 622
caricature 206, 348, 523, 710
Carlshamre, S. 280
Carlson, A. 118–34, 333, 563–6, 668, 670–6
Carney, J. 15, 149, 150, 151
Carpenter, R. 575–7
Carrier, D. 533
Carroll, J. 699
Carroll, N.
aesthetic experience 7, 11, 111–14
dance 592
definition of art 6, 13, 15, 146, 149–50, 156, 232
ethics and art 455–6, 458–9, 464
expression 20
fiction 388, 430, 432, 602
history of aesthetics 27, 29–31, 34, 46
horror 414
humour 346, 349–50
intentions 277, 284, 285
interpretation 298
medium 185
narrative 394
ontology of art 157, 161, 167
photography 619–21, 636
popular art 736–42, 788, 790
style 236
value of art 313, 316, 318
Carter, C. 584
cartoons 518, 523
categories
of art 12, 523, 744
of art v. nature 123–4, 133
of nature 123–7, 130, 134, 670
catharsis 421, 769
Cavell, S. 45–6
emotion and art 33
ethics and art 730
film 627, 629
music 512
poetry 609–10
photography 616, 621
popular art 738, 790
Cézanne, P. 140
Chadwick, W. 527, 652
Charlton, W. 388, 429
children
imagination of 75, 714, 717–18
representational ability of 206
Ching, H., see Jing, H.
Christ, J. 345
Christensen, B. 540
Christianity 409
Chuang, T., see Zhuang, Z.
Churchland, P. 708, 711
Chytry, J. J. 476
cinema, see film
Cioffi, F. 280
Clark, A. 709, 712
Clark, M. 347
Clark, T. J. 483, 751
Clénent, C. 512
Clendinnen, I. 688
Close, C. 188, 619
Coetzee, J. M. 475
cognitive science (and aesthetics)
on creativity 708–9
on emotional response 715–17
on fiction 715–16
on imagination 713–18
limitations of 708
on music 711–12
on narrative 715–16
on the paradox of tragedy 717
(p. 801)
on perception 709–13
on pictorial representation 709–11
Cohen, M. 627
Cohen, T.
aesthetic v. non-aesthetic 11–12, 81, 326
jokes 357, 359, 729
popular art 734, 738, 740–1, 790
Coker, W. 503
Cole, K. 714
Coleridge, S. T. 224, 428, 539, 688
Collingwood, R. G. 5, 7, 36, 38–9, 45–6, 611
craft 762
creativity, 248–9
definition of art 139, 182, 315, 766
emotional response 33
expression 222–6, 422
ontology of art 16
popular art 733, 735
comedy 356–7
paradox of 603
v. tragedy 356–7 see also humour; jokes
conceptual art 143, 172, 182, 188–9
connoisseurship 523
conservation (of artworks) 520–1 see also preservation; restoration
content (of artworks), see meaning
contextualism, 680–3
aesthetic experience and 108
authenticity and 270
definition of art and 146
forgery and 260, 523–4
intentions and 260, 283
about literature 551
about music 253–4, 492–4
ontology and 16, 173–7
postmodernism and 781 see also historicism
convention (in literature) 546–9
Cooke, D. 422, 503
cookery 763
Cooper, D. 375
Cooper, L. A. 709
Coote, J. 267
Cope, D. 241–2
copies
aesthetic value of 172, 260
v. forgeries 259
ontology of 158 see also forgeries
Corbusier, L. 556, 559
Cork, R. 563
craft 4, 182
v. art 654, 679, 685, 762–3, 765
feminism and 654
as uncreative 248 see also folk art
creation 170, 182, 252–5
creativity 7, 13
cognitive science on 708–9
as computational 251
v. creation 252–5
explanation of 251–2
as expression 248–9
intentions and 252, 276
in interpretation 292
medium and 247
non-human 250
v. novelty 246
ontology and 157
originality and 246
postmodernism and 781
as problem solving 248–51
psychology of 250
critic, ideal 69–70, 90–3, 320–1, 340
criticism
aesthetics as theory of 4
authenticity and 269
biographical 282
New, see New Criticism
Crittenden, C. 382
Croce, B. 5, 16, 182, 224, 536, 766
Cronin, H. 700
Crow, T. 749–51
Culler, J. 403–4, 542
cultural studies
concept of hegemony in 785–6
feminism and 785
gender and 785
history of 783–7
Marxism and 783, 785
philosophy of art and 787–92
psychoanalysis and 785
race and 785
culture, popular, see popular culture
Cummins, R. 709
Currie, G.
appreciation 188
cognitive science 713
contextualism 173–4, 187, 254, 261
definition of art 15
evolutionary psychology 699
fiction 384–7, 430, 432, 715–16
intentions 283
interpretation 8, 294–5
knowledge through art 438–9, 444
literature 538–9, 542
(p. 802)
ontology of art 7, 16–17, 157, 170, 186
photography 614, 619–20
Dadaism 143
Dadlez, E. M. 387–9, 428
Damasio, A. 717
dance
anti-essentialism about 591
artistic v. social 584–5
drama and 583–4, 587
expression theory of 588–91
formalism about 587–9
as functional 587
functions of 583
narrative theory of 591–2
notations 178
v. pantomime 588
postmodern 590–1
as representation 584–5
wordlessness of 587 see also ballet
Danto, A. 4, 6, 36, 45–6, 659, 790
appreciation 188
avant-garde 752–4, 756
contextualism 173, 187, 252
definition of art 5, 14, 139, 145–8, 152
film 627
history of aesthetics, 41
medium 183, 186
ontology of art 16
painting 532
politics and art 471–2, 479–83, 698
postmodernism 777–8
style 234–7
value of art 314, 316
Dasenbrook, R. W. 281
Davidson, D. 277, 298, 374
Davies, D. 17, 186–8, 286, 539
Davies, M. 302
Davies, S.
appreciation 108, 188, 309, 313, 321
authenticity 264–6, 500
contextualism 174, 231–2, 286, 493
definition of art 6, 15, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 550
expression 8, 19–20, 502, 504–10
music 490–2, 499, 744
ontology of art 17, 156, 158, 162, 168, 176, 494
Davis, F. 276
Davis, H. E. 688
Davis, M. 432
Davis, W. 277, 539
Dean, J. 453, 456
death of art 36, 777–8
death of the author 276
DeBellis, M. 66, 711
de Duve, T. 751–2
defamiliarization 539–40
definition of art 13–15, 527
as action-types 17
aesthetic 29–30, 104, 142–4, 149, 754–8
artefactuality in 143, 147
duster-concept 144–5
expressionism 5, 138–9, 146, 182, 212, 225–6, 315, 422–3, 425, 630
forgery and 151
formalism 5, 105, 114, 139–42, 185, 252, 272, 311–12, 423–5, 436, 522
environmental 118–21
gender bias in 658–60
as about freedom 472–4
functional 15, 138, 145–6, 150–2
v. procedural 15
historical 14–15, 145, 148–52
Ideal 766
institutional 14, 28–9, 145–8, 149, 150
analysis of institutions 548–9
mimetic, see representational
representational 5, 137
v. theories of art 136 see also anti-essentialism
Deleuze, G. 773
democracy (role of the arts in) 477–8
depiction
filmic 635
photographic 621–2 see also representation
Derrida, J. 281, 366, 768–9, 773, 776–7
Descartes, R. 197, 426
De Sousa, R. 358–62, 426
Deústua, A. 688
Devereaux, M. 475, 656, 659–60, 662
Dewey, J. 5, 30–1, 38–9, 45–6, 728, 766–7, 769
aesthetic experience 36, 100–5, 112
creativity 248–9
everyday aesthetics 761, 789
expression 220
De Woskin, K. J. 687
Dickie, G. 36
aesthetic experience 10–11, 100–3, 105, 110, 112
definition of art 6, 13–15, 145–8, 149, 152, 545, 789
history of aesthetics 27–34, 46
intentions 282
value of art 308, 321
(p. 803) Diderot, D. 393
Diffey, T. J. 14–15, 271, 437, 440, 447
Dilthy 302
Dinesen, I. 278
Dipert, R. 168
disenfranchisement
of art from politics 471–2, 474–5
role of philosophy in 479
disinterestedness 9, 28, 34, 38, 64, 72, 75, 77, 105, 118, 424, 546, 550–1, 588, 658, 670, 734, 769 see also distantiation
Dissanayake, E. 583, 696, 702, 769
distantiation 472, 474–5, 479, 484
Dodd, J. 17
Dominey, P. 714
Donnellan, K. 427
Douven, I. 241–3
drama
dance and 583–4, 587
opera as 601 see also theatre
Du Bos, J.-B. 25, 31, 33–4, 40–1
Ducasse, C. J. 28
Duchamp, M. 143, 150–1
duck-rabbit figure 203, 522
Dufrenne, M. 100
Dummett, M. 84
Duncan, C. 653
Dutton, D.
