Abstract and Keywords
Employer pension plans are the products of the modern industrial economy. They took shape in the nineteenth century and by the end of the 1930s were standard in large government and business organizations. Only after the Second World War, however, and only in a subset of nations, did employer plans become an important component of national retirement systems. In these nations they became major providers of old-age income, especially for middle- and upper-income workers. Whether retirement plans created and maintained by employers maintain this role in the future, however, is far from certain.
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