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date: 25 September 2020

(p. ix) Figures

(p. ix) Figures

  1. 3.1 Average cost curve 58

  2. 4.1 Competition affecting niche position 91

  3. 4.2 Competition affecting niche width 93

  4. 4.3 Number of Irish newspapers, 1704–1974 95

  5. 4.4 Niche width theory predictions of relative fitness of specialists and generalists 98

  6. 4.5 Concentration in mass markets 101

  7. 5.1 Stakeholders' links 106

  8. 5.2 The internal governance of the firm 112

  9. 5.3 Levels and stages of institutionalization 116

  10. 5.4 Organizational growth curve and control/coordination 123

  11. 5.5 The sectoral evolution of technological activity over the life cycle of the sector 123

  12. 5.6 Environmental pressures on sector development 125

  13. 5.7 Modes of organizing transactions in response to information uncertainty 127

  14. 6.1 Appropriability regimes for knowledge assets 146

  15. 6.2 Explaining the distribution of the profits of innovation 149

  16. 6.3 Taxonomy of outcomes from the innovation process 150

  17. 6.4 Enhancing intellectual property protection around a core technology 152

  18. 6.5 Components of industrial knowledge 153

  19. 6.6 Innovation over the product/industry life cycle 155

  20. 6.7 Representative complementary assets needed to commercialize an innovation 158

  21. 6.8 Flow chart for integration vs. outsourcing (contract) decision 162

  22. 6.9 Technological advance and type of innovation 168

  23. 7.1 Evaluation framework for strategic options 175

  24. 7.2a XYZ Engineering Ltd: Sales 179

  25. 7.2b XYZ Engineering Ltd: PBIT 179

  26. 7.3 XYZ Engineering Ltd: Valuation, annuity based 180

  27. 7.4 XYZ Engineering Ltd: Valuation, PE based 180

  28. 7.5 Sensitivity of the M/B model for different combinations of parameters (model with stationary growth over a finite horizon) 182

  29. (p. x)
  30. 7.6 An M/B versus spread graph for the thirty Dow Jones industrials 184

  31. 7.7 Marakon strategy portfolio 185

  32. 7.8 A possible alternative approach is scenario based retrospective valuation (SBRV) 192

  33. 9.1 The strategic environment 232

  34. 9.2 The SCP model 238

  35. 9.3 The SCP model with feedback 239

  36. 9.4 Elements of the LCAG model 241

  37. 9.5 Porter's national diamond 250

  38. 9.6 The Porter five forces 252

  39. 9.7 Value chain 257

  40. 9.8 The value net 258

  41. 9.9 Strategic appropriability 259

  42. 9.10 Competitive value map 260

  43. 10.1 Industry dynamics and competitive advantage 273

  44. 10.2 Reprographics industry 1,1975–1980 278

  45. 10.3 Reprographics industry II, 1975–1980 278

  46. 10.4 UK retail banking, 2000 279

  47. 10.5 European food-processing industry strategic groups, late 1980s 282

  48. 10.6 European food-processing industry mobility barriers, late 1980s 282

  49. 10.7 European food-processing industry strategic space analysis 282

  50. 10.8 European food-processing industry strategic groups, 2000 283

  51. 10.9 Evolution of the US pharmaceutical industry 285

  52. 10.10 The Scottish knitwear industry 293

  53. 10.11 Strategic groups in the consulting industry 304

  54. 11.1 Futures methodologies 310

  55. 11.2 The FAR cycle (after Rhyne) 323

  56. 11.3 The South China mind map 325

  57. 11.4 The South China futures tree 329

  58. 11.5 The process of strategic analysis 335

  59. 11.6 Littleworth and Thrupp's force field analysis 344

  60. 12.1 View of the firm as an ‘open system’ 362

  61. 12.2a ‘Lower-order’ control loops in the firm as an ‘open system’ 364

  62. 12.2b ‘Higher-order’ control loops in the firm as an ‘open system’ 365

  63. 12.3 Interdependence of a firm's competence building and competencen leveraging activities 370

  64. 12.4 Classification of future competitors based on competence building activities 373

  65. 14.1 Strategic assets and entry assets 411

  66. 14.2 Strategic assets: the sources of advantage 414

  67. 14.3 Dimensions of perceived use value: tyres 418

  68. 14.4 Cause map 419

  69. (p. xi)
  70. 14.5 Customer matrix 422

  71. 14.6 Moves in the customer matrix 423

  72. 14.7 Dimensions of perceived use value: car 425

  73. 14.8 Required assets 428

  74. 15.1 Three channels of communication and relationship necessary for effective organizational learning 447

  75. 15.2 Requirements for learning in alliances 461

  76. 16.1 Services sector diversity 476

  77. 16.2 Continuum of evaluation for different types of products 479

  78. 16.3 The service triangle 486

  79. 16.4 Indicative value chain of a hotel 487

  80. 16.5 Potential for scale and scope economies in different types of service businesses 491

  81. 16.6 Standardization of services 498

  82. 17.1 Growth-share matrix 516

  83. 17.2 Evolution of thinking on corporate strategy and diversification 529

  84. 18.1 A framework for wealth creation 537

  85. 19.1 Four ways in which parents attempt to create value 566

  86. 19.2 Corporate strategy framework 580

  87. 20.1 Global merger and acquisition activity 589

  88. 20.2 Achieving earnings per share enhancement via acquisition using highly rated shares 591