appreciation 108, 188, 269
comparative aesthetics 525, 683, 696
contextualism 187, 261
forgeries 173, 261–3, 524
intentions 276
Dworkin, R. 298
Eagleton, T. 35–40, 45–6, 106, 476, 546, 792
earthworks 675
Eaton, M. 81, 433, 728, 793
Ecker, G. 652
Eco, U. 285
Edelman, M. 475
Edman, I. 767
Ehrenzweig, A. 251
Eisenstein, S. 628
Eldridge, R. 186, 611
aesthetic properties 551
ethics and art 438, 726–7, 730
Eliot, T. S. 211, 224, 457
Elliot, R. 670
Elliot, R. K. 76, 427
Ellis, C. J. 688
Ellis, J. M. 45, 544
Elster, J. 246, 250
emergentism 175–6
emotion
aesthetic 140, 312
cognitivism about 426–7
v. feeling 424
ineffable 509
make-believe, see quasi-
quasi- 387, 430, 598 see also catharsis; expression
emotional response 137, 423–33
adaptive relevance of 696–7, 716–17
associationist 219
cognitive science on 715–17
to film 638–40
as irrational 428, 431, 716
to music 506–8
to nature 130–2
role of imagination in 715
role in aesthetic properties 423
role in appreciation 219, 425–6
role in expression 218–21
simulation theory of 432
to theatre 602–3
thought theory of 431
emotivism 319, 423
empathy
in film 639
in interpretation 302–4
in theatre 595, 602
Empson, W. 606
Emt, J. 383
end of art, see death of art
environment
aesthetics of the 763
innate preferences concerning the 697–8
natural v. man-made 668
restoration of the 670 see also nature
environmentalism (effect on aesthetics) 667–73
Epictetus 344
epistemology (of aesthetic properties) 80
eroticism 464–6
Etcoff, N. 337, 662, 703
ethics (and aesthetics) 473, 662, 758
aestheticism about 452–5
v. aesthetics 122, 310
architecture and 566–9
autonomism about 451–5
ethicism about 362–4, 457–60, 463, 468
humour and 358–64
(p. 804)
intuitionism about 723
knowledge of through art 437–40
moralism about 451, 455–7, 460, 463–4, 468
narrative and 395
in non-Western cultures 687
photography and 622
poetry and 607
realism about 723–4
role in aesthetic value 451–68
sentimentalism about 74
tragedy and 408–10, 413, 414–19
evaluation 8, 318–23, 789–90
emotivism about 319–21
interpretation and 298
of nature 125–7
normativity of 320, 321
as objective 321–2
objective v. subjective 319
relevance of audience response to 457–9
relevance of knowledge-provision to 444–9
role of aesthetic properties in 321–2
role of function in 321
role of intentions in 281, 283
role of pleasure in 320
as subjective 319–21
Evans, G. 711
everyday (aesthetics of the) 686, 789
history of 766–8
evolution
beauty and 337
feminism and 662
evolutionary psychology (limitations of) 703–4
experience
phenomenological v. epistemic 100, 102, 105, 112
expression (of emotions) 19–20
arousalism about 425
in dance 222
v. expressiveness 214–15
genuine 216
as means to self knowledge 222–4
in music 214–15, 220–1, 222
natural 216
non-artistic 213–16, 221, 222–4
in painting 222
in poetry 217–18, 222
role of artists' emotions in 213–18, 221–6
role of audience's response in 218–21
role of medium in 184
expressionism, see definition of art
expressiveness 214–15 see also expression
faithfulness, see authenticity
Farah, M. J. 714
Feagin, S.
authenticity 259
emotional understanding 219, 317, 427
emotion and art 432–3
fiction 388
painting 526, 530
Feld, S. 679–80, 683, 685
Felski, R. 649, 654
feminism
avant-garde and 654
beauty and 662
canon and 651–5
concept of the aesthetic and 662
craft and 654
cultural studies and 785
evolution and 662
film and 655–7
formalism and 657–60
Kantianism and 657–8, 660
Marxism and 653, 656
philosophy and 650, 657–61
popular culture and 655
psychoanalysis and 656
representation and 650, 655–7
role of patriarchy in 647–8
semiotics and 656
Ferry, L. 35–6, 40–1, 46
Fichte, J. G. 37
fiction
accommodationism about 382–3
cognitive science on 715–16
description theory of 379
discourse about 385–6
eliminativism about 380–3, 387
emotional response to, see paradox of
fictional discourse v. discourse about 378
as imitation 384
v. literature 378
as make-believe 381, 384
v. non-fiction 383–4, 441–4
objects of
as abstract 382–3
creation of 382–3
(p. 805)
v. descriptions 378
historicism about 383
ontology of 379–83
paradox of 386–9, 427–32, 598, 602
counterpart solution 388
irrationality solution 388–9
make-believe solution 387–8
simulation theory and 387
suspension-of-disbelief solution 387
thought theory and 388
possible worlds analysis of 386
as pretence 384
v. reality 378
as representation 384
v. theatre 600
thought theory of 388
truth in 385–6, 402
truth-value of 380–4
value of 389 see also literature; narrative
fictionalism, see works of art
Fielder, L. 772
film
as art 628–32
authorship in 628, 632–4
definition of film 640–1
emotional response to 638–40
engagement with characters in 638–9
feminism and 655–7
identification with characters in 638–40
as illusory 634–5
as linguistic 628
as medium 184
as moving image 640–1
motion of images in 634–5
narrative 400–1
ontology of 160–1
as photographic 630–2, 634, 641
point of view in 638–9
psychoanalysis and 628, 638
realism in 628, 634–7
as representation 206, 629–31, 635
role of empathy in engaging with 639
role of imagination in engaging with 639
role of sympathy in engaging with 639
v. theatre 600–1
transparency of 636–7 see also photography
Fine, K. 328, 340
Finke, R. 709
first art 149–50
Firth, R. 91
Fischer-Lichte, E. 599
Fish, S. 285, 293–4, 543–4
Fishbein, M. 276
Fisher, J. A. 160–1, 170
Flaubert, G. 30
Fodor, J. 152, 292, 710–11
Fogelin, R. J. 373
Fokkema, D. 541, 546
folk art 271, 527 see also craft
Foot, P. 724
forgeries 443, 523–4, 526
aesthetic value of 172, 173
authenticity and 259–63
contextualism and 173
v. copies 259
definition of art and 151
style and 234, 241 see also copies; plagiarism
form 7
authenticity and 268
in pictures 141
in sculpture 581
significant 5, 29, 140–1, 312, 424, 561
as symbolic 522 see also properties, formal
Foster, H. 792
Foster, M. 608
Foucault, M. 37, 39, 276, 728, 768, 773, 776
framing (art v. nature) 119–20
Frank, R. H. 303
Frankenthaler, H. 518
Frankl, P. 230
frauds, see forgeries
Freedberg, D. 526, 530
Freeden, M. 476
Freeland, C. 629
Freud, S. 37–8, 701
humour 351–2
intentions 280
knowledge through art 437
Friday, J. 620
Fried, M. 518, 524, 530, 748
Frith, S. 788, 790–1
Frow, J. 793
Fry, R. 5, 140
Gadamer, H.-G. 5, 112, 286, 608, 767
Galan, F. W. 541
Gale, R. M. 383
Gans, H. 736–7
Gaudi, A. 562
(p. 806) Gaut, B.
