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date: 25 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

With the rapid economic development that has characterized the region in recent years, informal family support is gradually being replaced by public and/or private income-security schemes. Industrialization and urbanization has drawn the rural self-employed population that had been engaged in farming into urban labour markets for paid employment. As a result, the number of employees as a percentage of the economically active population has increased significantly. Countries in the region have developed a range of systems to provide people with income in old age. This article describes retirement-income systems in East and Southeast Asian countries, and discusses policy issues and reform initiatives across the region.

Keywords: retirement income, Asia, economic development, income security, urbanization, labour markets, paid employment

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