  89. 20.3 Primary determinants of acquisition performance 595

  90. 20.4 Value creation within acquisitions 599

  91. 20.5 Types of acquisition integration approaches 602

  92. 21.1 The prisoners' dilemma 612

  93. 21.2 Federated enterprises are developing from both directions 614

  94. 21.3 The make/buy/ally matrix 615

  95. 21.4 Coop strategies fall into two distinct types 617

  96. 21.5 Different forms of cooperation 619

  97. 21.6 Strategic alliance forms 625

  98. 21.7 The best alliances should aim for both strategic and cultural fit 628

  99. 21.8 Almost all alliances involve both cooperation and competition 630

  100. 21.9 Communications in an equal partner network 641

  101. 21.10 The communication pattern in the dominated network 643

  102. 22.1 Configuration/coordination matrix 652

  103. 22.2 The Stopford and Wells (1972) matrix 655

  104. 22.3 An ‘integration-responsiveness’ grid 656

  105. 22.4 The international corporate structure matrix 665

  106. 22.5 Common organizational forms 671

  107. 23.1 Porter's three generic strategies 676

  108. 23.2 Porter's global strategies 677

  109. (p. xii)
  110. 23.3 Porter's extended generic strategies framework for global industries 678

  111. 23.4 Principal categories of efficiency-based strategies 682

  112. 23.5 Business networks in international strategic management 688

  113. 24.1 Internationalization of firms: conflict of markets 699

  114. 25.1 Change director 730

  115. 25.2 Processes of change within orthodox organization theory 736

  116. 25.3 Making change happen 738

  117. 25.4 Organizational change 740

  118. 25.5 Strategic change processes 742

  119. 25.6 Types of crisis management 747

  120. 25.7 Resistance to change 751

  121. 25.8 Strategic change matrix 756

  122. 26.1 Six stages of turnaround 761

  123. 26.2 A full marketing communications model 767

  124. 26.3 Decline chain factors 769

  125. 26.4 Triggering action 777

  126. 26.5 Reactions to declining performance 778

  127. 26.6 The dangers from delay 779

  128. 26.7 Actual performance affects acceptability 779

  129. 26.8 The extended Cyert and March model (see Grinyer and McKiernan 1990 for a fuller version) 785

  130. 26.9 Relationship between operating state and recovery state 796

  131. 26.10 Simple learning loop 802

  132. 27.1 Structural change and performance at Unilever 816

  133. 27.2 The five stages of growth 817

  134. 27.3a The changing structures of DuPont: DuPont's functional structure, 1919–1921 820

  135. 27.3b The changing structures of DuPont: DuPont's new divisional structure, August 1921 821

  136. 27.3c The changing structures of DuPont: DuPont's divisional structure, 1999 821

  137. 27.4 The Financière Agache holding company structure quoted companies 822

  138. 27.5 Types of organizational structure 823

  139. 27.6 Organizational structures in large Western European industrial firms, 1950–1993 824

  140. 27.7 International structures 826

  141. 27.8 Traditional structures for international business 827

  142. 27.9 The transnational structure 827

  143. 27.10 Softbank: a cyber-keiretsu? 829

  144. 27.11a ABB group organizational chart, 1997 832

  145. 27.11b ABB group organizational chart, 1998 833

  146. (p. xiii)
  147. 28.1 ROCE, P/E, and strategy decay 847

  148. 28.2 Strategy convergence and divergence 849

  149. 28.3 The hidden constraints: narrow capabilities and market knowledge 853

  150. 28.4 The trader—‘aware but incapable’ 854

  151. 28.5 The prisoner—‘capable but unaware’ 856

  152. 28.6 Creating strategic options at Acer 859

  153. 28.7 The strategy innovation pipeline 865

  154. 28.8 The life cycle of an option on the future 869

  155. 29.1 Extended game tree for product/market investment game, pay-offs to (Row, Column), respectively 885

  156. 29.2 Starting from the BATNA point, P, the parties move up and right towards a final negotiated position which is better for both of them than their BATNAs 895

  157. 29.3 A can increase her portion either by increasing her BATNA or by decreasing B's BATNA 896

  158. 29.4 Powergraph 900etwork structure 900

  159. 29.5 Powergraph model of battle for Trafalgar 902

  160. 30.1 Correspondence of technology and organization 918

  161. 30.2 The implications of hysteresis on the choice of new techniques 919

  162. 30.3 Choice of capability set ‘static case’ 926

  163. 30.4 Static and dynamic hysteresis 929

  164. 30.5 Expanded capability sets 930

  165. 30.6 Effects of learning 931

  166. 31.1 Different modes of strategy depicted as a constellation of the degree of environmental turbulence, the comprehensiveness of planning activities, and the extent of organizational activities 948

  167. 31.2 The paradox of flexibility 956

  168. 31.3 A strategic framework of flexibility 960

  169. 31.4 Types of flexibility 961

  170. 31.5 The rigid organization form 968

  171. 31.6 The planned organization form 969

  172. 31.7 The flexible organization form 970

  173. 31.8 The chaotic organization form 972

  174. 31.9 A typology of alternative flexible forms for coping with hypercompetition 973

  175. 31.10 Single trajectories of revitalization 976

  176. 31.11 A dual-trajectory revitalization for multi-unit firms facing extreme competition 978

  177. 31.12 KLM Cargo: a trajectory of radical transformation 982

  178. 31.13 Permanent flexible multi-unit firms 984

  179. 31.13a The network corporation 985

  180. (p. xiv)
  181. 31.13b The dual corporation 986

  182. 31.13c The oscillating corporation 989

  183. 31.13d The balanced corporation 990

  184. 31.14 The flexibility trajectory of successful firms of the twenty-first century 993