aesthetic properties 12
definition of art 15, 144
ethicism 358, 362–3, 457–8
film 629, 632, 634, 639
intentions 278, 280
knowledge through art 444
value of art 316
Gauthier, T. 30, 587–8
gaze, male 648, 656–7
Geertz, C. 270
Gendler, T. S. 454
Genette, G. 171, 176, 393, 396–7
genius 255, 651
genre 232–3
interpretation of 300
v. style 232–3
Gerard, A. 28, 31–2, 34
Gerow, E. 681
Gerrig, R. 715
Geuss, R. 473
Ghiselin, B. 247
Gilbert, M. 527
Gilbert-Rolfe, J. 674
Gilligan, C. 650
Gilman, S. 662
Giora, R. 348
Glickman, J. 252
Godfrey-Smith, P. 709
Godley, J. 261
Godlovitch, S.
creativity 250
nature 126, 669, 671, 673
performance 166, 265, 490, 497
skill 702
Goehr, L. 482, 512
concept of an artwork 175–6, 493–4
value of music 511
Goldberg, S. J. 686–7
Goldman, A.
aesthetic experience 11
aesthetic properties 9, 12, 68, 82–4, 90–2, 339–41
emotion and art 432
expression 504, 506
interpretation 8, 300
value 725–6
of art 308, 310, 313, 318, 319–22
of music 510
of representation 209
Gombrich, E. 12, 526, 767
representation 8, 17–19, 193, 250, 528, 710, 712–13
style 229, 231
Goodale, M. 712
Goodman, N. 6, 12, 45–6, 767
architecture 563, 567–8, 570
authenticity 7, 261, 262–3, 523
emotion and art 424, 427
expression 19, 422, 503–4
fiction 383
knowledge through art 437–8, 446
literature 538
metaphor 366, 368
music 497
notation 162–3, 164–5
ontology of art 16, 168–9, 176–7
representation 5, 8, 17–18, 197, 200–2, 204–5, 208, 380–1, 517, 635, 650
sculpture 573–4
style 229, 232, 235, 240–1, 243
value of art 316
Gorgias 421, 428
Goswamy, B. N. 681
Götz, V. 247
Gould, C. 140, 141
Gould, G. 265
Gould, T. 740
Gracyk, T.
history of aesthetics 35
ontology of art 167–8, 496
rock 490, 787
Graham, G. 309, 310, 316–17, 439
Gramsci, A. 785–6
grand guignol 464, 468
Graves, L. 151
Gray, B. 537
Greenberg, C. 185, 518, 658, 733, 735, 748
Greenspan, P. 426
Greenspan, S. 715
Gregory, R. L. 199
Greimas, A. 393
Grice, H. P. 238, 292, 296, 369, 541, 548
Grodal, T. 628
Gron, E. 388
Gropius, W. 559
Guyer, P. 30–1, 35, 726–7
Habermas, J. 734, 773, 776–7
Hagberg, G. 253
Haldane, J. 556, 558, 565–6, 569
Hall, S. 783, 785, 787
Hallen, B. 680
Halliwell, S. 26, 432, 594, 597, 605
Hals, F. 261
Hamilton, J. 599, 602
Hampshire, S. 726
Hancher, M. 281
Hanslick, E. 502
(p. 807) Happé F. 296
Hare, R. M. 728
Hargrove, E. C. 669
Harman, G. 627, 629, 707
Harries, K. 563, 568–70
Harris, P. 304, 714–17
Harrison, A. 186
Hartz, G. 349
Harvey, D. 780
Haskell, M. 655, 657
Haskins, C. 767
Hassan, I. 772
Hatcher, E. 525
Hatfield, E. 507
Hausman, C. 248, 249, 252
Heath, S. 282
Heerwagen, J. H. 697
Hegel, G. W. F. 5, 26, 37–8, 40–4, 480, 483, 532, 729, 734, 741, 765, 778
architecture 555, 568–9
nature 117
sculpture 572, 577
style 231
tragedy 414
Heidegger, M. 36–7, 39, 42, 44, 777–8
aesthetic experience 112, 761, 767
architecture 568–9
poetry 608
Heilbrun, C. 656
Henze, D. 252
Hepburn, R. 117–18, 124, 129–30, 333
Herder, J. G. 230
Herman, B. 726
Hermeren, G. 81, 295
Herrnstein Smith, B. 542
Herwitz, D. 529, 756
Higgins, K. 510, 738, 742, 766, 790–1
Higonnet, M. 656
Hildebrand, A. 576
Hirsch, E. D. Jr 281–2, 286, 294
Hirstein, W. 707
historicism 146, 187, 695
about aesthetic value 541
about the concept of art 764–5
about intentions 276
about literature 541
about style 242 see also contextualism
Hjort, M. 276, 544
Hobbes, T. 345–7, 542–3
Hoekema, D. 480
Hoggart, R. 783–5
Hohendahl, P. U. 483
hooks, b. 656, 787
Hopkins, R. 8, 18, 198, 573–4, 709–10, 712
Horace 532
Horkheimer, M. 733, 735
Horowitz, G. 759
horror 432
v. tragedy 414
Hospers, J. 182, 250
Howard, V. 248, 250
Howe, I. 772
Howell, R. 17, 156, 160, 380, 538
Hsieh, H.,see Xie, H.
Huelsenbeck, R. 757
Huichol art (Mexico) 267–8
Hume, D. 31, 34–5, 37, 40, 658, 726
aesthetic judgements 67–74, 77–9, 326, 340, 523, 694, 793
ethics and art 452–3, 457
tragedy 410–13, 432, 717
value of art 319–21
humour
art and 357–8
dispositional theory of 353–6
ethics and 77, 358–64
as fictional 360–1
imagination and 360–1
incongruity theory of 347–51, 356
judgements in 75
v. laughter 346–7, 355–6
non-human 354–5
phthonic 358–62
problem-solving and 350–1, 354–5
release theory of 351–3
as response-dependent 349
role of audience response in 353–5
role of desire in 352
role of laughter in 353–6
sexist 359
superiority theory of 345–7, 349 see also comedy; jokes
Hunt, R. 349
Hunter, I. 792–3
Hutcheson, F. 9, 25, 28–32, 35
beauty 332
definition of art 137
humour 346–7
Huyssen, A. 775
hybrid artforms 177–8
Hyman, J. 199–200, 315, 317, 707
Ibsch, E. 541, 546
identification (with characters) 432, 638–40
Ii, N. 688
ikebana (cut-flower art) 684
(p. 808) illusion 187
film as 634–5 see also trompe l'œil
imagination
central v. acentral 639
children's 75, 714, 717–18
cognitive science on 713–18
from the inside 639
as means to knowledge 444
in representation 203, 208
resistance of 454–5
role in emotional response 715
role in metaphor 374
role of belief in 714–15
in sculpture 574
as visual 713–14 see also make-believe
imitation
v. mimesis 597–8
of style 241 see also mimesis; representation
implied artist
v. narrator 281
role in fictional discourse 386
role in interpretation 298–9, 303
role in narrative 399
style and 238–40, 242
improvisation
creation of 253
musical 156, 176, 253, 489, 494
musical v. poetic 159
indiscernibles 146, 173, 262, 330, 339, 526, 532–3, 670, 752
Ingarden, R. 100, 160, 171–2, 497–8
intention
in action 279
action and 276–80
appreciation and 280–6
categorial 284–5
choices and 279
collective 282
conflicting 278
creativity and 276
definition of art and 150–1
eliminativism about 275–6, 280–2
evaluation and 281, 283
in forgery 259–60
historicism about 275
ontology and 157, 158–9, 282–3
in photography 206
as private 276
psychoanalysis and 280, 281
reduction of 277
in representation 193–6, 206
role in defining literature 549–51
semantic 278, 284–5 see also intentionalism; meaning
style and 236
unconscious 279–80
as will 276
Intentional Fallacy 252, 283, 295
intentionalism
actual 146, 292, 294–7
v. anti-intentionalism 281–6
author, see actual
conjecturalist 285
contextualism and 260
creativity and 252
fictionalist 285
hypothetical 284–5
interpretation 8
as art-defining 146
creative 292
evaluation and 298
evaluation of 292–4
of genre 300
imagination in 302
incompatible 293
indeterminacy in 299
knowledge of genre in 304
objectivity of 302
ontology of art and 175, 295
performative 159, 165, 167, 265, 301
pluralism about 292–4
relativism about 293, 298
role of empathy in 302
scepticism about 280, 293
simulation theory v. theory-theory in 302–4
structuralist 300
of style 301
of tragedy 300
truth in 293 see also meaning
intuitionism 723
irony 281
autism and 296
Irwin, W. 281
Iseminger, G.
aesthetic experience 114
intentions 284
Isenberg, A. 522, 659
Jackendoff, R. 301, 503
Jacobson, D. 316, 363, 456, 458–9
Jakobson, R. 537, 540
James, H. 392, 396
James, W. 426
(p. 809) Jameson, F. 476, 570, 779–80
Janaway, C. 26, 44, 594
Janko, R. 594
Janson, H. 651
Jarvie, I. 252
jazz 176, 254, 490, 511 see also improvisation
Jencks, C. 772
Jenneret, C.-E., see Corbusier, L.
Jerome, St 345
Jing, H. 686
John, E. 437
Johns, J. 518
Johnson, C. 656
Johnson, M. 366
Johnson, S. (Dr) 428, 453, 536
jokes 729
v. artworks 357–8, 458
ethics and 458
understanding 296 see also comedy; humour
Jones, P. 317
Joyce, R. 386–7, 389
Juhl, P. D. 281, 292, 294
Kallberg, J. 163
Kallen, H. 766–7
Kames, Lord 31
Kania, A. 635
Kant, I. 5, 9, 29–31, 33–8, 521–2, 530, 532, 657–8, 660, 680, 726–7
aesthetic judgements 40, 64, 67–8, 71–2, 241, 326–7, 694
architecture 562–3
definition of art 137
disinterestedness 75, 99, 118, 424, 473, 480, 483, 733–4, 765
genius 255
humour 347
music 492, 512
sculpture 572
tragedy 409, 417–18
value of art 314, 319, 321, 519
Kaplan, A. 736
Kaplan, E. A. 656
Kaprow, A. 750, 755
Kasulis, T. P. 682
Kavanaugh, R. D. 714
Keene, D. 684
Keil, C. 679, 684
Kellner, D. 783–4, 786, 789
Kelly, M. 483
Kemp, M. 528, 706
Kennedy, J. M. 575–6
Kennick, W. 524
Kenny, A. 707
Kermode, F. 395
Khatchadourian, H. 249–50
Kieran, M. 438, 454, 456–8, 461, 463, 468
Kierkegaard, S. 37, 347
Kim, J. 329
King, W. 617, 631
kitsch 791, 793
Kivy, P.
aesthetic judgements 77–9
aesthetic properties 11–12, 326, 332
authenticity 266–7, 500
ethics and art 454
expression 8, 19–20, 214–18, 504, 506
form 7, 492
history of aesthetics 32
improvisation 156, 494
interpretation 302
film 629
knowledge through art 437
music 489, 497, 508, 510, 512–13
ontology 170, 253
opera 601
representation 207
value of art 316
Knapp, S. 282, 294–5
knowledge
through art 316
provision of as aesthetically valuable 444–9
provision of as appreciatively relevant 444–9
through representations 208
through style 445
Koestler, A. 262, 347
Komar, V. 697–8
Kominimung art (Papua New Guinea) 271–2
Korsgaard, C. 307–8, 726
Korsmeyer, C. 32, 35, 64, 648–9, 763
Koshiro, H. 688
Kosslyn, S. 713–14
Kracauer, S. 628
Krausz, M. 489
Kristeller, P. O. 519, 531–2
Kristeva, J. 654
Kroon, F. 381
Kubovsky, M. 710
Kulvicki, J. 202, 206
Kundera, M. 791
Lacan, J. 628, 785
Lakoff, G. 366
(p. 810) Lamarque, P.
comparative aesthetics 682
emotion and art 430–1
ethics and art 453, 458
expression 20
fiction 378, 381–2, 384, 387–9
intentions 276
knowledge through art 437, 446–8
literature 539, 542, 548–9
popular art 744
tragedy 413
value of art 314–15
Landowska, W. 265
Langer, S. 5, 422, 504, 510, 522, 579–82, 589, 591, 663
Lauter, E. 658, 660
Lawal, B. 680, 687
Leavis, F. R. 784
Leddy, T. 251, 255, 764
Lee, S. 456
Leibniz, G. W. 34, 40
Lentricchia, F. 537
León-Portilla, M. 688
Leopold. A. 668, 671
Lerdahl, F. 301, 503
Leslie, A. M. 714
Lessing, G. E. 5, 184–5, 575
Levine, D. N. 714
Levinson, A. 587–8
Levinson, J.
aesthetic experience 11, 108–9, 113, 551
aesthetic judgements 326–7
aesthetic properties 6, 9, 12–13, 93, 331
authenticity 501
contextualism 173–5, 187–8, 261, 493
definition of art 6, 14–15, 148, 149, 150–2, 232, 550
emotion and art 427–8, 429, 725
ethics and art 458, 465, 467, 793
expression 8, 19–20, 221, 505–10
fiction 382, 384, 386–8, 430
film 629
humour 353–6
intentions 278, 283, 284–5, 286
interpretation 292, 297, 301
medium 189
metaphor 375, 610
music 491, 499, 711
ontology 7, 16–17, 157, 166, 170, 177, 183, 186, 238, 253, 496–7, 522
pleasure 432
representation 18, 195, 198, 530
value of art 308–9, 313–14, 316–18, 321
Lewis, C. I. 550
Lewis, D. 380–1, 384–6, 547
LeWitt, S. 182
Li, Z. 686
Lind, R. 142, 143, 144
Lippard, L. 649
literature
aesthetic definition of 549–50
aesthetic value of 548
anti-essentialism about 536–7
contextualism about 551
definition of 537–51
v. discourse 538
disinterestedness in appreciating 546–7
as fiction 541–3
v. fiction 378
function of 541
historicism about 541, 549–50
honorific sense of 536
institutional definitions of 545–51
Marxist theory of 546
nominalism about 550
oral 536
v. poetry 536
polyvalence of 546–7
procedural definitions of 543–5
reader-response theory of 543–4
role of convention in 546
role of intentions in defining 549–51
role of sympathy in appreciation of 544–5
sociological account of 546
v. text 538
v. theatre 600
v. utterance 539 see also fiction; narrative
Livingston, P.
film 632–3
intentions 276, 278, 284, 285
literature 547
Lomax, A. 683
Long, A. A. 418
Loos, A. 231, 559
Lopes, D. 8, 18–19, 195, 201, 203, 208, 530, 575, 712–13
Lotze, H. 36
Loudon, J. C. 560
Louis, M. 518
Lubbock, P. 396–7
Lucie-Smith, E. 187
Lukács, G. 37, 39
Luzon (Philippines) 263–4
Lyas, C. 275, 283
Lyons, W. 426
Lyotard, J.-F. 773–4, 776
Maatje, F. C. 542
McAllester, D. P. 685
(p. 811) MacCabe, C. 788
McClary, S. 512
McCloskey 333
McDermott, J. 766–7
MacDonald, D. 733, 735, 741
McDowell, J. 711, 724
McFee, G. 286, 591
McGinn, C. 71
McGuigan, J. 786
McHale, B. 774
Maclntyre, A. 724
MacKay, A. 283
MacLeish 608
McNeill, W. 583
Macpherson, J. 282
Madden, E. H. 682
Mailer, N. 542–3
Maitland, J. 248, 250, 254
make-believe
emotions, see emotion, quasi-
in fiction 430
in representations 203–4 see also imagination
male gaze 648, 656–7
Mallarmé, S. 587–8
Mandel, E. 780
Mandelbaum, M. 13–14, 145, 543
Manea, N. 473–4, 476
Manet, E. 206–7, 526
Maquet, J. 525
Maquet, M. 108
Marchiano, F. 520
Marcus, G. 758
Margolis, J.
feminism 661
ontology of art 16, 168, 175–6, 183, 188–9, 539
Marr, D. 710
Martin, D. F. 577, 579
Martin, E. 619–20
Martin, J. 589, 591
Martin, M. W. 351
Marx, K. 36–8
Marxism 38–9, 426, 481
comparative aesthetics and 682–3
cultural studies and 783, 785, 792
feminism and 653, 656
literature and 546
music and 511
postmodernism and 778–9
mass art 788–91
v. popular art 741–2
technologies 161 see also popular art
masterpieces 311, 526, 651–4
Matravers, D.
definition of art 152
expression 8, 19–20, 425, 504, 506
Mauro, R. 710
Maynard, P. 205, 618–19, 621–2
meaning 7–8
of artworks 181, 439, 745
as contextual 283, 286
Humpty-Dumptyism about 283–4
literal 291, 296
metaphorical 371–4
in music 301
natural v. non-natural 292
v. significance 286
style and 234–5
of texts 294
unintended 279–80
medium
creativity and 247
physical v. artistic 183, 188
purity 184–6
role in evaluation 183–8
role in narrative 399
specificity 620–1
in theatre 596
Meiland, J. 297
Meinong, A. 379, 382
Melamid, A. 697–8
Melchionne, K. 766
Mele, A. R. 277–80, 284
Melzer, A. M. 477
Mendelssohn, M. 30–2, 34
Menke, C. 757
Merleau-Ponty, M. 286, 577, 581, 769
metaphor
v. ambiguity 371–2
as analogy 373–4
v. artwork 439
autism and 296
as contextual 368
v. idiom 368–9
v. irony 369–70
paraphrasability of 368, 372, 610
as picture 374
in poetry 367–8, 610
recognition of 370
as resemblance 372–4
role of imagination in 374
Metz, C. 628, 638
Mew, P. 425
Meyer, L. 229, 263, 422, 431
Michaels, W. B. 282, 294–5
Mill, J. S. 38
Miller, G. F. 700–2
Miller, H. 461–3
(p. 812) Miller, M. 670, 675, 763, 766
Miller, R. W. 321, 445, 454, 725–6
Millett, K. 656
Millikan, R. 332
Milner, D. 712
mimesis 769
v. imitation 597–8
make-believe 598 see also imitation; representation
Mitchell, W. J. 624
Mithen, S. 695
Mitias, M. 105
Mitrovic, B. 331
mixed-media art 521 see also multi-media art
modernism 792
architecture 556, 565–6, 751–2
avant-garde and 749
everyday aesthetics and 766
expressionism and 271
formalism and 140
medium and 185, 195
narrative and 393
politics and 477, 479
popular art and 742
postmodernism and 772, 775
Molière 544
Momaday, N. S. 687
Moore, G. E. 76, 85
morality, see ethics
Moran, R. 374, 387, 454, 603
Morizot, J. 173
Morreall, J. 345, 347, 351, 387, 430, 433
Morris, A. 709
Morris, W. 30, 38, 45, 560
Morrow, D. G. 715
Moser, P. 279
Mothersill, M. 339, 662, 723
motion picture, see film
Muir, J. 667
Mukařovský, J. 541
multiculturalism 766
multi-media art 686–7 see also mixed-media art
Mulvey, L. 628, 656–7
Munsterberg, H. 627
Murdoch, I. 663, 727–8
museums (and architecture) 569
music
cognitive science on 711–12
concatenationism about 508
definition of 490–2
expressiveness of 489, 502–6
as appearance 505–6
as associative 503
emotional response to 506–8
as expression 504–5
as linguistic 503
as make-believe 505
as representation 504–5
as resemblance 504
scepticism about 502
as sui generis 503
formalism about 492–3
form in 489, 491, 508
instrumentation and work identity 493
jazz 176, 254, 490, 511
for live performance 495
live performances v. recordings of 497–8
for live performance v. studio performance 167
meaning in 301
negative responses to 507–8 see also tragedy, paradox of
non-Western 489
notation of 491–2, 498–9
not for performance 495–6
ontology of 253, 495–7 see also works of art
oral traditions 160, 164
profound 509
pure 138, 317, 489, 509, 712
representational 207
role of concepts in perception of 711–12
for studio performance 496
transcriptions 496
understanding of 66–7, 69, 508–9
value of 509–11
emotional knowledge as 509–10
unworldliness as 510
Nagel, T. 68
narration, see narrative
narrative
act-object ambiguity of 392
closure 394–5, 404
cognitive science on 715–16
comprehension 401–5
definition of 393–4
ethics and 395
v. fiction-making 398
film 400–1
internal audience of 397
(p. 813)
knowledge and 403
meaning of 394, 404
meta- 776
v. mimesis 399, 401
v. narration 392, 401
non-agential 400
point of view in 396
as problem-solving 699
role of actual author in 397–9
role of implied author in 399
role of medium in 399
as rule-governed 395–6
selectivity of 403–4
story v. plot in 540
structuralism about 393, 396–7
v. text 392–3
time v. order 397
voice v. mood 396–7 see also fiction; literature; narrators
narrators 396
authority of 399
cinematic 400
effaced v. self-conscious 399
fictional 398–9
homodiegetic v. heterodiegetic 396
v. implied artist 281
role in style 239
unreliable 239, 399, 402 see also narrative
Nasr, S. H. 688
Nathan, D. O. 281, 284
nature 4
aesthetic experience of 108–9
aesthetic properties of 669
aesthetic value of 668–71
v. art 125–8
appreciation of 671–3, 687–8
as art 673–4
pluralist 672
role of scientific knowledge in 672–3
beauty of 668
categories of 670
in Chinese aesthetics 685–6
v. civilization 667
as expressive 120–2
formalism about 669
framing of 119–21
in Japanese aesthetics 685
objects v. environment 129
positive aesthetics of 125–7, 133–4, 671
preservation of 669–70
regarded as art 123
representation of 674
wild v. developed 669–70 see also environment
Neander, K. 198–9
Nehamas, A. 26, 239, 285, 298, 728
Neill, A. 387, 412, 429–30, 432, 639–40
New Criticism 541, 600, 609
Nietzsche, F. 37–8, 40–2, 688, 701, 758, 762, 769
ethics and art 728
postmodernism 776–8
tragedy 409, 414, 418, 432
Nishitani, K. 684
Nochlin, L. 255, 651–2
non-Western art (authenticity in) 263–4
Norris, C. 773, 778
notations 162–5, 176–7, 178, 491–2
Novalis 42–3, 181
novel (ontology of the) 159–60
novelty, see creativity
Noverre, J.-G. 584–8
Novitz, D.
creativity 251, 708
definition of art 152
fiction 389
knowledge through art 437–9, 442
non-Western art 763
popular art 737–41, 743–5
Nowell-Smith, G. 633
Nussbaum, M. 663
ethics and art 26, 483, 724, 730
knowledge through art 316, 395, 437–8, 440
tragedy 414, 418–19
Oatley, K. 715
obscenity (in art) 459–64, 468
role of desire in 460–1
occlusion shape, see outline shape
Ogden, CK. 541, 608
Ohmann, R. 542
Okpewho, I. 683
Olsen, S.
ethics and art 458
fiction 378, 382, 384
knowledge through art 437, 446–8
literature 539, 548–9
popular art 744
value of art 314–15, 608
O'Neill, O. 726
ontology 7, 15–17
of architecture 158
of fiction 379–83
of film 160–1
intentions and 157, 158–9, 282–3
medium and 186–7
(p. 814)
of music, 253, 495–7
of painting 517–21 see also works of art
Onyewuenyi, I. C. 685
opera 511–13
as drama 601
politics and 512
oral traditions 160, 164, 536
Orians, G. H. 697
originality, see creativity
Ossian 282
outline shape 197–9, 200
Pacherie, E. 279
Packer, M. 412
painting
African 525–6
as autonomous action 528–9
conservation of 520–1
decay of 520–1
display space of 577–8
as fine art 531
form in 521–2
as illusion 531, 532
as imitation 531–2
materials of 519–20
ontology of 517–21
v. photography 138, 195, 196, 206
realism in 528, 619
representation and 517–18
restoration of 520–1
site-specificity of 526–7
visual experience of 524–5, 530–2
Zen Buddhist 519 see also pictures; portraiture; representation
Palladio 565
Panofsky, E. 556
pantomime 588
paradox
of comedy, see comedy
of fiction, see fiction
of tragedy, see tragedy
Parker, D. 28
Parker, R. 649
Parsons, T. 382, 385
Paskins, B. 388
Pater, W. 30, 138
patriarchy 654
in aesthetics 648
role in feminism 647–8
Patrick, C. 247
Pavel, T. 397
Paxton, S. 590–1
Payzant, G. 266
Peacocke, C. 8, 18, 152, 198, 710–11
Pelletier, J. 382
perception
causal theory of 199
cognitive science on 709–13
as interpretation 767
musical 711–12
psychology of 201
representational v. sensational 711 see also experience
performance
artworks for, see music; works of art
live v. recorded 167
live v. studio 167
musical 489 see also music; theatre
performance art 143, 188
Perkins, V. 628, 632, 641
Perry, L. 250
perspective
children's use of 206
linear 193, 198, 204–6, 532
oblique 205
orthogonal 204–6
Pettersson, A. 280, 282, 536, 550
Pettit, P. 87–91, 723
Pevsner, N. 556, 561, 563, 568–9
Philostratus 531
Phipps, W. 345
photography
as art 614–15
authenticity in 623
as automatic 615–16
depiction v. detection in 621–2
digital 614, 623–4
essence of 621
ethics and 622
film and 630–2, 634
intentions in 206, 616–18
medium specificity in 620–1
narrative 622–3
as non-aesthetic 617–18
v. painting 138, 195, 196, 206
realism in 619
representation and 195, 206, 617, 620
style in 617
transparency of 614, 617, 619–20 see also film
pictures
form in 141
motion, see film
transparency of 206 see also depiction; painting; representation
Pinker, S. 696, 699
Pippin, R. 729
Plantinga, C. 627
Plato 5, 25–6, 688
artist as medium 181, 246
beauty 326, 332
definition of art 137
emotion and art 421, 693
ethics and art 461, 723
humour 344–5
knowledge through art 436, 444, 725
painting 531
poetry 607
politics and art 480–3
representation 192–3, 197, 207–9, 769
theatre 583, 586, 594, 597, 602–3
tragedy, 408–9, 409, 414
pluralism
about interpretation 292–4
tragedy and 409
Podro, M. 518, 524, 532
poetry
authorial sincerity in 611–12
beauty in 610
as craft 611
definition of 605–7
ethics and 607
as expression 607
expression in 217–18
improvised 159
institutional theory of 607
knowledge through 608–9
as literature 605, 611
metaphor in 367–8
non-cognitivism about 608
paraphrasability of 609–11
as for performance 166
positivism and 608
as semantically unique 606–7
translatability of 611
truth in 611–12
value of 607–12
as verse 605–6
point of view
filmic 638–9
narrative 396
politics
aesthetics and 778–80
opera and 512
postmodernism and 773
Pollock, G. 649, 653
Pollock, J. 239, 519
Poneach, T. 282
Pop Art 591
Popper, K. R. 303
popular art
aesthetic value of 736
appreciation of 743–5
v. avant-garde art 739
distinctive aesthetics of 743–5
eliminativism about 739, 741
functional definition of 739
v. mass art 741–2
role of community in 742–3
sociological account of 739–42
popular culture (and feminism) 655
pornography 464–8
v. eroticism 464–6
portraiture 208
postmodernism 39, 393, 560, 570, 590–1, 748–9, 752, 765
in architecture 772–3
concept of 771–2, 774–5
creativity and 781
as historical period 774
history of 772–4
Marxism and 778–9
v. modernism 772, 775
as narrative 776
v. post-structuralism 773–4
as style 774
in visual art 773
post-structuralism
intentions and 276
v. postmodernism 773–4
Pound, E. 540, 606
Prado, C. G. 382
pragmatism 661, 766
Prall, D. 28
Predelli, S. 17
Prentice, D. 715
preservation (of nature) 669–70 see also conservation; restoration
Prince, G. 397
Prochard, H. A. 723
projection, see perspective
properties
aesthetic, see aesthetic, properties
art-historical 330
artistic 171–2
evaluative 319–20
expressive 139, 221–2
aesthetic experience and 142
as art-definitive 425
in dance 588–9
of nature 120–2, 128
recognition v. perception 220
formal 141
humorous 349
(p. 816)
physical 330
representational 141, 330
style 238–42 see also supervenience
Propp, V. 393, 395
Provine, R. 356
psychoanalysis
cultural studies and 785
feminism and 656
film and 628, 638
intentions and 280, 281
psychology
of creativity 250–1
evolutionary, see evolutionary psychology
personal v. subpersonal 707
tragedy and 412
Pugin, A. W. 558–9
Pugmire, D. 426
purposiveness
of art 33–4
in creativity 248–9
of form 522
Putnam, H. 437–8, 441, 724
Pythagoras 421
quasi-emotions, see emotion
Quine, W. V. O. 380
Rabelais, F. 344
Radford, C. 388, 428–31, 716
radio (transparency of) 207
Raffman, D. 301, 510, 711
Railton, P. 320–1, 725–6
Rainer, Y. 590–1
Ramachandran, V. S. 706
Rauschenberg, R. 239
Rawls, J. 38
Rawson, P. 682
Read, H. 575
reading against the grain 650, 661
realism
aesthetic 111, 340–1, 723
anti- 200, 339–40
in film 634–7
v. objectivity 83–5
in representation 204–9
value 723–4
recognition (in representation) 203–7
recordings
musical 489, 497–8
theatrical 601
transparency of 207 see also music; performance
Reisberg, D. 709
Reiss, T. J. 538
religion 762
Renaut, A. 41
representation 17–19
v. abstraction 194
aesthetic experience and 142
as causal 196
children's 206
cognitive science on 709–11
feminism and 650, 655–7
as imitation 192–3, 200, 207
as intentional 193–6, 206
knowledge from 208
as make-believe 18, 203, 208
materialist analysis of 199–200
medium and 184
musical 207
of nature 674
painting and 517–18
as recognizability 203
as resemblance 193–4, 196–204
sculptural 572–4
as symbol 200–1
of women 656–7
restoration
of artworks 520–1
of the environment 670 see also conservation; preservation
Rich, A. 649–50
Richards, I. A. 541, 608, 784
Ridley, A.
emotion and art 421, 427, 432
expression 19–20, 221, 505
Riegl, A. 231
Rieser, M. 608
Rind, M. 28
Ritchen, F. 624
Robinson, J. 663
expression 20, 505
knowledge through art 438
music 489
style 238–41, 243
Robinson, P. 512
rock (music) 167, 489–90, 511, 744
Rolston, H. Ill 672
Romanticism 181, 254, 667, 766, 792
Rorty, A. 26, 594
Rorty, R. 382, 483, 776–7
Rose, B. 748
Rosebury, B. 285
(p. 817) Roseman, M. 680, 688
Rosenberg, E. 563
Ross, S. 523, 622, 675, 763
Ross, W. D. 551, 723
Rousseau, J.-J. 37, 602
Rowe, C. 330
Rowe, M. 447–8
Rowell, L. 681
Rudinow, J. 738, 742, 766
Rudner, R. 169
Rumi, J. al-D. 688
Ruskin, J. 30, 36, 38, 45, 558–9, 567
Russell, B. 379–80
Russell, J. 716
Russian Formalism 539–41
Ryosuke, O. 684
Sadra, M. 688
Sagoff, M. 524, 526
Saito, Y. 122, 672, 685–6, 688, 766
Salmon, N. 383
Saltz, D. 596, 599–600
Sandrisser, B. 685–6, 766
Santayana, G. 36, 45
Sards, A. 628, 632
Sartre, J. P. 16, 530–1
Sartwell, C. 30
everyday aesthetics 764, 766
forgery 151
representation 197
satire 447
Savedoff, B. 615, 622–4
Savile, A. 31, 279, 284, 520
Sayre, H. 748–50, 755
Scarry, E. 337, 472–3, 662
Schaeffer, J.-M. 35–6, 42–6
Schaper, E. 26, 333, 429, 663, 726, 728
Schapiro, M. 228–9, 230, 232, 234, 243
Scharfstein, B.-A. 768–9
Schechner, R. 595
Schemer, I. 366
Schelling, F. W. J. 37, 43, 540
Schier, F.
representation 8, 17–19, 197, 201, 203, 573–4, 709
tragedy 412–13
Schiller, F. 30–1, 34, 36–7, 39, 45, 471–2
Schlegel, F. 36, 42–3, 181
Schleiermacher 302
Schlesinger, G. 142
Schmidt, S. J. 546–7
Schoffel, A. 264
Schopenhauer, A. 5, 9, 28–31, 37–8, 42–4, 688
architecture 555
humour 347, 351
music 510
sculpture 572
tragedy 414, 432
Schram, D. H. 547
Schumacher, C. 595
science, cognitive, see cognitive science
Scott, G. 331
Scott, G. G. 558
Scruton, R. 4
aesthetic experience 11, 76, 110–11
aesthetic properties 6, 12, 86, 88, 90
aesthetic v. non-aesthetic 81
architecture 562, 566–7, 568–9
beauty 334
ethics and aesthetics 473
expression 8, 19–20, 221, 503
film 630–1, 634
music 66–7, 69, 496–7
photography 207, 616–18, 620, 622
representation 207
value of art 309, 313–14
sculpture
appreciation of 575–7
v. architecture 562–3
definition of 572
display space of 577–82
experience of 573–4
role of imagination in 574
role of resemblance in 573–4
form in 581
illusionism about 573–4
as kinetic 579–82
v. language 573
organization and 579–82
v. pictures 573–82
representation in 572–4
as tactile 575, 580–1
as three-dimensional 575–7
as two-dimensional 576–7
uniqueness of 572
as visual 575–7, 580–1
Yoruba 680
Seaford, R. 596
Seamon, R. 790
Searle, J. R. 384, 537, 542
seeing-as, see aspectualism
seeing-in 18, 195, 203, 529 see also twofoldedness
Segal, C. 596
semiotics
feminism and 656
theatre and 599
sentimentalism 67–9, 74, 78
(p. 818) Serlio, S. 557, 565
Sesonske, A. 627, 629
Seven against Thebes (Aeschylus) 414–16
Shaftesbury, Earl of 9, 25, 27–8, 32, 34–5, 37–8, 351
Shakespeare, W. 266, 368
shape, see outline shape
Sharpe, R. A. 438, 493, 506, 510–11
Shelley, P. B. 608
Shelton, A. 267–8
Shepard, R. N. 709
Shields, C.
appreciation 174
ontology of art 157
Shiner, L 683
Shklovsky, V. 393
Shusterman, R. 766–7, 775, 779
aesthetic experience 111–13
improvisation 253
interpretation 292
popular art 737–8, 743–4, 788
value of art 728–9
Shweder, R. A. 688
Sibley, F. 6, 9, 11–12, 82, 85, 241, 308, 313, 321, 326, 329
Sidney, Sir P. 605–8
significant form 5, 29, 140–1, 312, 424, 561
simulation theory
fiction and 387
interpretation and 302–4
Sircello, G. 236
Šklovskij, see Shklovsky
Slote, M. 724
Small, C. 686
Smidt, D.
Smith, A. 31, 432, 584
Smith, G. 627
Smith, M. 432, 627–8, 638–9
Smithson, R. 674–6
Snyder, J. 615–18
Socrates
painting 531
tragedy 408–9
Sokoloff, G. 685
Solomon, R. C. 426, 502, 793
Sontag, S. 601, 622, 663, 790
Sophocles (works of) 417
Sparshott, F. 5, 254, 550, 627, 762, 792
Spellerberg, J. 628
Spence, L. 628
Spencer, H. 351–2
Sperber, D. 294, 296
Spinoza, B. 245
Spitz, E. 252
Stam, R. 628
States, B. 599
Stecker, R.
aesthetic v. artistic 12
definition of art 15, 148, 149, 150, 151–2
intentions 285
interpretation 8, 292
literature 549
nature 129–30
value of art 309, 316
Steen, G. J. 547
Steinberg, L. 523, 528
Steinberg, M. 397
Stern, J. 373, 375
Sterne, L. 393
Stevenson, C. L. 44
Stacker, M. 724
Stoics 344–5
Stokes, M. 683
Stokstad, M. 527, 529
Stolnitz, J. 10
aesthetic attitude 425
history of aesthetics 27–31, 34, 46
knowledge through art 437, 439–41, 443, 445
Stone, T. 302, 432, 710
Storey, R. 699
story, see narrative
Stratum, J. 787
structuralism
interpretation and 300
narrative and 393
style 8
authenticity and 234
content and 234–5
v. form 232–3
general 229–33
v. genre 232–3
historical accounts of 230–1, 236–7
individual 233–7
interpretation of 300
v. manner 235
photographic 617–18
as providing knowledge 445
role in forgery 234, 241
role of intentions in 236
v. signature 235
Sukel, K. E. 713
Sullivan, M. 686–7
Summers, D. 526
supervenience 172, 241, 327, 328–32, 340–1
surrealism 205, 351
suspension of disbelief 387
(p. 819) Symons, D. 703
sympathy (role in appreciation) 544–5, 639
Tanner, M. 71, 454, 510
Taruskin, R. 265
taste 31, 71, 321–2
faculty of 326
tattooing 338 see also body art
Taylor, J. 524
Taylor, P. A. 275, 283
Taylor, P. C. 787
television (as representation) 206
text
identity of 538
v. narrative 392–3
v. work 294 see also literature
theatre
action theory in 599
definition of 595–6
emotional response to 602–3
v. fiction 600
v. film 600–1
as game 600
as literature 594–5
v. literature 600
media of 596
as mimesis 596–8
New Criticism and 600
as performance 594, 596–7
recording 601
role of audience in 602–3
semiotics and 599 see also drama
theory-theory (and interpretation) 303
Thorn, P. 166, 265, 497, 596–7, 601
Thomas, D. 367
Thomasson, A. 381, 383
Thompson, E. P. 783, 785
Thompson, J. 669–70
Thompson, R. F. 680
Thompson, W. 714
Thoreau, H. D. 667
Thornhill, A. H. Ill 682
Thornhill, R. 703
Thouless, R. H. 199
Tilghman, B. 152
titles 522
Todorov, T. 300, 393, 538–40
Tolhurst, W. 284, 297, 538
Tolstoy, L. 5, 33, 212, 217, 220, 224, 225–6, 270–1, 422, 451
Tomas, V. 249, 252
topiary 675
Tormey, A. 6, 16, 19, 214, 373, 504, 519
Tormey, J. 519
Townsend, D. 35, 423
tragedy
cognitive science on 717
dilemmas in 414–16
ethics and 408–10, 413, 414–19, 464
human nature and 409–10, 413
v. horror 414
interpretation of 300
pluralism and 409
psychology of 412
value and 414
transcriptions (musical) 496
transparency
of pictures 206
in sound media 207
Trappl, R. 536
trompe l'œil 187, 193, 195, 199, 530
Truffaut, F. 632
truth
aesthetic relevance of 446–9, 454–5, 707
in fiction 385–6, 402
Tuan, Y. 672
Turner, T. J. 715
twofoldedness 18, 186, 190, 203, 529–30 see also seeing-in
understanding
role in value 318 see also appreciation
uniqueness (of artworks) 309, 317
Urmson, J. 10, 313–14, 383
Vaida, I. 85
Valéry, P. 587–8
Vallentyne, P. 65
value 758–9
aesthetic, see aesthetic, value
aestheticism about 728
artistic
as aesthetic 308–9, 311–15, 313, 317
as cognitive 315–18
as essential to art 310–11, 314, 317
as expressive 422
formalism and 311–12
as inherent 309
judgement of, see evaluation
metaphysics of 307–10
narrative theory of 318
normativity of 310–18
(p. 820)
v. other values 311, 318
of representation 312
role of aesthetic experience in 107
role of understanding in 318
expressivist-holism about 727–31
of fiction 389
hedonic theory of 413
intrinsic v. instrumental 307–10, 669
intuitionism about 723
neo-Kantianism about 726–7
non-Western systems of 684–8
particularism about 724–5
realism about 723–4
of representation 207–9
of tragedy 413–14
tragedy and 414–16
Vanbrugh, Sir J. 557
Vance, R. D. 574–5
Van Damme, W. 679–80, 684
van der Rohe, M. 559
van Gerwen, R. 18
van Inwagen, P. 378, 382
Van Leeuwen, C. 709
van Meegeren, H. 261–3, 523
Van Peer, W. 538
Vasconcelos, J. 688
Vattimo, G. 778
Veblen, T. 701
Venturi, R. 560
Vermazen, B. 19–20, 246
Vermeer, J. 261–3, 523–4
Vernon, M. D. 201
Vinograd, R. 686
vision, see experience, visual
Vitruvius 556–7
Von Humboldt, W. 38
Voysey, C. F. A. 560
Wallas, G. 247
Walsh, D. 437–8, 606, 608
Walton, K.
aesthetic experience 114
aesthetic properties 12
categories of art 89, 123–4, 133, 301, 330, 523, 670, 744
contextualism 7, 85, 173, 187, 189, 493
definition of art 5, 148, 149
emotional response 33, 429–30, 508
ethics and art 454
expression 221, 505
fiction 381, 384–8, 402, 602
film 629
intentions 280, 284
mimesis 597–8
ontology of art 168
photography 616, 619–20, 636–7, 712
representation 8, 17–18, 203–4, 206, 208, 524
sculpture 574
style 239, 242–3
theatre 600
value of art 109, 313, 317
Warach, J. 714
Warburton, N. 618–20, 622–4, 636
Ward, T. 709
Warhol, A. 591
Warren, A. 541
Warshaw, P. 276
Watkin, D. 567–8
Waugh, E. 454–5
Waugh, J. 661
Weaver, J. 584–7
Weitz, M. 13–15, 144, 185, 543, 608
Wellek, R. 536, 541
Wellmer, A. 759, 775
Weston, M. 429
Wheeler, S. C. III 538
White, J. 532
White, R. 368
Whyte, L. C. 280
Wicks, R. 617, 631
Widdowson, P. 536
Wiggins, D. 730
Wilde, O. 452–3, 531
Willats, J. 193, 205–6
Willett, J. 595
Williams, B. 414, 416–19, 724
Williams, M. 93
Williams, R. 783–4
Wilsmore, S. 539
Wilson, G. M.
film 627, 629, 633, 638, 640, 715
intentions 279, 295
narrative 394
Wilson, W. K. 282, 296
Wimsatt, W. K. 252, 283, 295
Winner, E. 296
Winters, E. 561
Winters, Y. 609
Witherspoon, G. 686
Witkin, J.-P. 461
Wittgenstein, L. 13, 18, 94, 144, 382, 517, 543, 608, 707, 727–8, 730
Wittkower, R. 331
Wolff, C. 34
Wolff, N. 337
Wolfflin, H. 230, 232
(p. 821) Wollheim, R. 4, 6, 14, 39, 45–6, 659
artistic properties 12, 171
creativity 252, 254
emotional response 33
expression 19
expressionism 182
imagination 639
intentions 275, 282
music 497
nature 121
ontology of art 7, 16, 168
painting 529–30
representation 8, 17–18, 194, 201, 202–3, 574, 710
twofoldedness 186, 190, 194, 203
value of art 314
Wolterstorff, N.
creation 238
fiction 384–5
literature 550
music 494, 497
ontology of art 7, 16, 168, 382
representation 8, 17
Wood, A. 38, 726
Woodruff, P. 597, 602–3
Woolf, V. 651
Wordsworth, W. 211, 217, 422, 607
works of art
as action-types 17
autographic v. allographic 176–7, 241
v. craft, see craft
as created v. as discovered 170
as culturally emergent 175
encoded 160–1
environmental 673–6
as fictions 169–70
first 149–50
great 311, 526, 651–4
historical concept of 175
as ideal 171–2
live-performance v. studio-performance 167
meaning of, see meaning
v. mere things, see indiscernibles
v. metaphors 439
model instances of 159–60
musical, see music
nature art 673–4
notated 161–3
obscene 459–64, 468
paraphrasability of 439
performance v. non-performance 156–7, 159, 164–8
as public 172
singular v. multiple 156–70
temporal v. atemporal 166
v. texts 294
as universals 170–1 see also ontology
Wren, C. 557
Wright, C. 85
Wright, RL 560
Wu, K.-M. 687
Wypijewski, J. 698
Xie, H. 686
Yanal, R. J. 386–9, 428, 430, 432
Yehoshua, A. B. 478
Yoruba 680
Young, A. 710
Yue, G. 714
Zahavi, Am. 700
Zahavi, Av. 700
Zalta, E. 382
Zangwill, N.
aesthetic properties 66, 82
beauty 326, 328, 330, 332–3, 335, 341
definition of art 143, 152
value of art 308, 313
Zeki, S. 707–8
Zemach, E.
aesthetic properties 94–5
beauty 332, 340
fiction 381
ontology of art 17, 157, 168
value of art 308, 313
Zhuang, Z. 687–8
Ziff, P. 13, 144
Zwerdling, A. 651